Terrorism in Europe

The acts of terrorism that have either failed, been foiled or been successfully executed within the European Union (EU) have in large part been categorised by the European Police Office (Europol) as either pertaining to religious issues, right wing, left wing or separatist movements. The field is subject to considerable cooperation among national authorities.

2004 Madrid train bombings
Lockerbie bombing
On land and in aviation, the bombings of the Madrid train system in 2004 (l.; makeshift shrine) and Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988 (r.; wreckage) constitute the deadliest attacks carried out in the European Union, killing 191 and 270 people, respectively.


Main articles: Europol and Interpol
The seat of the European Police Office (Europol) in The Hague.

European cooperation in the field of counter-terrorism include Europol, an EU agency, and Interpol. TREVI was an early example of EU cooperation in this field. In July 2014 the Government of France introduced legislation to combat terrorism by toughening surveillance, making it lawful to detain individuals linked to radical so called "Islamist" groups, and to block Internet sites that incite anti-Semitism, terrorism and hatred. The country's Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve revealed 600 French nationals were in Syria at the time or planned to go there. The bill includes a ban on foreign travel for up to six months for those believed to hold terrorist sympathies, provides for the confiscation and invalidation of passports, and prohibits airlines from allowing such individuals to fly.[1]

From 2005, the United Kingdom government introduced the CONTEST strategy, which seeks to improve co-operation between security services, and other public and private organisations.[2] This includes four strands, namely Pursue, (seeking to apprehend potential terrorists), Prevent, (seeking to reduce risks of 'radicalisation', deter potential terrorists and share information), Protect, (seeking to ensure the security of potential targets and organisations is optimised), and Prepare, (seeking to ensure an effective response in the immediate aftermath of any attack). Similar strategies have been adopted by other countries across the European Union, and there have been increases in co-operation between nations and security forces.



Terrorism within the European Communities since 1951 has often been linked to separatist movements, notably the Irish Republican Army within the United Kingdom, and Euskadi Ta Askatasuna within Spain. Other perpetrators have been linked to far-right and far-left extremism, environmental extremism and anarchism. Since 2001, there has been an increase in attacks linked to extremist Islamist groups, particularly in France. The internationally co-ordinated element has seen increasing attempts by governments to seek to weaken extremist ideology, particularly Islamist extremism.

It remains the case that the majority of deaths from terrorism do not occur in the "West". When the Al Qaeda attacks against the United States in 2001 are excluded, only 0.5% of all deaths from terrorism have occurred in Western countries European nations, United States, Canada and Australia in the past fifteen years.[3] However, there have been recent increases in the number of high-fatality attacks. There had been a decrease in the number of overall fatalities from terrorist attacks between 1990 and 2015, compared to those between 1970 and 1990.[4] Prior to 1990, on average 150 people died each year from terrorist attacks; this figure would be even higher if the large number of people who died in 1988 from the Pan Am 2013 bombing were included. From 1990, an average of a little under 50 people died each year. However, this figure has begun to increase again from 2011, with the attacks by far-right extremist Anders Breivik, and Islamist extremist attacks in France in 2015 and 2016.

Europol has published an annual trend report on terrorist attacks (including failed, foiled, and completed attacks) and terrorist related arrests in the EU since 2006.[5] The reports identify that perpetrators' known or suspected affiliations have been disparate in nature. Europol break these down into five categories: jihadist terrorism (previously termed "religiously-inspired terrorism"); ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorism; left-wing and anarchist terrorism; right-wing terrorism; and single-issue terrorism. Europol's reports do not provide a breakdown of the proportion of attacks that have been completed or the type of damage inflicted. According to these data the vast majority of terrorist attacks in the EU between 2006 and 2013 are affiliated with Ethno-national or separatist motives, followed by left-wing attacks and those that are registered as 'unspecified'. A significant number of terror attacks are motivated religiously or associated with right-wing groups. However, among those arrested on terror-related crimes most are religiously motivated and form the largest group, followed by separatist related terror suspects.

In 2015, a total of 211 completed, failed, or foiled terrorist attacks were reported by EU states, resulting in 151 fatalities (of which 148 were in France) and over 360 people injured. As in previous years, separatist attacks accounted for the largest proportion (65), followed by jihadist attacks (17). The latter, however, caused the largest number of fatalities (150) and injuries (250). The United Kingdom reported the largest number of attacks (103), but did not provide statistics on suspected affiliation.[6] Tackling jihadist terrorism threats has become an over-riding priority for security services, although many commentators express concerns that the risk of far-right terrorism is currently being under-estimated.[7]

List of incidents

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

This section shows incomplete lists of attacks carried out on land and in aviation, respectively, within the European Union and its preceding communities.

Key: Motivation

  Islamic   Left-wing   Right-wing   Separatist/nationalist   Mafia-related


Date Location Country Dead Injured Means Perpetrator
15 September 1958  Paris  France 1 3 Small arms fire 'FLN (Algerian nationalists)'
Government institutions: Several gunmen fire into the car of the French Minister of Information, Jacques Soustelle. The minister survives unharmed, however four bystanders are struck and one is killed.[8]
12 December 1969  Milan  Italy 17 88 Improvised explosive device Ordine Nuovo
Private citizens & property: A bomb detonates at 16:37 outside the National Agrarian Bank in Piazza Fontana, about 200 metres from the Duomo di Milano in Milan, killing 17 people and wounding 88. The same afternoon, three more bombs were detonated in Rome and Milan, and another was found undetonated.[9][10]
22 July 1970  Gioia Tauro  Italy 6 72 Improvised explosive device Ordine Nuovo
Transport: A bomb detonates on the Freccia del Sud train between Rome and Messina, killing six and injuring 72 others. The explosion happened as the train left the station at Gioia Tauro.[11]
31 May 1972  Sagrado  Italy 3 2 Improvised explosive device 'Vincenzo Vinciguerra & Charles Cicuttini'

Ordine Nuovo, and Italian Military Secret Service (SID)

Government institutions attempting to frame the Red Brigades:[12][13] A police patrol discovers a suspicious white Fiat 500 parked in the village of Peteano. The policemen attempt to open the hood of the vehicle, causing the explosives inside to detonate. Three police—identified as Antonio Ferrero, Franco-Donato Poveromo and Dongiovanni—are killed, while two others are seriously injured.[13]
5 September 1972 - 6 September 1972  Munich  Germany 17 - Hostage taking Black September
17 May 1973  Milan  Italy 4 45 Improvised explosive device 'Gianfranco Bertoli'

(alleged Gladio agent)

