This article is about the string-instrument family. For other uses, see Stradivarius (disambiguation).
Antonio Stradivari, by Edgar Bundy, 1893: a romanticized image of a craftsman-hero
Maker's label from Stradivari

A Stradivarius is one of the violins, violas, cellos and other string instruments built by members of the Italian family Stradivari (Stradivarius), particularly Antonio Stradivari, during the 17th and 18th centuries. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed.[1][2] The name "Stradivarius" has become a superlative often associated with excellence; to be called "the Stradivari" of any field is to be deemed the finest there is. The fame of Stradivarius instruments is widespread, appearing in numerous works of fiction.


The wood used included spruce for the top, willow for the internal blocks and linings, and maple for the back, ribs, and neck. There has been conjecture that this wood was treated with several types of minerals, including potassium borate (borax), sodium and potassium silicate, and vernice bianca, a varnish composed of gum arabic, honey, and egg white. Stradivari made his instruments using an inner form, unlike the French copyists, such as Vuillaume, who employed an outer form. It is clear from the number of forms throughout his career that he experimented with some of the dimensions of his instruments.[3]

A comparative study published in PLOS ONE in 2008[4] found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins; instead the survey of several modern and classical examples of violins highlighted a notable distinction when comparing density differentials. These results suggest that differences in density differentials in the material may have played a significant role in the sound production of classical violins. A later survey, focused on comparing median densities in both classical and modern violin examples, questioned the role available materials may have played in sound production differences, though it made no comment on variations in density differentials.[5]

Market value

Antonio Stradivari violin of 1703 on exhibit, behind glass, at the Musikinstrumentenmuseum (Berlin Musical Instrument Museum), 2006

A Stradivarius made in the 1680s, or during Stradivari's "Long Pattern" period from 1690 to 1700, could be worth hundreds of thousands to several million U.S. dollars at today's prices. The 1697 "Molitor"[6] Stradivarius, once rumored to have belonged to Napoleon (it did belong to a general in his army, Count Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor), sold in 2010 at Tarisio Auctions to violinist Anne Akiko Meyers for $3,600,000, at the time a world record.[7][8]

Depending on condition, instruments made during Stradivari's "golden period" from 1700 to about 1725[9] can be worth millions of dollars. In 2011, his "Lady Blunt" violin from 1721, which is in pristine condition, was sold in London for $15.9 million (it is named after Lord Byron's granddaughter Lady Anne Blunt, who owned it for 30 years). It was sold by the Nippon Music Foundation in aid of the Japanese earthquake and tsunami appeal.[10] In Spring 2014 the "Macdonald" viola was put up for auction through the musical instrument auction house Ingles & Hayday in conjunction with Sotheby's via silent auction with a minimum bid of $45 million.[11] The auction failed to reach its minimum bid by 25 June 2014,[12] and the viola was not sold.

Vice magazine reported in May 2013 that "in recent years, Stradivarius investment funds have started to appear, pushing already astronomical prices even higher".[13]

Stradivarius instruments are at risk of theft. However, stolen instruments are often recovered, even after being missing for many years. They are difficult to sell illicitly as dealers will typically call the police if approached by a seller with a Stradivarius known to have been stolen.[14] In recent years, the General Kyd Stradivarius was stolen in 2004. It was returned three weeks later by a woman who 'found it' and handed it over to the police.[15][16][17] The Sinsheimer/Iselin was stolen in Hanover, Germany in 2008 and recovered in 2009.[18] the Lipinski Stradivarius was stolen in an armed robbery on 27 January 2014[19] and subsequently recovered.[20] The Ames Stradivarius was stolen in 1981 and recovered in 2015.[14]

However a number of stolen instruments remain missing, such as the Davidoff-Morini, stolen in 1995,[21] the Le Maurien, stolen in 2002[22] and the Karpilowsky, stolen in 1953.[23]

