Substance-induced psychosis

Substance-induced psychosis
Classification and external resources
Specialty psychiatry
ICD-10 F10.5-F19.5
ICD-9-CM 292.1
MeSH D011605

Substance-induced psychosis (commonly known as toxic psychosis) is a form of substance use disorder where psychosis can be attributed to substance use. It is a psychosis that results from the poisonous effects of chemicals or drugs, including those produced by the body itself. Various psychoactive substances have been implicated in causing or worsening psychosis in users.

Effects of Psychosis

Main article: Psychosis

Psychosis manifests as disorientation and visual (and/or haptic) hallucinations.[1] It is a state in which a person's mental capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others is impaired, thus interfering with the capacity to deal with life demands. While there are many types of psychosis, substance-induced psychosis can be pinpointed to specific chemicals.[2]


Psychotic states may occur after using a variety of legal and illegal substances. Usually such states are temporary and reversible, with fluoroquinolone-induced psychosis being a notable exception. Drugs whose use, abuse, or withdrawal are implicated in psychosis include the following:


The code F11.5 is reserved for opioid-induced psychosis, and F17.5 is reserved for tobacco-induced psychosis, but neither substance is traditionally associated with the induction of psychosis.

The code F15.5 also includes caffeine-induced psychosis, despite not being specifically listed in the DSM-IV. However, there is evidence that caffeine, in extreme acute doses or when severely abused for long periods of time, may induce psychosis.[23][24]