Government institutions: Gianfranco Bertoli throws a bomb into the courtyard of the police station in Milan in Via Fatebenefratelli during the unveiling of a plaque in memory of the commissioner Luigi Calabresi, killing four passers-by and injuring 45 others.[14]
14 December 1973  Marseille  France 4 20 Improvised Explosive Device Charles
Martel Group
Diplomatic (Algeria): A man exits a car and throws a bomb into the compound of the Algerian Consulate; the subsequent explosion kills 4 and injures 20 more, 4 seriously.[15]
17 December 1973  Rome  Italy 31 21 Grenade & Small arms fire -
Airports & airlines: Five terrorists pull weapons from their luggage in the terminal lounge at the Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, killing two persons within the terminal. The terrorists then attack Pan Am Flight 110, a Boeing 707 bound for Beirut and Tehran, destroying it with incendiary grenades and killing 29 persons, including 4 senior Moroccan officials and 14 American employees of ARAMCO.[16]
28 May 1974  Brescia  Italy 8 103 Improvised explosive device -
Political: A bomb, placed inside a rubbish bin at the east end of the Piazza della Loggia, explodes during an anti-fascist protest, killing eight people and wounding over 100.[17]
4 August 1974  San Benedetto Val di Sambro  Italy 12 48 Improvised explosive device Ordine Nero
Transport: A bomb explodes on a train travelling from Rome to Munich on the Bologna–Florence railway line. The bomb had been placed in the 5th passenger car of the train and exploded at 1:23, killing 12 people and injuring 48.[18][19]
15 September 1974  Paris  France 2 34 Improvised Explosive Device PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)
Private Citizens & Property: A bomb explodes at the Drugstore Saint Germain, part of the fashionable circuit of restaurants and bars on Paris's Left Bank, killing two and injuring 34.[20]
20 November 1974  Savona  Italy 1 13 Improvised explosive device -
Private citizens & property: A bomb explodes in the lobby of a building on via Giacchero, causing the internal collapse of the structure and wounding 13. An elderly woman is hospitalized in serious condition after falling from the first floor and dies the next day in hospital.[21]
24 October 1975  Paris  France 2 - Grenade & Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
Diplomatic (Turkish): As İsmail Erez is returning from a reception—and as his vehicle approached the building of the Turkish Embassy in Paris—a group of 3–4 armed Armenians ambush the automobile, killing him and his driver Talip Yener.[22][23]
2 December 1975  Wijster  Netherlands 3 - Hostage taking

(12 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
Transport: Seven South Moluccan terrorists seize a train with about 50 passengers on board in open countryside near the village of Wijster, halfway between Hoogeveen and Beilen. The hijacking lasted for 12 days and three hostages were killed. The dead hostages were identified as the driver Hans Braam, and passengers Bert Bierling and Leo Bulter.[24][25][26]
4 December 1975  Amsterdam  Netherlands 1 - Hostage taking

(16 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
Diplomatic (Indonesian): Seven gunmen enter the consulate of the Republic of Indonesia and take 41 hostages, including 16 children from a school within the same building. One hostage attempts to flee the captors and falls several stories, suffering serious injuries from which he died 5 days later. The school children were quickly freed, and the remaining 25 adult hostages were released peacefully on 19 December.[27]
16 December 1976  Brescia  Italy 1 11 Improvised explosive device -
Private citizens & property: A bomb explodes at approximately 19:00 CET in the central area of the city, Piazzale Arnaldo, injuring 11 people and killing the German teacher Gritti Daller. The device was composed of a pressure cooker, padded with 800 grams of blasting explosive and ammonium nitrate, which could cause injuries up to 50 meters away.[28]
23 May 1977  Glimmen  Netherlands 8 6 Hostage taking

(20 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
Transport: Nine armed Moluccans pull the emergency brake on a train at around 9:00 and take about 50 passengers hostage. The hijacking lasted for 482 hours (20 days) before marines of the special anti-terrorist unit Bijzondere Bijstands Eenheid (BBE) started shooting at the train; an estimated 15000 bullets were shot at the train. One of the hostages and six hijackers were killed in the raid.[26][29]
9 June 1977  Rome  Italy 1 Small arms fire 'JCAG (Armenian nationalists)'
Diplomatic (Turkish): Taha Carım, Turkish diplomat and ambassador to Vatican City, is shot by two unidentified gunmen from the front and rear as he is returning to his residence. He is taken to hospital, but died from his wounds 6 hours after the shooting.[30]
13 March 1978  Assen  Netherlands 2 1 Hostage taking

(2 days)

South Moluccan nationalists
Government institution: Three terrorists take 69 hostage at a Provincial Hall in Assen. One hostage, Ko de Groot, was executed during the situation and another, J. Trip, perished during a raid to free the captives.[31][32]
16 March 1978  Rome  Italy 6 - Grenade & Small arms fire -- Hostage taking

(55 days)

'Red Brigades'
Political: The car of Aldo Moro, former prime minister and then president of Christian Democracy (Italian: Democrazia Cristiana), is assaulted by a group of up to 8 members of Red Brigades (Italian: Brigate Rosse, or BR) terrorists in Via Fani in Rome.
Firing automatic weapons, the terrorists killed Moro's bodyguards (two Carabinieri in the car which presumably housed the politician and three policemen in the following car) and kidnapped him. On 9 May 1978 Moro's corpse is found in the trunk of a Renault 4 in Via Caetani after 55 days of imprisonment, during which the Italian government was asked for an exchange of prisoners.
20 May 1978  Paris  France 4 3 Grenade & Small arms fire 'PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)'
Airports & airlines: Three terrorists open fire on El Al passengers in the departure lounge. All three terrorists are killed, along with one policeman, and three French tourists are also injured.[33]
5 October 1978  Marseille  France 9 12 Small arms fire
Private citizens & property: At about 21:00 (UTC+1), three hooded men armed with sub machine guns enter a quiet neighborhood bar and shoot 21 patrons, killing nine. The attack at Le Telephone bar was likely related to organized crime, although none of the attackers were identified.[34]
23 March 1979  The Hague  Netherlands 2 - Small arms fire 'PIRA (Irish republicans)'
Diplomatic (British): Richard Sykes, then British Ambassador to the Netherlands, and his Dutch valet, Krel Straub, were killed in a gun attack in Den Haag, Netherlands.[35]
3 May 1979  Rome  Italy 2 1 Grenade & Small arms fire 'Red Brigades'
Political: During the initial phase of the campaign for the general elections, a group at least 13 men of the Red Brigades attacked the headquarters of the Lazio Regional Committee for the Christian Democracy (Italian: Democrazia Cristiana) in Piazza Nicosia. Brigadier Antonio Mea, died at the scene, while Agent of the State Police, Ollanu Peter, died on 10 May as a result of his injuries.[36]
12 October 1979  The Hague  Netherlands 1 - Small arms fire 'JCAG (Armenian nationalists)'
Diplomatic (Turkish): Ahmet Benler, the son of then Turkish ambassador to the Netherlands, Özdemir Benler, is driving when a gunman—who had been standing at a trolley stop—walks up and fires between four and six shots through the vehicle's closed window. Benler dies at the scene.[37]
23 December 1979  Paris  France 1 - Grenade & Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
Diplomatic (Turkish): A gunman fires an automatic weapon amid crowds of Christmas shoppers, killing the director of the Turkish National Tourist Office, Yilmaz Colton, in Paris. The director was struck by three bullets while walking along the Champs-Élysées.[38]
10 March 1980  Rome  Italy 2 12 Improvised explosive device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
Private citizens & property: Twin bombs detonate at a Turkish Airlines office in Rome's Piazza della Repubblica, killing two and injuring 12. The second bomb was calculated to kill or wound the curious who came to watch after the first bomb.[39][40]
28 January 1980  Paris  France 1 8 Improvised Explosive Device
Diplomatic (Syrian): A bomb blast destroys the ground floor of the Syrian Embassy, killing one and injuring 8 others. Three of those injured were in a serious condition, including a pregnant woman. The attack happened 2 hours before the arrival of then Foreign Minister of Syria, Abdel Halim Khaddam, in France.[41]
17 July 1980  Paris  France 2 4 Small arms fire 'Guards of Islam
(Iranian agents)'
Government institutions (Shah of Iran): Former Iranian Prime Minister Shahpour Bakhtiar escapes an assassination attempt in which a French policeman and a woman neighbor are killed. Four other officers were wounded, one seriously. Allegedly posing as reporters, a trio of gunmen attempted to enter the exiled leader's apartment in Neuilly, a suburb of Paris. A police guard at an armored door to the residence resisted and a gunfight took place.[42][43]
27 July 1980  Antwerp  Belgium 1 20 Grenade 'Abu Nidal Organization'