Comparisons in sound quality

Above all, these instruments are famous for the quality of sound they produce. However, the many blind experiments from 1817[24][25] to the present (as of 2014[1][26]) have never found any difference in sound between Stradivari's violins and high-quality violins in comparable style of other makers and periods, nor has acoustic analysis.[27][28] In a particularly famous test on a BBC Radio 3 programme in 1977, the violinists Isaac Stern and Pinchas Zukerman and the violin expert and dealer Charles Beare tried to distinguish between the "Chaconne" Stradivarius, a 1739 Guarneri del Gesú, an 1846 Vuillaume, and a 1976 British violin played behind a screen by a professional soloist. The two violinists were allowed to play all the instruments first. None of the listeners identified more than two of the four instruments. Two of the listeners identified the 20th-century violin as the Stradivarius.[29] Violinists and others have criticized these tests on various grounds such as that they are not double-blind (in most cases), the judges are often not experts, and the sounds of violins are hard to evaluate objectively and reproducibly.[28][30]

In a test in 2009, the British violinist Matthew Trusler played his 1711 Stradivarius, said to be worth two million U.S. dollars, and four modern violins made by the Swiss violin-maker Michael Rhonheimer. One of Rhonheimer's violins, made with wood that the Empa (Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology) researcher Francis Schwarze had treated with fungi, received 90 of the 180 votes for the best tone, while the Stradivarius came in second with just 39 votes. The majority (113) of the listeners misidentified the winning violin as the Stradivarius.[31][32][33]

In a double-blind test in 2012[34][35] published in the study "Player preferences among new and old violins",[26] expert players could not distinguish old from new instruments by playing them for a short time in a small room.[36] In an additional test, performed in a concert hall, one of the Stradivarius violins placed first, but one of the participants stated that "the audience in the concert hall were essentially equivocal on which instruments were better in each of the pair-wise instrument comparisons" and "I could tell slight differences in the instruments...but overall they were all great. None of them sounded substantially weaker than the others" [34]

While many world-class soloists play violins by Antonio Stradivari, there are notable exceptions. For example, Christian Tetzlaff formerly played "a quite famous Strad", but switched to a violin made in 2002 by Stefan-Peter Greiner. He states that the listener cannot tell that his instrument is modern, and he regards it as excellent for Bach and better than a Stradivarius for "the big Romantic and 20th-century concertos."[37]

Theories and reproduction attempts

Nonetheless, some maintain that the very best Stradivari have unique superiorities.[38] Various attempts at explaining these supposed qualities have been undertaken, most results being unsuccessful or inconclusive. Over the centuries, numerous theories have been presented – and debunked – including an assertion that the wood was salvaged from old cathedrals. Dendrochronology, or tree-ring dating, has proved this false.

A more modern theory attributes tree growth during a time of global cold temperatures during the Little Ice Age associated with unusually low solar activity of the Maunder Minimum, circa 1645 to 1750, during which cooler temperatures throughout Europe are believed to have caused stunted and slowed tree growth, resulting in unusually dense wood.[39] Further evidence for this "Little Ice Age theory" comes from a simple examination of the dense growth rings in the wood used in Stradivari's instruments.[40] Two researchers – University of Tennessee tree-ring scientist Henri Grissino-Mayer and Lloyd Burckle, a Columbia University climatologist – published their conclusions supporting the theory on increased wood density in the journal Dendrochronologia.[41]

In 2008, Dutch researchers announced further evidence that wood density caused the claimed high quality of these instruments. After examining the violins with X-rays, the researchers found that these violins all have extremely consistent density, with relatively low variation in the apparent growth patterns of the trees that produced this wood.[4]

Yet another possible explanation is that the wood originated in and was harvested from the forests of northern Croatia.[42] This maple wood is known for its extreme density resulting from the slow growth caused by harsh Croatian winters. Croatian wood was a commodity traded by Venetian merchants of the era, and is used today by local luthiers and craftsfolk for musical instruments.

