Stadium diplomacy

Stadium diplomacy is a form of cultural diplomacy practiced by the People's Republic of China through building and donating stadiums and sports facilities in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and the South Pacific.[1]

The construction of stadiums is financed depending on the project with some given as gifts; paid for through low interest, concessional loans; built in partnership with both China and the host nation taking on different construction responsibilities; or through some other kind of partnership.[2]


The following includes overseas stadiums and sports facilities built by China and donated as gifts or financed in association with the host country.[2] Stadiums built by Chinese construction firms but without Chinese government financing assistance are not listed.




Latin America

South Pacific


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  6. "Chinese contractor finishes building Cape Verde's national stadium in October 2013".
  7. "Chinese foreign minister arrives Bangui". AfricaNews. 5 January 2007.
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  11. "Kasarani spruced up as military rehearses handover". Capital News. April 2, 2013.
  12. 1 2 "David V. Goliath: Mauritius facing up to China" (PDF). African Economic Research Consortium. January 2008.
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  14. 1 2 "Reference List of Recent Major Urban Public Infrastructure Projects". China National Corporation for Overseas Economic Cooperation.
  15. "China Donated Project of Reparation of SEYNI KOUNTCHE Stadium in Niger". China Geo-Engineering Corporation International Ltd.
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  17. "Flashback to terror". The Independent. 29 March 2006.
  18. "Leopold Senghor Stadium in Dakar, Senegal". Xinhua/Tai Jianqiu.
  19. "China hands over national swimming pool to Seychelles ahead of Indian Ocean Island Games". Xinhua. July 9, 2011.
  20. "Chinese structures endure in Mogadishu, Somalia". CCTV. 2012-06-28.
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  25. "Laos Stumbles on Path to Sporting Glory". New York Times. 2009-10-06.
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  27. 1 2 "Dashrath Stadium Renovation". Xinhua. Dec 7, 2012.
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  32. Explore Barbados. Manatee Press. 2000. p. 102.
  33. 1 2 Douglas, Sean (October 29, 2007). "Thousands join in the opening of the Windsor Park stadium".
  34. 1 2 3 "World Cup gaffe". Jamaica Gleaner. February 5, 2007.
  35. "Chinese lament waste of money on Sligoville mini-stadium". Jamaica Observer. May 19, 2013.
  36. "George Odlum National Stadium". St. Lucia News. August 28, 2013.
  37. "Southern Hospitality?". The Voice. 24 November 2009.
  38. "St. Lucia Country Specific Information". US State Department.
  39. Tjon Sie Fat, Paul B. (2009). Chinese New Migrants in Suriname. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789056295981.
  40. 1 2 "Costa Rica's 35,000-seat National Stadium opens". Tico Times. March 25, 2011.
  41. "FSM-China dedicates multi-purpose gym". Government of the Federated States of Micronesia.
  42. "Facilities". Fiji Sports Council.
  43. "Foundations laid for Kiribati sports complex". Radio Australia. 28 November 2002.
  44. "China Pulls Out of Kiribati, Taiwan Moves In". Pacific Islands Report. April 15, 2004.
  45. "Kiribati Rises to the Occasion to Host Outstanding Development Visit". ITTF News. 2007-09-24.
  46. Gare, Cyril. "Graffiti goes on stadium". Mamose Post.
  47. "China-Samoa The Fruitful Economic and Trade Cooperation". Ministry of Commerce.
  48. "15,000 Stadium Open for Games". The Fiji Times. July 26, 2007.
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