Religious extremism and violence: A Palestinian threw a hand grenade at a party of Jewish schoolchildren leaving for a vacation, killing one and wounding 20 others. The attacker, Said Al Nasr, was later arrested and sentenced to prison. In 1991, Nasr was 'traded' for the release of a Belgian-French family kidnapped in Libya—a demand of the Abu Nidal Organization.[44][45][46]

29 July 1980  Lyon  France 2 11 Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
Diplomatic (Turkish): Two gunmen storm the Turkish Consulate General in Lyon. The gunmen are unable to locate the Turkish consul general and open fire on the waiting area, killing two people and wounding eleven others, two seriously.[47]
2 August 1980 Bologna  Italy 85 200+ Improvised explosive device Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari
Private citizens & property: At 10:25, a time-bomb contained in an unattended suitcase detonated inside a waiting room, which was full of people. The explosion destroyed most of the main building and hit the AnconaChiasso train that was waiting at the first platform. The roof of the waiting room collapsed onto the passengers, which greatly increased the total number killed in the attack.[48]
Main article: Bologna massacre
3 October 1980  Paris  France 4 40 Improvised Explosive Device -
PFLP (Palestinian nationalists): A bomb went off outside the Union Libérale Israélite de France synagogue on Rue Copernic. The bomb had been hidden in the saddlebags of a motorcycle parked outside the synagogue on the eve of Simchat Torah. The explosion happened shortly before the end of services, however one of those killed were members of the congregation. French police initially suspected that the attack had been carried out by neo-Nazis, but later attributed it to the PFLP or one of its offshoots.[49][50][51][52]
25 November 1980  Paris  France 2 1 Small arms fire -
Private citizens & property: An unknown gunman murders the Jewish owners of a Paris travel agency that specialized in tours to Israel. The assailant walked into the office of IT-Tours and fired from an automatic pistol, fatally wounding Edwin Douek, the proprietor. His wife, Michele, was killed instantly and a clerk was slightly wounded. Edwin Douek died of his wounds later in a hospital.[53]
4 March 1981  Paris  France 2 1 Small arms fire 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
Diplomatic (Turkish): Two gunmen open fire on Turkish Labour Attache, Resat Morali, and the Religious Affairs Officer in the Turkish Embassy, Tecelli Ari. Both are killed.[39]
21 July 1981  Athens  Greece 2 - Small arms fire
Private citizens & property: Two gunmen open fire on the offices of the Angeli Koussis Shipping and Tourism Co., killing two employees of the firm.[54]
24 September 1981  Paris  France 1 2 Small arms fire -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
Diplomatic (Turkish): At about 11:30 CET, four members of Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia took over the consulate killing a Turkish guard, wounding the Turkish Consul and taking 56 people hostage, including 8 women and a 3-year-old child.
Shortly after midnight, the militants' leader started the negotiations that led to the end of the ordeal at about 2 a.m. He was promised by French authorities that the four militants would receive political asylum. The next day, however, the French Government issued a statement saying that the men would have to stand trial on charges growing out of the assault, including the death of a Turkish guard.[55]
20 October 1981  Antwerp  Belgium 3 106 Truck bomb -
Religious extremism and violence: A truck bomb exploded outside a Portuguese Jewish synagogue in the centre of Antwerp. Three people were killed and 106 wounded. The attack took place on a Tuesday morning in the diamond district of Antwerp, shortly before Simchat Torah religious services were to begin.[46][49][56]
Main article: 1981 Antwerp bombing
29 March 1982  Ambazac  France 5 27 Improvised Explosive Device 'Carlos the Jackal'
Transport: A explosion on a Paris-Toulouse express train kills five passengers and injures 27 near Ambazac. The blast in the baggage compartment of the Capitole Express was caused by several pounds of extremely powerful explosives, intentionally planted. In 2011 Carlos the Jackal was tried for involvement in the attack and was subsequently convicted and sentenced to life in prison.[57][58]
22 April 1982  Paris  France 1 47 Car bomb 'Carlos the Jackal'
Political: A powerful car bomb detonates in a crowded street in central Paris during the morning rush hour, killing a young woman and injuring 46 people. The apparent target are the offices of the Libyan newspaper Al-Watan al-Arabi. In 2011 Carlos the Jackal is tried for involvement in the attacks and is subsequently convicted and sentenced to life in prison.[58][59]
9 August 1982  Paris  France 6 22 Grenade & Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
Private Citizens & Property: Two assailants throw grenades into the dining room of the Chez Jo Goldenberg restaurant and fire machine guns at the patrons. Six people die, including two American tourists, and 22 others are wounded in the attack on the Jewish restaurant in Paris's Marais district.[60][61]
21 August 1982  Paris  France 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device -
Diplomatic (United States): A bomb, that police said was intended to target a United States diplomat, explodes on a luxurious residential street on the Left Bank near the Eiffel Tower, killing a bomb disposal expert and wounding two others. The bomb had been planted under the vehicle of Roderick Grant, commercial counselor at the United States Embassy in Paris.[62]
9 October 1982  Rome  Italy 1 37 Grenade & Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
Separatist/nationalist: As the families of the local Jewish community began leaving the Great Synagogue of Rome, five Palestinian attackers walked to the rear the synagogue and threw at least three hand grenades at the crowd, and afterwards sprayed the crowd with submachine fire. A 2-year-old toddler, Stefano Gaj Taché, was killed in the attack after being hit by shrapnel.[63][64]
28 February 1983  Paris  France 1 4 Improvised Explosive Device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
Private Citizens & Property: A bomb detonates at the Turkish-owned Marmara Voyages tourism agency in central Paris, killing one female employee and injuring four others. The blast reportedly caused the roof of the offices to collapse.[65][66]
15 July 1983  Paris  France 8 55 Improvised Explosive Device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
Airports & airlines: A bomb explodes inside a suitcase at the Turkish Airlines check-in desk in the south terminal of the Orly airport, sending flames through the crowd of passengers checking in for a flight to Istanbul. The bomb consisted of a half kilo of Semtex explosive connected to three portable gas bottles, which caused extensive burns on the victims. Three people were killed immediately in the blast and another five died in hospital. Four of the victims were French, two were Turkish, one was American, and one was Swedish.[67][68][69]
Main article: Orly Airport attack
27 July 1983  Lisbon  Portugal 7 2 Small arms fire, Hostage taking & Improvised explosive device 'Armenian Revolutionary Army'
5 August 1983  Avignon  France 7 - Small arms fire
Private citizens & property: At approximately 4:00 (UTC+1), two gunmen shoot to death seven people at a Sofitel Hotel in a popular holiday town. The victims include the French consul-general for Saarbrücken in West Germany, Lucien Andre. Three other hotel guests and three employees of Sofitel were also killed after apparently being rounded up and ushered into a hotel room.[70]
1 October 1983  Marseille  France 1 26 Improvised Explosive Device 'ASALA (Armenian nationalists)'
Private Citizens & Property: One man is killed and 26 people injured when multiple bombs destroyed the American, Soviet and Algerian pavilions at an international trade fair in Marseille. An Armenian guerrilla group took responsibility for the attack in a telephone call to the police. However then Interior Minister, Gaston Defferre, later stated that the far rightist Charles Martel Group had also taken responsibility for the blast.[71]
7 November 1983  Athens  Greece 1 1 Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
Diplomatic (Jordanian): A gunman shoots two security guards in front of the Jordanian Embassy, in a tour alley near the Acropolis. One of the victims dies of his injuries.[72]
15 November 1983  Athens  Greece 2 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
Diplomatic (United States): George Tsantes, deputy chief of the U.S. military assistance mission (JUSMAGG), along with his driver Nick Veloutsos, were shot dead by two young people riding a motorcycle, using a .45 caliber pistol.[73]
31 December 1983  Marseille  France 5 58+ Improvised Explosive Device 'Carlos the Jackal'
Transport: A bomb explodes in the two first-class cars of an AGV locomotive as it heads north toward Paris, from the Gare de Marseille-Saint-Charles. Although the train was traveling at about 100 miles an hour, it does not derail. Rescue workers find 2 passengers dead and 20 wounded, 5 of them seriously.
Half an hour later a second bomb explodes in the baggage checkroom of the main hall at the Gare de Marseille-Saint-Charles, killing 2 people and wounding at least 38. In 2011 Carlos the Jackal is tried for involvement in the attacks and is subsequently convicted and sentenced to life in prison.[58][74][75]
7 February 1984  Paris  France 2 1 Small arms fire 'Hezbollah & Islamist Jihad'
Government institutions (Shah of Iran): Gholam Ali Oveisi, a four-star general under Iran's late shah, and his brother, an ex-colonel, are killed by gunmen in downtown Paris. Their driver is also wounded.[76][77]
8 February 1984  Paris  France 1 - Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
Diplomatic (Emirati): A lone gunman shoots and kills the United Arab Emirates' ambassador to France outside the diplomat's Paris home. Khalifa Ahmed Abdel Aziz al-Mubarak is killed in a district of Paris near the Eiffel tower.[78]
28 March 1984  Athens  Greece 2 - Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
Diplomatic (British): British Cultural Attache and British Council representative Kenneth Whitty is killed in his car on an Athens street by a single gunman. His passenger, fellow British council employee Artemis Economidou, is seriously wounded and later succumbs to her injuries.[79][80]
25 January 1985  Paris  France 1 - Small arms fire 'Action Directe'
Government institutions: General René Audran, a senior official of the French Ministry of Defence, is shot to death in front of his residence at La Celle-Saint-Cloud.[81]
21 February 1985  Athens  Greece 2 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
