Thornton Wilder

Thornton Wilder

Wilder in 1948
Born Thornton Niven Wilder
(1897-04-17)April 17, 1897
Madison, Wisconsin, United States
Died December 7, 1975(1975-12-07) (aged 78)
Hamden, Connecticut, United States
Occupation Playwright, novelist
Notable awards Pulitzer Prize for the Novel (1927), Pulitzer Prize for Drama (1938, 1942), National Book Award for Fiction (1968)

Thornton Niven Wilder (April 17, 1897 – December 7, 1975) was an American playwright and novelist. He won three Pulitzer Prizes—for the novel The Bridge of San Luis Rey and for the two plays Our Town and The Skin of Our Teeth — and a U.S. National Book Award for the novel The Eighth Day.

Early years

Thornton Wilder with his two sisters and their father Amos at family cottage in Maple Bluff, Wisconsin (1900)

Wilder was born in Madison, Wisconsin, the son of Amos Parker Wilder, a newspaper editor[1] and U.S. diplomat, and Isabella Niven Wilder. All of the Wilder children spent part of their childhood in China. His older brother, Amos Niven Wilder, was Hollis Professor of Divinity at the Harvard Divinity School, a noted poet, and instrumental in developing the field of theopoetics. His sister, Isabel, was an accomplished writer. Both of his other sisters, Charlotte Wilder, a poet, and Janet Wilder Dakin, a zoologist, attended Mount Holyoke College.


Wilder in his Yale College graduation photo (1920)

Wilder began writing plays while at The Thacher School in Ojai, California, where he did not fit in and was teased by classmates as overly intellectual. According to a classmate, "We left him alone, just left him alone. And he would retire at the library, his hideaway, learning to distance himself from humiliation and indifference." His family lived for a time in China, where his sister Janet was born in 1910. He attended the English China Inland Mission Chefoo School at Yantai but returned with his mother and siblings to California in 1912 because of the unstable political conditions in China at the time.[2] Thornton also attended Creekside Middle School in Berkeley, and graduated from Berkeley High School in 1915.

After having served a three-month enlistment in the Army's Coast Artillery Corps at Fort Adams, Rhode Island, in World War I (rising to the rank of corporal), he attended Oberlin College before earning his Bachelor of Arts degree at Yale University in 1920, where he refined his writing skills as a member of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity, a literary society. He earned his Master of Arts degree in French literature from Princeton University in 1926.


After graduating, Wilder studied in archaeology and Italian in Rome, Italy (1920–21), and then taught French at the Lawrenceville School in Lawrenceville, New Jersey beginning in 1921.[3] His first novel, The Cabala, was published in 1926. In 1927, The Bridge of San Luis Rey brought him commercial success, and his first Pulitzer Prize (1928).[4] He resigned from the Lawrenceville School in 1928. From 1930 to 1937 he taught at the University of Chicago, during which time he published his translation of André Obey's own adaptation of the tale, "Le Viol de Lucrece" (1931) under the title "Lucrece" (Longmans Green, 1933).[5] In 1938 he won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his play Our Town, and he won the prize again in 1943 for his play The Skin of Our Teeth.

World War II saw him rise to the rank of lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army Air Force Intelligence, first in Africa, then in Italy until 1945. He received several awards for his military service.[6] He went on to be a visiting professor at Harvard University, where he served for a year as the Charles Eliot Norton professor. Though he considered himself a teacher first and a writer second, he continued to write all his life, receiving the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in 1957 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963. In 1968 he won the National Book Award for his novel The Eighth Day.[7]

Being proficient in four languages,[3] Wilder translated plays by André Obey and Jean-Paul Sartre, and wrote the libretti to two operas, The Long Christmas Dinner, composed by Paul Hindemith, and The Alcestiad, composed by Louise Talma and based on his own play. Also, Alfred Hitchcock, whom he admired, asked him to write the screenplay to his thriller, Shadow of a Doubt.[8] He completed the first draft of the screenplay for Hitchcock.[3]

The Bridge of San Luis Rey (1927) tells the story of several unrelated people who happen to be on a bridge in Peru when it collapses, killing them. Philosophically, the book explores the question of why unfortunate events occur to people who seem "innocent" or "undeserving". It won the Pulitzer Prize[1] in 1928, and in 1998 it was selected by the editorial board of the American Modern Library as one of the 100 best novels of the twentieth century. The book was quoted by British Prime Minister Tony Blair during the memorial service for victims of the September 11 attacks in 2001.[9] Since then its popularity has grown enormously. The book is the progenitor of the modern disaster epic in literature and film-making, where a single disaster intertwines the victims, whose lives are then explored by means of flashbacks to events before the disaster.

