|Trade names||Saflutan, Taflotan, Tapros, Zioptan|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||Multum Consumer Information|
|Topical (eye drops)|
|ATC code||S01EE05 (WHO)|
|Metabolism||Activation by ester hydrolysis, deactivation by beta oxidation|
|Onset of action||2–4 hrs|
|Duration of action||≥ 24 hrs|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||452.531266 g/mol|
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
Tafluprost (trade names Taflotan by Santen Pharmaceutical and Zioptan by Merck in the US) is a prostaglandin analogue. It is used topically (as eye drops) to control the progression of open-angle glaucoma and in the management of ocular hypertension, alone or in combination with other medication. It reduces intraocular pressure by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes.
The most common side effect is conjunctival hyperemia, which occurs in 4 to 20% of patients. Less common side effects include stinging of the eyes, headache, and respiratory infections. Rare side effects are dyspnoea (breathing difficulties), worsening of asthma, and macular oedema.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can either reduce or increase the effect of tafluprost. Timolol eye drops, a common kind of glaucoma medication, does not negatively interact with this drug.
Mechanism of action
Tafluprost is a prodrug of the active substance, tafluprost acid, a structural and functional analogue of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Tafluprost acid is a selective agonist at the prostaglandin F receptor, increasing outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes and thus lowering intraocular pressure.
Tafluprost, as a lipophilic ester, easily penetrates the cornea and is then activated to the carboxylic acid, tafluprost acid. Onset of action is 2 to 4 hours after application, the maximal effect is reached after 12 hours, and ocular pressure remains lowered for at least 24 hours.
Tafluprost acid is inactivated by beta oxidation to 1,2-dinortafluprost acid, 1,2,3,4-tetranortafluprost acid, and its lactone, which are subsequently glucuronidated or hydroxylated. The cytochrome P450 liver enzymes play no role in the metabolism.
An analogous pathway (at least up to the tetranor-metabolites) has been found for latanoprost and travoprost.
- Tafluprost Professional Drug Facts.
- Haberfeld, H, ed. (2015). Austria-Codex (in German). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag.
- Dinnendahl, V; Fricke, U, eds. (2011). Arzneistoff-Profile (in German). 9 (25 ed.). Eschborn, Germany: Govi Pharmazeutischer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7741-9846-3.
- Fukano, Y; Kawazu, K (2009). "Disposition and metabolism of a novel prostanoid antiglaucoma medication, tafluprost, following ocular administration to rats". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 37 (8): 1622–34. doi:10.1124/dmd.108.024885. PMID 19477946.
- Fukano, Y; Kawazu, K; Akaishi, T; Bezwada, P; Pellinen, P (2011). "Metabolism and ocular tissue distribution of an antiglaucoma prostanoid, tafluprost, after ocular instillation to monkeys". Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 27 (3): 251–9. doi:10.1089/jop.2010.0178. PMID 21491995.