Swedish Ingria

Swedish Ingria
Svenska Ingermanland
Dominion of the Swedish Empire
Flag Coat of arms
Baltic provinces of Swedish Empire in the 17th century.
Capital Narva
Languages Swedish, Finnish, Ingrian, Votian
Government Dominion
King of Sweden
   1568–92 John III
  1592–99 Sigismund
  1611–32 Gustav II Adolf
  1720–51 Frederick I
  1617– Carl Carlsson Gyllenhielm
  1659–1673 Simon Grundel-Helmfelt
   Conquered by Sweden 1583
  Ceded to Russia 18 May 1595
  Treaty of Stolbovo 17 February 1617
  Great Northern War 1700–21
  Conquered by Russia 1708
   Treaty of Nystad 30 August 1721
   1644 est. 15,000 
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tsardom of Russia
Ingermanland Governorate

Swedish Ingria (Swedish: Svenska Ingermanland, ‘land of Ingrians’) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1583 to 1595 and then again from 1617 to 1721, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Nystad.

Ingria was ceded to Sweden by Russia together with the County of Kexholm by the Treaty of Stolbovo in 1617. It consisted of the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in South-West, and Lake Ladoga in North-East. Bordering to Kexholm and Swedish Karelia by the Sestra (Rajajoki /Systerbäck) river in North-West.

Ingria fell to Sweden in the 1580s, was returned to Russia by the Treaty of Teusina (1595), and again ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). Sweden's interest of the territory was strategic: as a buffer zone against Russian attacks on the Karelian Isthmus and present-day Finland; and Russian trade was to pass through Swedish territory. In addition, Ingria became the destination for Swedish deportees.

Ingria remained sparsely populated. In 1664 the population was counted to 15,000. Swedish attempts to introduce Lutheranism were met with repugnance by the Orthodox peasantry obliged to attend Lutheran services; converts were promised grants and tax reductions, but Lutheran gains were most of all due to voluntary resettlements from Savonia and Karelia. Ingria was enfeoffed to noble military and state officials, bringing their own Lutheran servants and workmen.

Nyen became the trading centre of Ingria, and in 1642 was made its administrative centre. In 1656 a Russian attack badly damaged the town, and the administrative centre was moved to Narva in neighbouring Swedish Estonia.[1]

In the early 18th century the area was reconquered by Russia in the Great Northern War after a century in Swedish possession. On the place of the Swedish town Nyen or in Finnish Nevanlinna (Castle of Neva) close to the Neva river's estuary at the Gulf of Finland, the new Russian capital Saint Petersburg was founded in 1703.


Ingrian Governors (Narva, Ivangorod, Jaama, Koporje and Nöteborg)
Ingrian and Livonian Governors-General
Ingrian and county of Kexholm Governors-General
Ingrian Governors
Ingrian Governors-General

See also


  1. Kurs, Ott (1994). Ingria: The broken landbridge between Estonia and Finland. GeoJournal 33.1, 107-113.

Coordinates: 59°22′33″N 28°11′46″E / 59.3758°N 28.1961°E / 59.3758; 28.1961

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