Business: Major Greek center-right press publisher and banker, Nikolaos Momferatos, is shot and killed by a gunman. His driver, Panagiotis Rousetis, also dies in the attack in the Athens suburb of Kolonaki.[82]
23 February 1985  Paris  France 1 15 Improvised Explosive Device -
Private Citizens & Property: A bomb explodes at an entrance to the Paris branch of the British-owned department store Marks & Spencer as it opened for business, killing a man and wounding 15 other people. Telephone calls claiming responsibility were received from the Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance, an outlawed group seeking the independence of France's Caribbean territories; and from Direct Action, a left-wing extremist group that had announced its fusion with the Red Army Faction terrorists of Germany.[83]
3 March 1985  Paris  France 4 - Small arms fire -
Government institutions (Foreign: Khmer Rouge): Try Meng Huot—a doctor in chemistry who had been a lecturer at the University of Paris before he became a Khmer Rouge leader—is killed in his Parisian apartment alongside his wife and another unidentified couple.[84]
12 April 1985  Madrid  Spain 18 82 Improvised Explosive Device Islamist Jihad
26 November 1985  Athens  Greece 1 14 Car bomb '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
Government institutions: A car-bomb explosion next to a Greek riot police bus in Kaisariani, Athens, kills police officer Ioannis Georgakopoulos and injures 14 more. The 17N proclamation states that the attack was made to avenge the death of 15-year-old Michalis Kaltezas during clashes at the day of the rally commemorating the public uprising that led to the fall of the Greek military junta.[85][86]
20 March 1986  Paris  France 2 28 Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
Private Citizens & Property: A bomb explodes in a packed mall of luxury boutiques on the Champs-Élysées, killing 2 people and wounding 28. A second bomb, found on a subway train, was defused by police demolition experts before it could explode. A terrorist organization calling itself the Committee of Solidarity With Arab and Middle Eastern Political Prisoners asserted responsibility for the attack in a handwritten letter sent to the Beirut office of a Western news agency.[87][88]
5 April 1986  Berlin  West Berlin 3 229 Improvised explosive device Libyan agents
25 April 1986  Lyon  France 1 - Small arms fire -
Business: Kenneth Marston, director of a French subsidiary of Black & Decker, is shot to death outside his home.[89]
9 September 1986  Paris  France 1 18 Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
Government institutions: A bomb explodes inside the post office of the Hôtel de Ville, killing one person and wounding 18 others. The dead woman is identified as Marguerite Thuault, an employee of the post office.[90][91]
15 September 1986  Paris  France 1 51 Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
Government institutions: A bomb explodes inside the Parisian police headquarters, killing one person and wounding 51 others, two seriously.[90]
17 September 1986  Paris  France 5 50+ Improvised Explosive Device 'CSPPA (Lebanese faction)'
Private Citizens & Property: A bomb thrown from a passing car explodes in front of a Tati department store on the Left Bank, killing at least 5 people and wounding about 50. The blast, which occurred about 17:30, destroyed the entire front of the seven-story building on the rue de Rennes.[92]
18 October 1986  Toulon  France 4 - Car bomb -
A car explodes in the seafront market place at Toulon, killing the four occupants and setting fire to a nearby building. The police said it may have been carrying explosives in preparation for a bomb attack.[93]
17 November 1986  Paris  France 1 - Small arms fire 'Action Directe'
Business: A man and woman firing from a motorcycle kill the head of the French auto-maker Renault. Georges Besse is struck down by gunfire as he exited from his car, unaccompanied by bodyguards. He had been appointed chairman of the company in January 1985.[94]
13 July 1983  Brussels  Belgium 1 - Small arms fire -
Diplomatic (Turkish): Dursun Aksoy, a communications attaché with the Turkish Embassy, was shot to death by an unidentified gunman in his car.[95]
29 July 1983  Palermo  Italy 4 - Car bomb 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
Government institutions: Rocco Chinnici, then Palermo's most important antimafia judge, is killed by a car bomb alongside his two bodyguards and the concierge of his apartment block.[96]
17 September 1983  Nivelles  Belgium 3 1 Small arms fire Brabant massacres
Private citizens & property: Three heavily armed men committed an armed robbery of a Colruyt supermarket, killing three shoppers and injuring one.[97]
1 December 1983  Anderlues  Belgium 2 - Small arms fire Brabant massacres
Private citizens & property: Three heavily armed men committed an armed robbery of a jewelry store, killing two.[97]
1 May 1985  Brussels  Belgium 2 13 Car bomb 'Communist Combatant Cells'
Government institution: Two firemen were killed in the explosion of a car bomb at the headquarters of the Belgian Employers Federation.[98][99]
27 September 1985  Overijse, Braine-l'Alleud  Belgium 8 2 Small arms fire Brabant massacres
Private citizens & property: Three heavily armed men entered Delhaize supermarkets in two Brabant towns and killed eight shoppers.[100]
9 November 1985  Aalst  Belgium 8 15 Small arms fire Brabant massacres
Private citizens & property: Three heavily armed men entered a Delhaize supermarket, demanded money from the check-out clerk and shot at point-blank range a number of shoppers. The dead included two school girls and six adults. The attackers made off with only $3,700.[100][101][102]
6 December 1985  Liège  Belgium 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device
Government institution: A bomb explosion at a Belgian court building killed a man and wounded two other people. Officials reported other bombings at NATO fuel installations in Belgium and France on the same day.[103]
22 July 1985  Copenhagen  Denmark 1 27 Improvised Explosive Device Palestinian nationalists
Private citizens & property: A bomb detonates at the offices of Northwest Orient Airlines, a United States carrier.[104]
23 December 1984  San Benedetto Val di Sambro  Italy 17 267 Improvised explosive device Mafia, Camorra, neo-fascists
Transport: A bomb rips through a train packed with vacationers who were headed for ski resorts in the north, inside one of Europe's longest railway tunnels, killing an estimated 17 people and wounding more than 100.
Two cars of the 14-car Naples-Milan express train, packed with at least 700 people, were blown up as it passed through the Apennine Tunnel 31 miles north of Florence in central Italy. Dozens of passengers fled on foot as firemen battled small fires set off by a short circuit near the site of the explosions.[105][106]
Main article: Train 904 bombing
13 January 1985  Rome  Italy 1 - Small arms fire '-'
Diplomatic (Libyan): An assassin shoots the gun out of the hands of a Libyan diplomat and then kills him in a gunfight. The Libyan, ambushed outside his home, was identified as Farag Omar Makhyoun an employee of the Embassy press office.[107]
2 April 1985  Pizzolungo  Italy 3 8 Improvised explosive device 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
Government institutions: A bomb explodes at 8:50 CET as Judge Carlo Palermo's drives by. The bombing kills Barbara Rizzo Asta and her 8-year-old twin sons, Salvatore and Giuseppe, who were driving to school in a car that was apparently between the bomb and Judge Palermo's car. Judge Palermo, his driver and two other people in his car are wounded, as are four people traveling in the police car behind them. Two of the policemen were seriously wounded. The explosion also damaged houses nearby and shattered windows for blocks.[108]
Main article: Pizzolungo bombing
25 September 1985  Rome  Italy 1 14 Improvised explosive device 'Abu Nidal Organization'
Private citizens & property: A bomb detonates at a British Airways office on Via Bissolati nearby the Piazza Barberini, killing one and wounding 14 others. Four of the victims were Italian employees of the airline, while the rest were customers.[109][110]
27 December 1985  Rome  Italy 19 99 Grenade & Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
Airports & airlines: At 08:15 GMT, four gunmen walk to the shared ticket counter for Israel's El Al Airlines and Trans World Airlines at Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport outside Rome, and fire assault rifles and threw grenades at the crowds waiting to check in. They killed 16 and wounded 99 before three of the attackers were killed, while the remaining one, Mohammed Sharam, was wounded and captured by the Italian police.[111][112]
19 June 1987  Barcelona  Spain 21 45 Car bomb 'ETA'
14 April 1988  Naples  Italy 5 15 Improvised explosive device 'Japanese Red Army'
Government institutions: Five people are killed, including an American sailor, and 15 others, including several American sailors, are wounded by abomb blast in front of a United Service Organizations recreational club for American troops in Naples. Four of those killed had been standing on the street or sidewalk and appeared to have died instantly. The explosion took place at 20:00, when the street was crowded with pedestrians.[113]
1 May 1988  Roermond & Nieuw-Bergen  Netherlands 3 3 Improvised Explosive Device -- Small arms fire 'PIRA (Irish republicans)'
Government institutions (United Kingdom): Three British soldiers, all members of the Royal Air Force, were killed and four others were wounded when the IRA launched separate attacks in the Netherlands. In the first attack an IRA unit opened fire on a car carrying British soldiers near Roermond, killing one and injuring three. In the second attack, two British soldiers were killed when they triggered a booby trap bomb attached to their car in Nieuw-Bergen.[114]
28 June 1988  Athens  Greece 1 - Car bomb '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
Diplomatic (United States): A car bomb, detonated by remote control, kills the US naval attache in Athens. Capt. William Nordeen was killed instantly by the blast that originated in a vehicle parked by his house.[115]
11 July 1988  Athens  Greece 11 98 Car bomb -- Grenade & Small arms fire 'Abu Nidal Organization'
Private citizens & property: Three gunmen board the ship, City of Poros, as part of its normal intake of passengers at Aegina, and wait until the ship had left the port and is three miles into its journey before they attack, at approximately 20:30 (UTC+02:00). Using concealed automatic weapons and hand grenades, they opened fire on their fellow passengers, who scattered in panic, many jumping overboard, which inadvertently caused many casualties among people who became caught in the ship's propellers. Nine tourists are killed and up to 100 others are wounded. On the day of the attack, there were 471 people on board the ship.