Wilder wrote Our Town, a popular play (and later film) set in fictional Grover's Corners, New Hampshire. It was inspired by his friend Gertrude Stein's novel The Making of Americans, and many elements of Stein's modernist style can be found in the play. Wilder suffered from writer's block while writing the final act. Our Town employs a choric narrator called the "Stage Manager" and a minimalist set to underscore the human experience. Wilder played the Stage Manager on Broadway for two weeks and later in summer stock productions. Following the daily lives of the Gibbs and Webb families, as well as the other inhabitants of Grover's Corners, the play illustrates the importance of the universality of the simple, yet meaningful lives of all people in the world in order to demonstrate the value of appreciating life. The play won the 1938 Pulitzer Prize.[10]

Wilder as Mr. Antrobus in The Skin of Our Teeth, 1948

In 1938, Max Reinhardt directed a Broadway production of The Merchant of Yonkers, which Wilder had adapted from Austrian playwright Johann Nestroy's Einen Jux will er sich machen (1842). It was a failure, closing after 39 performances.

His play The Skin of Our Teeth opened in New York on November 18, 1942, featuring Fredric March and Tallulah Bankhead. Again, the themes are familiar – the timeless human condition; history as progressive, cyclical, or entropic; literature, philosophy, and religion as the touchstones of civilization. Three acts dramatize the travails of the Antrobus family, allegorizing the alternate history of mankind. It was claimed by Joseph Campbell and Henry Morton Robinson, authors of A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake, that much of the play was the result of unacknowledged borrowing from James Joyce's last work.[11][12]

In his novel, The Ides of March (1948), dedicated to an anti-fascist Italian writer, Lauro De Bosis, Wilder reflected on parallels between Benito Mussolini and Julius Caesar. He had met Jean-Paul Sartre on a U.S. lecture tour after the war, and was under the influence of existentialism, although rejecting its atheist implications.[13]

In 1955, Tyrone Guthrie encouraged Wilder to rework The Merchant of Yonkers into The Matchmaker. This time the play enjoyed a healthy Broadway run of 486 performances with Ruth Gordon in the title role, winning a Tony Award for Guthrie, its director. It became the basis for the hit 1964 musical Hello, Dolly!, with a book by Michael Stewart and score by Jerry Herman.

In 1962 and 1963, Wilder lived twenty months in the small town of Douglas, Arizona, apart from family and friends. There he started his longest novel, The Eighth Day, which went on to win the National Book Award.[7] According to Harold Augenbraum in 2009, it "attack[ed] the big questions head on, ... [embedded] in the story of small-town America".[14]

His last novel, Theophilus North, was published in 1973, and made into the film Mr. North in 1988.

The Library of America republished Thornton's first five novels, six early stories, and four essays on fiction in one volume in 2009.[15] Later novels are to be in a forthcoming volume.

Personal life

Although Wilder never discussed being homosexual publicly or in his writings, his close friend Samuel Steward is considered by some to have been a lover. Wilder was introduced to Steward by Gertrude Stein, who at the time regularly corresponded with both of them. The third act of Our Town was allegedly drafted after a long walk, during a brief affair with Steward in Zürich, Switzerland.[16]

In Penelope Niven's biography, Thornton Wilder: A Life, she provides considerable correspondence evidence that the third act of "Our Town" was not written in response to any walk, conversation or affair with Samuel Steward but was written months afterward. Niven also raises doubts about Steward's uncorroborated and unsubstantiated claims of having been Wilder's lover.[17]

Wilder had a wide circle of friends and enjoyed mingling with other famous people,[1] including Ernest Hemingway, Russel Wright, Willa Cather and Montgomery Clift.


From the earnings of The Bridge of San Luis Rey, in 1930 Wilder built a house for his family in Hamden, Connecticut. His sister Isabel lived there for the rest of her life. This became his home base, although he traveled extensively and lived away for significant periods. He died in that house on 7 December 1975, of heart failure.[3] He was interred at Hamden's Mount Carmel Cemetery.