Some research points to wood preservatives used in that day as contributing to the resonant qualities. Joseph Nagyvary[43][44] reveals that he has always held the belief that there are a wide range of chemicals that will improve the violin's sound. In a 2009 study co-authored with Drs. Renald Guillemette and Clifford Spiegelman, Nagyvary managed to get hold of shavings from a Stradivarius violin and examined them: burning small amounts to find their chemical composition showed that the wood shavings contained "borax, fluorides, chromium and iron salts."[45] He also found that the wood had decayed a little, to the extent that the filter plates in the pores between the wood's component tracheids had rotted away, perhaps while the wood was stored in or under water in the Venice lagoon before Stradivarius used it.

Dr. Steven Sirr, a radiologist, worked with researchers to perform a CT scan of a Stradivari known as the "Betts." Data regarding the differing densities of woods used were then used to create a reproduction instrument.[46]

Violins bearing the Stradivari label

While only about 650 original Stradivari instruments (harps, guitars, violas, cellos, violins) survive today, thousands of violins have been made in tribute to Stradivari, copying his model and bearing labels that read "Stradivarius" on them. However, the presence of a Stradivarius label in a violin has no bearing on whether the instrument is a genuine work of Stradivari himself.[47]

All the Year Round: A Weekly Journal by Charles Dickens (April 24, 1880) p. 521 refers to "a singular narrative concerning a Mongol living just beyond the Great Wall of China, and possessing a rare old Stradivarius violin." The title of the article is: "Who was Prester John?"

