Toll-like receptor 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR10 gene. TLR10 has also been designated as CD290 (cluster of differentiation 290).
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This gene is most highly expressed in lymphoid tissues such as spleen, lymph node, thymus, and tonsil. Its exact function is not known. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.