  1. Pitts, Ferris N; Allen, Robert E; Aniline, Orm; Burgoyne, Rodney W (August 1982). "The Dilemma of the Toxic Psychosis: Differential Diagnosis and the PCP Psychosis". Psychiatric Annals. 12 (8): 762–8. doi:10.3928/0048-5713-19820801-07 (inactive August 5, 2015). OCLC 5584879101.
  3. 1 2 3 Alcohol-Related Psychosis at eMedicine
  4. Soyka, Michael (March 1990). "Psychopathological characteristics in alcohol hallucinosis and paranoid schizophrenia". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 81 (3): 255–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1990.tb06491.x. PMID 2343749.
  5. Delirium Tremens (DTs) at eMedicine
  6. Tien AY, Anthony JC (August 1990). "Epidemiological analysis of alcohol and drug use as risk factors for psychotic experiences". J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 178 (8): 473–80. doi:10.1097/00005053-199017880-00001. PMID 2380692.
  7. Cargiulo T (March 2007). "Understanding the health impact of alcohol dependence". Am J Health Syst Pharm. 64 (5 Suppl 3): S5–11. doi:10.2146/ajhp060647. PMID 17322182.
  8. Schuckit MA (November 1983). "Alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders". Hosp Community Psychiatry. 34 (11): 1022–7. doi:10.1176/ps.34.11.1022. PMID 6642446.
  9. Degenhardt L (January 2003). "The link between cannabis use and psychosis: furthering the debate". Psychological Medicine. 33 (1): 3–6. doi:10.1017/S0033291702007080. PMID 12537030.
  10. Moore TH, Zammit S, Lingford-Hughes A, et al. (July 2007). "Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review". Lancet. 370 (9584): 319–28. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61162-3. PMID 17662880.
  11. de Paola L, Mäder MJ, Germiniani FM, et al. (June 2004). "Bizarre behavior during intracarotid sodium amytal testing (Wada test): are they predictable?". Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. 62 (2B): 444–8. doi:10.1590/S0004-282X2004000300012. PMID 15273841.
  12. Sarrecchia C, Sordillo P, Conte G, Rocchi G (1998). "[Barbiturate withdrawal syndrome: a case associated with the abuse of a headache medication]". Annali Italiani di Medicina Interna (in Italian). 13 (4): 237–9. PMID 10349206.
  13. White MC, Silverman JJ, Harbison JW (February 1982). "Psychosis associated with clonazepam therapy for blepharospasm". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 170 (2): 117–9. doi:10.1097/00005053-198202000-00010. PMID 7057171.
  14. Jaffe R, Gibson E (June 1986). "Clonazepam withdrawal psychosis". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 6 (3): 193. doi:10.1097/00004714-198606000-00021. PMID 3711371.
  15. Hallberg RJ, Lessler K, Kane FJ (August 1964). "Korsakoff-Like Psychosis Associated With Benzodiazepine Overdosage". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 121: 188–9. doi:10.1176/ajp.121.2.188. PMID 14194223.
  16. Hall RC, Zisook S (1981). "Paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 11 (Suppl 1): 99S–104S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1981.tb01844.x. PMC 1401636Freely accessible. PMID 6133541.
  17. Lader M, Morton S (1991). "Benzodiazepine Problems". British Journal of Addiction. 86: 823–828. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb01831.x.
  18. Benzodiazepines: Paradoxical Reactions & Long-Term Side-Effects
  19. Hansson O, Tonnby B (1976). "Serious Psychological Symptoms Caused by Clonazepam". Läkartidningen. 73: 1210–1211.
  20. Pétursson H (November 1994). "The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome". Addiction. 89 (11): 1455–9. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb03743.x. PMID 7841856.
  21. Brady, K. T.; R. B. Lydiard; R. Malcolm; J. C. Ballenger (December 1991). "Cocaine-induced psychosis". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 52 (12): 509–512. PMID 1752853.
  22. 1 2 3 Diaz, Jaime. How Drugs Influence Behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1996.
  23. Hedges DW, Woon FL, Hoopes SP (March 2009). "Caffeine-induced psychosis". CNS Spectrums. 14 (3): 127–9. PMID 19407709.
  24. Cerimele JM, Stern AP, Jutras-Aswad D (March 2010). "Psychosis following excessive ingestion of energy drinks in a patient with schizophrenia". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 167 (3): 353. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09101456. PMID 20194494.
  25. Cohen JS (December 2001). "Peripheral Neuropathy Associated with Fluoroquinolones" (PDF). Ann Pharmacother. 35 (12): 1540–7. doi:10.1345/aph.1Z429. PMID 11793615.
  26. Adams M, Tavakoli H (2006). "Gatifloxacin-induced hallucinations in a 19-year-old man". Psychosomatics. 47 (4): 360. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.47.4.360. PMID 16844899.
  27. Mulhall JP, Bergmann LS (July 1995). "Ciprofloxacin-induced acute psychosis". Urology. 46 (1): 102–3. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(99)80171-X. PMID 7604468.
  28. Reeves RR (1992). "Ciprofloxacin-induced psychosis". Ann Pharmacother. 26 (7–8): 930–1. doi:10.1177/106002809202600716. PMID 1504404.
  29. Yasuda H, Yoshida A, Masuda Y, Fukayama M, Kita Y, Inamatsu T (March 1999). "[Levofloxacin-induced neurological adverse effects such as convulsion, involuntary movement (tremor, myoclonus and chorea like), visual hallucination in two elderly patients]". Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi (in Japanese). 36 (3): 213–7. doi:10.3143/geriatrics.36.213. PMID 10388331.
  30. Azar S, Ramjiani A, Van Gerpen JA (April 2005). "Ciprofloxacin-induced chorea". Mov. Disord. 20 (4): 513–4; author reply 514. doi:10.1002/mds.20425. PMID 15739219.
  31. Kukushkin ML, Igonkina SI, Guskova TA (April 2004). "Mechanisms of pefloxacin-induced pain". Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 137 (4): 336–8. doi:10.1023/B:BEBM.0000035122.45148.93. PMID 15452594.
  32. Christie MJ, Wong K, Ting RH, Tam PY, Sikaneta TG (May 2005). "Generalized seizure and toxic epidermal necrolysis following levofloxacin exposure". Ann Pharmacother. 39 (5): 953–5. doi:10.1345/aph.1E587. PMID 15827068.
  33. Marsepoil T, Petithory J, Faucher JM, Ho P, Viriot E, Benaiche F (1993). "[Encephalopathy and memory disorders during treatments with mefloquine]". Rev Med Interne (in French). 14 (8): 788–91. doi:10.1016/S0248-8663(05)81426-2. PMID 8191092.
  34. Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO (June 1995). "CNS adverse events associated with antimalarial agents. Fact or fiction?". Drug Saf. 12 (6): 370–83. doi:10.2165/00002018-199512060-00003. PMID 8527012.