Stradivari instruments


  1. 1 2 Belluck, Pam (April 7, 2014). "A Strad? Violinists Can't Tell". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  2. Christopher Joyce (2012). "Double-Blind Violin Test: Can You Pick The Strad?". NPR. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
  3. The Violin Forms of Antonio Stradivari by Stewart Pollens, Biddulph (1992) ISBN 0-9520109-0-9.
  4. 1 2 Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M (2008). Grama, Ananth, ed. "A Comparison of Wood Density between Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins". PLoS ONE. 3 (7): e2554. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002554. PMC 2438473Freely accessible. PMID 18596937. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
  5. Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins, Stoel, Borman, DeJohng. October 10, 2012
  6. " violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1697 (Molitor)". 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-17.
  7. Jeanne Claire van Ryzin (2010). "Austin violinist Anne Akiko Meyers buys rare Stradivarius for record-setting $3.6 million". Austin360. Retrieved 2010-10-17.
  8. "Tarisio, October 2010 (New York) – Lot 467". Tarisio. 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-17.
  9. Hart, George (1875). The violin: its famous makers and their imitators. London: Dulau. pp. 130, 135. Retrieved 2011-08-05.
  10. Yoree Koh (June 21, 2011). "Stradivarius Nets $16M for Japan Quake Relief". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-06-29.
  12. Business Week: "The World's Most Expensive Instrument Just Got Slightly Cheaper"
  13. Justin Rohrlich (May 9, 2014). "The $5 Million Violin and the Telltale Taser: Inside an Epically Stupid Crime". Vice magazine.
  14. 1 2 Nuckols, Ben (6 August 2015). "Roman Totenberg: Violinist who claimed rival musician stole his Stradivarius is vindicated three years after his death". The Independent. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  15. "Rare cello escapes CD rack fate". BBC News. 15 May 2004. Retrieved 2008-02-09.
  16. Kevin Roderick (18 May 2004). "Cello returned with damage". LA Observed. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
  17. "Cello by Antonio Stradivari, 1684 (General Kyd; ex-Leo Stern)". Retrieved 2008-02-09.
  18. "Violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1721 (Sinsheimer; Iselin)". Retrieved 2009-03-12.
  19. Colleen Henry (2014-01-28). "Multi-million dollar violin stolen from Milwaukee Symphony performer". WISN News. Retrieved 2014-01-28.
  20. Ashley Luthern (2014-02-06). "Stolen Stradivarius violin found in suitcase in Milwaukee attic". Milwaukee Wisconsin Journal Sentinel. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
  21. "Theft Notices & Recoveries". FBI Art Theft Program. Archived from the original on 2007-04-02. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
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  23. "Violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1712 (Karpilowsky)".
  24. A guitar-like violin made by the naval engineer François Chanot, a member of a family of luthiers. A committee of scientists and musicians, listening to the violins played in an adjacent room, judged Chanot's violin to be at least as good as the Stradivarius, but apparently Chanot's instruments quickly lost their good qualities. Fétis, François-Joseph (1868). Biographie Universelle des Musiciens et Bibliographie Générale de la Musique, Tome 1 (Second ed.). Paris: Firmin Didot Frères, Fils, et Cie. p. 249. Retrieved 2011-07-21.
  25. Dubourg, George (1852). The Violin: Some Account of That Leading Instrument and its Most Eminent Professors... (Fourth ed.). London: Robert Cocks and Co. pp. 356–357. Retrieved 2011-07-21.
  26. 1 2 Fritz, Claudia; Joseph Curtin; Jacques Poitevineau; Palmer Morrel-Samuels; Fan-Chia Tao (3 January 2012). "Player preferences among new and old violin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109. doi:10.1073/pnas.1114999109.
  27. Beamen, John (2000). The Violin Explained: Components, Mechanism, and Sound. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-19-816739-3. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
  28. 1 2 Coggins, Alan (Feb 2007). "Blind Listening Tests". The Strad: 52–55. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  29. Marchese, John (2008). The Violin Maker: A Search for the Secrets of Craftsmanship, Sound, and Stradivari. Harper Perennial. pp. 133–134. ISBN 978-0-06-001268-7.
  31. "Fungus-Treated Violin Outdoes Stradivarius". Science Daily. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
  32. Analysis of the treated wood revealed a reduction in density, accompanied by relatively little change in the speed of sound. According to this analysis, treatment improves the sound radiation ratio to the level of cold-climate wood considered to have superior resonance
  33. Francis W. M. R. Schwarze, Melanie Spycher and Siegfried Fink (24 April 2008). "Superior wood for violins – wood decay fungi as a substitute for cold climate". Wiley Interscience. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
  34. 1 2 "Violinists can't tell the difference between Stradivarius violins and new ones". Retrieved January 3, 2012.
  35. "Double-Blind Violin Test: Can You Pick The Strad?". Retrieved January 3, 2012.
  36. Nicholas Wade (January 2, 2012). "In Classic vs. Modern Violins, Beauty Is in Ear of the Beholder". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2012. [Carlyss] likened the test to trying to compare a Ford and a Ferrari in a Walmart parking lot.
  37. Norris, Geoffrey (2005-02-10). "Debunking the Stradivarius Myth". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
  38. Inskeep, Steve; Hoffman, Miles (2004-06-24). "The Sweet Sound of a Stradivarius". National Public Radio (U.S.). Retrieved 2009-01-23.
  39. Associated Press (8 December 2003). "Cool weather may be Stradivarius' secret". CNN. Archived from the original on 2007-05-13. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
  40. John Pickrell (7 January 2004). "Did "Little Ice Age" Create Stradivarius Violins' Famous Tone?". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
  41. Rachelle Oblack (10 March 2008). "10 Non-Military Historical Events Drastically Changed by the Weather". Retrieved 2008-06-11.
  42. Hill, W.H.; Hill, A.F.; Hill, A.E. (1963). Antonio Stradivari: His Life and Work. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20425-1. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
  43. Paul Marks (29 November 2006). "Why do Stradivari's violins sound sublime?". NewScientist. Accessed 2008-05-25.
  44. Charles Choi (10 June 2002). "Secrets of the Stradivarius: An Interview with Joseph Nagyvary". Scientific American. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
  45. Texas A&M University. "Secrets Of Stradivarius' Unique Violin Sound Revealed, Professor Says", Science Daily 25 January 2009.
  46. RSNA (28 November 2011). "Researchers Use CT to Recreate Stradivarius Violin". Retrieved 2011-11-28.
  47. Stradivarius Violins – Encyclopedia Smithsonian. Retrieved 26 June 2013.

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