Earlier on the day of the attack, the pier that the City of Poros usually berthed at in Piraeus was rocked by the detonation of a large car bomb. The only fatalities were the two occupants of the vehicle.[116][117][118]

Main article: City of Poros (ship)
19 December 1988  Cagnes sur Mer  France 1 12 Improvised Explosive Device
Private Citizens & Property: At 3:00 (UTC+1), two homemade bombs explode at a crowded hostel for mostly North African immigrant workers, killing a Romanian national and wounding at least 12 others. The first blast destroyed a number of vehicles on the street, and following this a second blast, under the main stairwell of the building, destroyed the corridor into which many residents had come to check the first blast.[119][120]
27 September 1989  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
Government institutions: Pavlos Bakoyannis, the spokesman of the leading political party at the time -- New Democracy—is shot and killed in the hallway of his office in downtown Athens.[121]
4 January 1991  San Lazzaro di Savena  Italy 3 2 Small arms fire
Government institutions: Armed members of a criminal group attack a Carabinieri patrol in Bologna, killing three officers.[122][123]
19 April 1991  Patras  Greece 7 7 Improvised Explosive Device Palestinian nationalists
Private citizens & property: A parcel bomb explodes in the offices of a courier service, killing seven people and wounding seven others in the western port city of Patras. Six of the dead were employees and the other a customer. The bombed building also housed offices of an American concern, United Parcel International, and is near the British Consulate.[124][125][126]
29 May 1991  Vic  Spain 9 44 Car bomb ETA
16 March 1992  Copenhagen  Denmark 1 - Improvised Explosive Device Neo-nazism
-- Political: A bomb goes off in the office of Internationale Socialister (International Socialists) in Nørrebro, Copenhagen, killing party member Henrik Christensen. The case remains unsolved, but the act has been attributed to Neo-Nazi movements.[127][128]
23 May 1992  Capaci  Italy 5 - Car bomb 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
Government institutions: A half-ton of explosives is placed in a culvert under the motorway between Palermo International Airport and the city of Palermo. The device is detonated as the car of magistrate Giovanni Falcone is passing over the section of motorway, killing Falcone, his wife and 3 members of a police escort.[129]
14 July 1992  Athens  Greece 1 5 Rocket propelled grenade fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
: The Greek Minister of Finance, Ioannis Paleokrassas, narrowly escapes assassination when terrorists launch a 3.5 inch RPG round at his armored limousine in broad daylight. The attack, near the center of Athens, kills a bystander and injures 5 other people, including Minister Paleokrassas. The Minister had been driving out of his office accompanied by his wife and daughter.[130]
19 July 1992  Palermo  Italy 6 10 Car bomb -
Government institutions: Paolo Borsellino, the chief prosecutor in the Sicilian capital, is walking with his bodyguards to his mother's apartment house when a remote-controlled bomb explodes, killing the prosecutor and 5 police escorts.[131][132][133]
27 May 1993  Florence  Italy 6 26 Improvised explosive device 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
Private citizens & property: A Fiat Fiorino full of explosives, parked near the Torre dei Pulci on a street behind the Uffizi gallery, explodes killing 6 people and wounding 26, and destroying or damaging dozens of works in the gallery's art collection. Three works—one by the 17th-century Dutch painter Gerrit van Honthorst and two by the Italian Bartolomeo Manfredi—were destroyed. Thirty others, including "The Death of Adonis," by Sebastiano del Piombo, were badly damaged.[134]
28 July 1993  Milan  Italy 5 6+ Improvised explosive device 'Corleonesi mafia clan'
Government institutions: A bomb explodes at about 23:15 CET, as firefighters arrived to put out a fire in a car near Piazza Cavour. Investigators said the fire apparently had been set to draw the firefighters to the explosion. Three firefighters, a traffic policeman and a passer-by are killed.[135][136]
24 January 1994  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
Government institutions: The former chairman of Greece's largest state-owned bank, Michalis Vranopoulos, is shot to death on an Athens street. He had been testifying in a judicial investigation into the bank's potentially fraudulent sale of a majority stake in a cement company.[137]
5 October 1994  Paris  France 4 6 Small arms fire -- Hostage taking -
Government institutions: Three police officers and a taxi driver are killed, and six other people—including two more officers—are wounded in separate shoot outs with two masked gunmen in Paris. The pair broke into a Paris police station to steal fire arms, then took a taxi driver hostage and forced him to drive them to the Bois de Vincennes park on the outskirts of Paris, where the final shoot out took place.[138]
2 February 1995  Oberwart  Austria 4 - Improvised explosive device 'Bavarian Liberation Army' (Neo-nazism)