  35. Price, L. H.; Lebel, J. (2000). "Dextromethorphan-Induced Psychosis". American Journal of Psychiatry. 157 (2): 304. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.2.304. PMID 10671422.
  36. Lachover, L. (2007). "Deciphering a Psychosis: A Case of Dextromethorphan-Induced Symptoms". Primary Psychiatry. 14 (1): 70–72.
  37. Sexton, J. D.; Pronchik, D. J. (1997). "Diphenhydramine-induced psychosis with therapeutic doses". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 15 (5): 548–549. doi:10.1016/S0735-6757(97)90212-6. PMID 9270406.
  38. Lang, K.; Sigusch, H.; Müller, S. (1995). "Anticholinergisches Syndrom mit halluzinatorischer Psychose nach Diphenhydramin-Intoxikation" [An anticholinergic syndrome with hallucinatory psychosis after diphenhydramine poisoning]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (in German). 120 (49): 1695–1698. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1055530. PMID 7497894.
  39. Schreiber, W.; Pauls, A. M.; Krieg, J. C. (1988). "Toxische Psychose als Akutmanifestation der Diphenhydraminvergiftung" [Toxic psychosis as an acute manifestation of diphenhydramine poisoning]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (in German). 113 (5): 180–183. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1067616. PMID 3338401.
  40. Timnak, C.; Gleason, O. (2004). "Promethazine-Induced Psychosis in a 16-Year-Old Girl". Psychosomatics. 45 (1): 89–90. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.45.1.89. PMID 14709767.
  41. Gunn, V. L.; Taha, S. H.; Liebelt, E. L.; Serwint, J. R. (2001). "Toxicity of Over-the-Counter Cough and Cold Medications". Pediatrics. 108 (3): e52. doi:10.1542/peds.108.3.e52.
  42. Hall, R. C.; Popkin, M. K.; Stickney, S. K.; Gardner, E. R. (1979). "Presentation of the steroid psychoses". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 167 (4): 229–236. doi:10.1097/00005053-197904000-00006. PMID 438794.
  43. Hull P. R.; D'Arcy C. (2003). "Isotretinoin Use and Subsequent Depression and Suicide: Presenting the Evidence". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology. 4 (7): 493–505. doi:10.2165/00128071-200304070-00005.
  44. Bergman, K. R.; Pearson, C.; Waltz, G. W.; Evans R. III (1980). "Atropine-induced psychosis. An unusual complication of therapy with inhaled atropine sulfate". Chest. 78 (6): 891–893. doi:10.1378/chest.78.6.891. PMID 7449475. Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  45. Varghese, S.; Vettath, N.; Iyer, K.; Puliyel, J. M.; Puliyel, M. M. (1990). "Ocular atropine induced psychosis--is there a direct access route to the brain?". Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 38 (6): 444–445. PMID 2384469.
  46. Barak, Segev; Weiner, I. (2006). "Scopolamine Induces Disruption of Latent Inhibition Which is Prevented by Antipsychotic Drugs and an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor". Neuropsychopharmacology. 32 (5): 989–999. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301208. PMID 16971898.
  47. Ellison Gaylord (1995). "The N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists phencyclidine, ketamine and dizocilpine as both behavioral and anatomical models of the dementias". Brain Research Reviews. 20 (2): 250–267. doi:10.1016/0165-0173(94)00014-G. PMID 7795658.
  48. Carey, R. J.; Pinheiro-Carrera, M.; Dai, H.; Tomaz, C.; Huston, J. P. (1995). "l-DOPA and psychosis: Evidence for l-DOPA-induced increases in prefrontal cortex dopamine and in serum corticosterone". Biological Psychiatry. 38 (10): 669–676. doi:10.1016/0006-3223(94)00378-5. PMID 8555378.
  49. Ettinger, A. B. (2006). "Psychotropic effects of antiepileptic drugs". Neurology. 67 (11): 1916–1925. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000247045.85646.c0. PMID 17159095.
  50. 'Ecstasy' Psychosis and Flashbacks F.J. CREIGHTON,D. L. BLACK and C. E. HYDE
  51. Substance-induced psychotic disorder
  52. Spice users risk psychosis, doctor says By Gidget Fuentes - Staff writer Accessed 06-25-2011
  53. "Characteristics of Synthetic Cannabinoid and Cannabis Users Admitted to a Psychiatric Hospital: A Comparative Study". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. OF (#VALUE!). 2016-07-05. doi:10.4088/JCP.15m09938. ISSN 0160-6689.
  54. Every-Palmer S (2010). "Warning: legal synthetic cannabinoid-receptor agonists such as JWH-018 may precipitate psychosis in vulnerable individuals". Addiction. 105 (10): 1859–60. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03119.x. PMID 20840203.
  55. Müller H, et al. (2010). "The synthetic cannabinoid Spice as a trigger for an acute exacerbation of cannabis induced recurrent psychotic episodes". Schizophr Res. 118 (1-3): 309–10. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2009.12.001. PMID 20056392.
  56. Bath Salt Addiction, Accessed 06-25-2011
  57. Kurzbaum, Alberto; Claudia Simsolo; Ludmilla Kvasha; Arnon Blum (July 2001). "Toxic Delirium due to Datura Stramonium" (PDF). Israel Medical Association Journal. 3 (7): 538–539. PMID 11791426. Retrieved 2006-10-17.
  58. Przekop, Peter; Timothy Lee (July 2009). "Persistent Psychosis Associated With Salvia Divinorum Use". American Journal of Psychiatry. 166 (832): 832. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08121759. PMID 19570943. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
  59. Tarsh, M.J. (1979). "Schizophreniform Psychosis caused by Sniffing Toluene" (PDF). Journal of the Society for Occupational Medicine. 1979 (29): 131–133. doi:10.1093/occmed/29.4.131. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
  60. Rao, Naren P.; Arun Gupta; K. Sreejayan; Prabhat K. Chand; Vivek Benegal; Pratima Murthy (2009). "Toluene associated schizophrenia-like psychosis". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 51 (4): 329–330. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.58307. PMC 2802388Freely accessible. PMID 20048466.
  61. Jung IK, Lee HJ, Cho BH (December 2004). "Persistent psychotic disorder in an adolescent with a past history of butane gas dependence". European Psychiatry. 19 (8): 519–20. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2004.09.010. PMID 15589716.
  62. Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.; Hector A. Ortega-Soto; Antonio Jasso; Cecilia A. Hasfura-Buenaga; Henry R. Kranzler (1998). "Treatment of Inhalant-Induced Psychotic Disorder With Carbamazepine Versus Haloperidol". Psychiatric Services. 49 (6): 812–815. doi:10.1176/ps.49.6.812. PMID 9634163. Retrieved 2010-05-28.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/10/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.