  • The Trumpet Shall Sound (1926)
  • The Angel That Troubled the Waters and Other Plays (1928):[18]
    • "Nascuntur Poetae"
    • "Proserpina and the Devil"
    • "Fanny Otcott"
    • "Brother Fire"
    • "The Penny That Beauty Spent"
    • "The Angel on the Ship"
    • "The Message and Jehanne"
    • "Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came"
    • "Centaurs"
    • "Leviathan"
    • "And the Sea Shall Give Up Its Dead"
    • "The Servant's Name Was Malchus"
    • "Mozart and the Gray Steward"
    • "Hast Thou Considered My Servant Job?"
    • "The Flight Into Egypt"
    • "The Angel That Troubled the Waters"
  • The Long Christmas Dinner and Other Plays in One Act (1931):
  • Our Town (1938)—won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama[10]
  • The Merchant of Yonkers (1938)
  • The Skin of Our Teeth (1942)—won the Pulitzer Prize[10]
  • The Matchmaker (1954)—revised from The Merchant of Yonkers
  • The Alcestiad: Or, a Life in the Sun (1955)
  • Childhood (1960)
  • Infancy (1960)
  • Plays for Bleecker Street (1962)
  • The Collected Short Plays of Thornton Wilder Volume I (1997):
    • The Long Christmas Dinner
    • Queens of France
    • Pullman Car Hiawatha
    • Love and How to Cure It
    • Such Things Only Happen in Books
    • The Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden
    • The Drunken Sisters
    • Bernice
    • The Wreck on the Five-Twenty-Five
    • A Ringing of Doorbells
    • In Shakespeare and the Bible
    • Someone from Assisi
    • Cement Hands
    • Infancy
    • Childhood
    • Youth
    • The Rivers Under the Earth



Further reading


  1. 1 2 3 Isherwood, Charles (October 31, 2012). "A Life Captured With Luster Left Intact". The New York Times. pp. C1. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  2. Thornton Wilder on the South Side of Our Town. - The Berkeley Daily Planet
  3. 1 2 3 4 Donald Margulies, Our Town - A Play in Three Acts, HarperPerennial (1998) (foreword and "About The Author" by Margulies), ISBN 978-0-06-051263-7
  4. 1 2 "Novel". Past winners & finalists by category. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  5. Barbara and Scott Siegel (May 22, 2000). "Lucrece".
  6. The Legion of Merit, the Bronze Star, the Chevalier Legion d'Honneur, and honorary officership in the Military Order of the British Empire (MBE)
  7. 1 2 3 "National Book Awards – 1968". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
    (With essay by Harold Augenbraum from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.)
  8. Kornhaber, Donna. Hitchcock's Diegetic Imagination: Thornton Wilder, Shadow of a Doubt, and Hitchcock's Mise-en-Scene Clues: A Journal of Detection 31.1 (2013): 67-78. doi:10.3172/CLU.31.1.67
  9. "Text of Tony Blair's reading in New York". UK: The Guardian. September 21, 2001. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
  10. 1 2 3 "Drama". Past winners & finalists by category. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  11. Joseph Campbell and Henry Morton Robinson published a pair of reviews-cum-denunciations entitled "The Skin of Whose Teeth?" in the Saturday Review immediately after the play's debut; these created a huge uproar at the time.
    • Joseph Campbell, Mythic Worlds, Modern Words, New World Library, 2004, pp. 257–66 reprints the reviews and discusses the controversy.
  12. Joseph Campbell, Pathways to Bliss, New World Library, 2005, pp. 121–3.
  13. Malcolm Goldstein. The Art of Thornton Wilder. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965. pp. 19–20.
  14. Harold Augenbraum and Staff (July 23, 2009). "1968". 60 Years of the National Book Awards – 79 Fiction Winners ( anniversary blog). National Book Foundation. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  15. Wilder, Thornton. The Bridge of San Luis Rey and Other Novels 1926–1948. ISBN 978-1-59853-045-2.
  16. Steward, Samuel; Stein, Gertrude; Toklas, Alice B. (1977). Dear Sammy: Letters from Gertrude Stein & Alice B. Toklas. Houghton Mifflin. p. 32. ISBN 0395253403.
  17. Niven, Penelope (2012). Thornton Wilder: A Life. HarperCollins. pp. 433–437. ISBN 978-0060831363.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Thornton Wilder
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thornton Wilder.
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
François Mauriac
Wartime International Presidential Committee 1941-47 PEN International
Succeeded by
Hu Shih
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/30/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.