Private citizens & property: A pipe bomb concealed in a placard reading "Gypsies go back to India" killed four people at a Gypsy settlement. A neo-Nazi group calling itself the Bavarian Liberation Army took responsibility for the attack.[139]

25 July 1995  Paris  France 8 150 Improvised explosive device 'GIA'
Transport: Eight people are killed and 150 wounded in an explosion of a gas canister packed with nails and bolts on a Paris regional train at the Gare de Saint-Michel-Notre-Dame rail station. The bombing was claimed by the Armed Islamic Group as reprisals for French support for Algeria's army-backed government.[140][141]
3 December 1996  Paris  France 3 85 Improvised explosive device 'GIA'
Transport: A blast at 18:03 CET rips open the doors of a train on the southbound track of the Port Royal station of the regional express network on the Left Bank, scattering the wounded—totaling over 85—over the platform. Three people succumb to injuries caused by the bomb made from a 28-pound camping gas canister filled with nails.[142][143]
28 May 1997  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
Business: Greek shipping tycoon, Constantine Peratikos, is shot to death in broad daylight on an Athens street. The group issued a manifesto claiming that Peratikos was targeted because he allegedly misused a large government bailout and threatened to close down his shipyard, which would have forced the layoff of 2,000 employees.[144]
20 May 1999  Rome  Italy 1 - Small arms fire New Red Brigades
The New Red Brigades (or Red Brigades-Fighting Communist Party) in 1999 murdered Massimo D'Antona, an advisor to the cabinet of Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema.[145]
28 May 1999  Malexander  Sweden 2 1 Small arms fire Neo-nazism
Malexander murders Neo-Nazis Tony Olsson, Jackie Arklöv and Adreas Axelsson robbed a bank "to finance the Neo-nazi revolution" and encountered police officers Olov Burén and Robert Karlström on a small road outside the village Malexander. The two police officers were injuered in the ensuing firefight and were executed point blank by Jackie Arklöv.
28 June 1999  Stockholm  Sweden - 2 Car Bomb Neo-nazism
A journalist examining the connections about funding of right wing extremism by white power music-labels for Swedish tabloid Aftonbladet had a bomb placed under his car which detonated when him and his son had entered the car.

The son was lightly injured and the journalist was handicapped for life.

17 November 1999  Athens  Greece 1 - Improvised Explosive Device 'Revolutionary Nuclei'
Private citizens & property: A Greek bystander is killed when a bomb explodes near the Intercontinental Hotel, where then United States President Bill Clinton was due to stay on a state visit to Greece.[146]
19 April 2000  Plévin  France 1 - Improvised explosive device -
Private Citizens & Property: A bomb explodes beside a McDonald's in a small town in Brittany, killing a restaurant worker. The explosion, in the Dinan area, happens at about 10:00 CET, near the restaurant's drive-through window.[147]
8 June 2000  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire '17N (Marxist guerrillas)'
Diplomatic (British): At approximately 7:48 (UTC+2) two gunmen on a motorcycle shoot Brig. Stephen Saunders, the military attache at the British Embassy in Athens, while he was driving alone on a busy suburban street to work at the British Embassy. The gunmen escaped in traffic. Brigadier Saunders died at a hospital.[148][149][150]
19 March 2002  Bologna  Italy 1 - Small arms fire New Red Brigades
On 19 March 2002, professor Marco Biagi, an economic advisor to Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, was killed.[145] The Red Brigades-PCC claimed responsibility
11 October 2002  Vantaa  Finland 7 166 Suicide bombing Petri Gerdt
Private citizens & property: A 19-year-old chemistry student detonates a bomb in the Myyrmanni shopping center. The bombing, which took place in Vantaa late on a Friday afternoon, is caused by a homemade explosive composed of metal shards, shotgun pellets and ammonium nitrate.[151]
Main article: Myyrmanni bombing
3 March 2003  Castiglion Fiorentino  Italy 2 - Small arms fire New Red Brigades
Two Red Brigades followers, Mario Galesi and Nadia Desdemona Lioce, started a firefight with a police patrol on a train at Castiglion Fiorentino station, near Arezzo. Galesi and Emanuele Petri (one of the policemen) were killed, Lioce was arrested.
11 March 2004  Madrid  Spain 191 2050 Improvised Explosive Device 'Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigade part of Al-Qaida'
Transport: Spain Madrid. 191 people were killed and over 600 others were wounded when ten bombs detonated in Madrid on the train line. At least one of these bombs detonated at El Pozo, a small commuter station in Madrid. It is impossible to disaggregate the casualties from any of the blast sites because of poor reporting. The bombs were detonated by cell phones and were left in backpacks. At first the Spanish government blamed the separatist group, the Basque Fatherland and Freedom (ETA) for the attacks, but later the Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigade claimed responsibility on behalf of Al Qaeda. By the end of March 2004, authorities had arrested over twenty people in connection with the attack. The suspects hailed from Morocco, Pakistan, Syria and Spain. In their claim of responsibility, the Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigade says that Spain was targeted because of their cooperation with the US in the war in Iraq. In response to the attacks, the ruling Spanish party was defeated in elections mainly because they lied about those attacks (which took place four days after the incident) and the new Prime Minister vowed to remove Spanish troops from combat in Iraq. On April 3, as the police were closing in on four suspects, including Serjame ben Abdelmajid Fakhet, who they believe was the ringleader in this incident, the suspects blew themselves up in their apartment in Madrid. This blast also killed a police officer. One suspect managed to escape the apartment explosion, as he was taking out the trash at the time of the raid. Abdelmajid Bouchar escaped to Serbia, where he hid out until he was captured in August 2005.[152][153]
8 October 2004  Paris  France - 10 Improvised Explosive Device Armed French Islamic Front
Bomb attack against the Indonesian Embassy in Paris by Algerian Islamist militants.[154]
7 July 2005  London  United Kingdom 56 700 Suicide bombing 'Al-Qaeda'
Transport: United Kingdom London bombings Suicide bombers attack one double-decker bus and three London Underground trains, killing 52 people and injuring over 700, occurring on the first day of the 31st G8 Conference. The attacks are the first suicide bombings in Western Europe.
6 December 2007  Paris  France 1 4 Improvised explosive device
Private Citizens & Property: A parcel bomb explodes at a legal office in central Paris killing a secretary and seriously injuring a lawyer. Several other people were lightly hurt in the unclaimed blast shortly before 13:00 CET on the fourth floor of a building in the capital's fashionable eighth arrondissement or district.[155]
30 April 2009  Apeldoorn  Netherlands 7 12 Vehicle 'Karst Tates'
Government institutions: A man aims his car into a crowd of civilians attending a festival for the royal family; seven people are killed—including the driver—and 12 people are injured. The target of the attack is a bus carrying the Queen and her family, but the car is stopped several metres from the bus. The driver is identified as Karst Tates, 38, and is said to have acted alone. The motive for the attack is unknown.[156]
17 June 2009  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire 'Sect of Revolutionaries'
Government institutions: Several gunmen shoot a 41-year-old anti-terrorism officer several times at close range. The officer died in his car as the assailants fled on motorcycles in the densely populated Patissia area of Athens.[157]
28 March 2010  Athens  Greece 1 2 Improvised Explosive Device
Private citizens & property: A bomb explodes outside an institute for training public officials in the Patissia area of the Greek capital Athens, killing a 15-year-old boy. The boy's 10-year-old sister was seriously injured and their mother, 45, was slightly hurt. Police said the family, all Afghans, were apparently just walking past the building when the bomb, contained in a bag, exploded.[158]
24 June 2010  Athens  Greece 1 - Improvised Explosive Device
Government institutions: A powerful bomb sent in a package to the minister of public order explodes near his office, killing his 52-year-old assistant, who opened the package. The minister, Michalis Chrysochoidis, who is in charge of the police and counter-terrorism, was not in his office at the time.[159]
19 July 2010  Athens  Greece 1 - Small arms fire 'Sect of Revolutionaries'
Journalists & Media: At 5:25 (UTC+2), in the Llioupoli area of Athens unidentified gunmen armed with nine millimeter pistols shot and killed an investigative journalist, Sokratis Giolias, outside his residence. He was shot 15 times by three gunmen dressed as security personnel reporting someone had stolen his car. The authorities said the 37-year-old Giolias was killed by at least three assailants firing a pair of nine-millimetre handguns—the same weapons which the Revolutionary Sect group had used to kill an anti-terrorist officer in 2009.[160]
11 December 2010  Stockholm  Sweden 1 2 Suicide bombing Taimour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly
Private citizens & property: At around 17:00 (CET), a suicide bomber detonated an improvised explosive device in one of two related attacks in the Drottningatan area of Stockholm. The resulting blast killed the bomber and wounds two civilians. Shortly before, a car bomb exploded with no casualties.
2 March 2011  Frankfurt  Germany 2 2 Small arms fire Arid Uka
The 2011 Frankfurt Airport shooting occurred on 2 March 2011 at Frankfurt Airport in Germany. The shooter, Arid Uka, was arrested and charged with killing two United States airmen and seriously wounding two others. He was sentenced to life in prison on 10 February 2012.[161]
22 July 2011  Oslo Utøya  Norway 77 319 Explosives, Small arms fire Anders Behring Breivik
Private citizens & property: The 2011 Norway Attacks involved two lone wolf terrorist attacks by Anders Behring Breivik against the government, the civilian population, and a Workers' Youth League (AUF)-run summer camp. The attacks claimed a total of 77 lives.[162]
Main article: 2011 Norway attacks
15 March 2012  Montauban  France 2 1 Small arms fire Mohammed Merah
Government institutions: At around 14:00 CET, two uniformed soldiers were killed and a third was seriously injured outside a shopping centre in Montauban, while withdrawing money from a cash machine. They were all from the 17th Parachute Engineer Regiment (17e Régiment du génie parachutiste), whose barracks are close to the town. Corporal Abel Chennouf, 24, and Private Mohamed Legouad, 23, both of North African origin, were killed. Corporal Loïc Liber, 28, from Guadeloupe, was left in a coma.[163][164]
19 March 2012  Toulouse  France 4 1 Small arms fire Mohammed Merah
Religious extremism and violence: At about 8:00 CET, a man drove up to the Ozar Hatorah school on a motorcycle. He dismounted, and immediately opened fire toward the schoolyard. Four people died: 30-year-old Rabbi Jonathan (Yonatan) Sandler; his two oldest (out of three) children Aryeh, aged 6, and Gabriel, aged 3; and the head teacher's daughter, eight-year-old Miriam Monsonego, the girl shot in the head. Bryan Bijaoui, a 17-year-old Jewish boy, was gravely injured.[165][166][167]
19 May 2012  Brindisi  Italy 1 5 Improvised explosive device Giovanni Vantaggiato
Government institutions: Three gas cylinder bombs hidden in a large rubbish bin explode in front of the Morvillo Falcone High School, killing one 16-year-old female student and injuring five others - one seriously.[168]
18 July 2012  Burgas  Bulgaria 7 30 Suicide bombing Hezbollah, Jihadism
Transport: A suicide bomber detonates an explosive device on a bus carrying 42 Israeli tourists nearby Burgas Airport. The explosion killed the Bulgarian bus driver and five Israelis. Investigators found forged documents, used by the perpetrators of the attack, that had been obtained by a man with ties to Hezbollah.[169][170][171]
22 May 2013  London  United Kingdom 1 - Small arms fire
A British soldier, Lee Rigby, was murdered in an attack in Woolwich by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale, two Islamist extremists armed with a handgun and a number of bladed implements. Both men were sentenced to life imprisonment, with Adebolajo given a whole life order and Adebowale ordered to serve at least 45 years.
Main article: Murder of Lee Rigby
24 May 2014  Brussels  Belgium 4 - Small arms fire Islamic State
Religious extremism and violence: On 24 May 2014, a gunman opened fire at the Jewish Museum of Belgium in Brussels, Belgium, killing four people. Three died at the scene; a fourth was taken to hospital and died on 6 June.[172] The attack is being investigated as terrorism by Belgian authorities.[173]
20 December 2014  Tours  France - 3 Stabbing Bertrand Nzohabonayo
A man yelling "Allahu Akbar" attacked a police office in Joué-lès-Tours with a knife. He was killed and 3 police officers were injured.
7 January 2015  Paris  France 20 (3 perps.) 22 Small arms fire Al-Qaeda in Yemen
Religious extremism and violence: On the morning of 7 January 2015, at about 11:30 local time, two Islamist terrorists armed with assault rifles and other weapons forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris. They fired up to 50 shots, initially killing 11 people and injuring 11 others, and shouted "Allahu Akbar" (Arabic for "God is [the] greatest") during their attack.
14 February 2015  Copenhagen  Denmark 3 (1 perp.) 5 Small arms fire Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein
Religious extremism and violence: A shooting spree occurred in Copenhagen, Denmark, starting on the afternoon of 14 February 2015.

The first shooting took place at 15:33 CET at the Krudttønden cultural centre during a public seminar called "Art, Blasphemy and Freedom of Expression". The event was to commemorate the 26th anniversary of the fatwa issued by Ayatollah Khomeini calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie. A gunman killed one civilian, and wounded three police officers.[174] Swedish artist Lars Vilks was in attendance, and it is thought Vilks was the main target as a result of the controversy over his drawings of Muhammad. The French ambassador to Denmark, François Zimeray, was also in attendance.

26 June 2015  Saint-Quentin-Fallavier  France 1 2 Beheading Yassine Salhi
Yassine Salhi, a French Muslim of North African descent, decapitated his employer Hervé Cornara and drove his van into gas cylinders at a gas factory in Saint-Quentin-Fallavier near Lyon, France, which caused an explosion that injured two other people.
21 August 2015  Pas-de-Calais  France - 4 Small arms fire, Stabbing Ayoub El Khazzani
On 21 August 2015, a shooting and stabbing took place on board a Thalys train in France on its way from Amsterdam to Paris. The train had just crossed the border from Belgium into France and was traveling in Oignies (department of Pas-de-Calais) when the perpetrator opened fire in a train carriage before being subdued by passengers, one of whom he stabbed.
17 September 2015  Berlin  Germany - 1 Stabbing Rafik Mohamad Yousef
Rafik Yousef was tried and convicted for plotting to assassinate the Prime Minister of Iraq during his visit to Germany in 2004, attacked a German police officer with a knife in Berlin and was shot by the police.
Main article: Rafik Yousef
22 October 2015 Trollhättan  Sweden 3 (1 perp.) 1 Stabbing with a sword Anton Lundin Pettersson
The Swedish assailant armed with a long sword attacked a school in a district with a large immigrant population. Subsequent investigation showed he was motivated by a racist ideology.
13 November 2015  Paris  France 137 (7 perps.) 368 Small arms fire, Explosives Islamic State
Religious extremism and violence:
1 January 2016  Valence, Drôme  France - 2 Vehicle
A man rammed his car twice into four soldiers protecting a mosque in Valence. He said he wanted to kill troops and jihadi propaganda images were found on his computer.[175]
5 December 2015  London  United Kingdom 3 Stabbing Muhaydin Mire
3 left injured after stabbing in London Underground.

At approximately 7:00 p.m. in the Leytonstone underground tube station, a man shouted "this is for Syria", before proceeding to stab and injure three people, one seriously. By 7:15 p.m. the man had been tasered and restrained by officers, and was taken into custody. The station remained closed until 3:00 a.m. the following morning. The Metropolitan Police formally announced the attack was being treated as a terrorist attack, which caused a stir among the public following last month's attacks in Paris.[176]

7 January 2016  Paris  France - 1 Stabbing Tarek Belgacem
A jihadist wearing a fake explosive belt attacked police officers in the Goutte d'Or district in Paris with a meat cleaver, while shouting "Allahu Akbar". He was shot dead and one policeman receiving injuries. The ISIS flag and a clearly written claim in Arabic, were found on the attacker.
26 February 2016  Hanover  Germany - 1 Stabbing Safia S.
A 15-year-old girl stabbed and severely injured a policemen after she was stopped for a search. The earlier tried to join the Islamic State but was stopped by her mother.[177]
22 March 2016  Brussels, Zaventem  Belgium 35 (3 perps.) 330 Suicide bombing Islamic State
At approximately 8 a.m. in the Zaventem two explosions went off in the departures hall of Brussels Airport. One of these was close to the American Airlines counter. The explosions left 13 dead and 81 wounded. At 9 a.m., another explosion went off at the Maelbeek metro station, killing at least another 20 and leaving 190 more victims wounded. Brussels went to complete lockdown and the highest possible state of terror threat alert.
16 April 2016  Essen  Germany - 3 Explosives
Two teenage Islamist extremists threw a bomb at a Sikh temple during a wedding. Three members of the Sikh community were injured.[178][179]
13 June 2016  Paris  France 3 (1 perp.) - Stabbing Larossi Abballa
At approximately 8.30 p.m. Larossi Abballa stabbed a 42-year-old police commander to death. Larossi then held the commander's wife and the couple's three-year-old son hostage and killed the wife later. Larossi was killed when the police stormed the house.
14 July 2016  Nice  France 87 (1 perp.) 434 Car ramming attack Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel
Main article: 2016 Nice attack
18 July 2016  Würzburg  Germany 1 (perp.) 5 Stabbing Riaz Khan Ahmadzai
A 17-year-old Afghan refugee injured several people in a regional train with an ax.
24 July 2016  Ansbach  Germany 1 (perp.) 15 Suicide bombing Mohammad Daleel
Main article: 2016 Ansbach bombing
26 July 2016  Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray  France 3 (2 perps.) 3 Stabbing Islamic State
Two Islamic State terrorists storm a Normandy Catholic church during a Tuesday morning Mass, slitting the throat of an 86-year-old priest and taking several churchgoers hostage. French Police conducted a counter terrorism operation on the church, killing both of the terrorists, and rescuing the hostages.
6 August 2016  Charleroi  Belgium 1 (perp.) 2 Stabbing Khaled Babouri
A man attacked two police officers with a machete in a police station in Charleroi while shouting "Allahu Akbar" during the assault. Another officer, who was nearby, shot the attacker, who died in hospital later.[180]
Main article: 2016 Charleroi attack
7 September 2016  Sint-Jans-Molenbeek  Belgium - 2 Stabbing Islamic State

Two Belgian police officers patrolling the streets of Molenbeek were stabbed by an illegal migrant, with a knife. The suspect shouted 'Allahu Akbar' before proceeding to attack the officers with the knife. Both police officers were wearing stab-proof vests, however, and they both incurred only minor-moderate injuries.[181]

24 September 2016  Budapest  Hungary - 2 Bombing Neo-fascism
Two police officers were seriously injured when a man threw a nail-bomb device towards them. The event preceded a referendum in Hungary which would decide whether to accept the European Union's refugee and migrant quota, suggesting that the perpetrator may have acted with political motives. It was initially suspected that the incident was related to a gas blast, but police later confirmed that a nail bomb had been found.[182]
27 September 2016  Rimini  Italy - 1 Stabbing Islamic State

A man of Albanian origin was arrested after an assault on a soldier as he praised ISIS. The act, which Italian police soon confirmed was related to terrorism, occurred in Rimini. Police officers or members of the army reportedly approached the man and attempted to aprehend him or take him into custody. It was at this point that the man attacked 1 member of the arresting team. Media reported that the Albanian said: "I'm Isis, beware". The 21-year-old was immediately arrested and taken to jail.[183]

5 October 2016  Scharbeek  Belgium - 4 (1 perp.) Stabbing Islamist

On 5 October 2016, an attacker wielding a knife stabbed knife police officers and assaulted a third in the Schaerbeek neighborhood of Brussels, Belgium, in what officials describe as a terrorist attack. The assailant was then shot in the leg, subdued, and taken for medical treatment.

31 October 2016  Cologne  Germany - 2 (1 perp.) Stabbing Islamist

On 31 October 2016, a woman attacked two police officers while shouting "Allahu akbar" before being killed.[184]

Key: Motivation

  Islamism   Left-wing   Right-wing   Separatist/nationalist   Mafia-related


Date Sub Flight Dead Injured Pax. Type Perpetrator
18 February 1969

El Al — 432


1 8 28 Grenade & Small arms fire PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)
17 December 1973

— 'Unnamed Boeing 737'


2 2 10 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

8 September 1974

Trans World Airlines — 841


88 - 88 Improvised Explosive Device Abu Nidal Organisation


27 June 1976

Air France — 193


4 10 260 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(8 days)

PFLP-EO (Palestinian nationalists) & Revolutionary Cells
13 October 1977

Lufthansa — 181


1 4 91 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(6 days)

PFLP (Palestinian nationalists)
14 June 1985

Trans World Airlines — 847


1 5 147 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(3 days)

Hezbollah & Islamic Jihad
23 November 1985

Egypt Air — 648


58 20+ 95 Hijacking -- Hostage taking

(2 days)

Abu Nidal Organisation
2 April 1986

Trans World Airlines — 840


4 7 122 Improvised Explosive Device Abu Nidal Organisation
21 December 1988

Pan Am Flight 103


270 0 259 Improvised explosive device Libyan
19 September 1989

Union de Transport Aériens
— 772


170 - 170 Improvised explosive device Libyan
24 December 1994

Air France — 8969


3 16 232 Hijacking GIA

See also


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