Social Studies (Carla Bley album)

Social Studies
Studio album by Carla Bley
Released 1981
Recorded September–December 1980
Genre Jazz
Length 41:16
Label Watt/ECM
Producer Carla Bley
Carla Bley chronology
Musique Mecanique
Social Studies

Social Studies is an album by American composer, bandleader and keyboardist Carla Bley recorded in 1980 and released on the Watt/ECM label in 1981.[1][2]


The Allmusic review by Alex Henderson awarded the album 4½ stars and stated "Bley's risk-taking serves her quite well on Social Studies, an unorthodox and adventurous pearl that is as rewarding as it is cerebral".[3] The Penguin Guide to Jazz awarded the album 3 stars stating "Social Studies shouldn't be missed: a bookish cover masks some wonderfully wry music".[4]

Professional ratings
Review scores
Penguin Guide to Jazz[4]
The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide[5]

Track listing

All compositions by Carla Bley except as indicated
  1. "Reactionary Tango (In Three Parts)" (Carla Bley, Steve Swallow) - 12:54
  2. "Copyright Royalties" - 6:45
  3. "Útviklingssang" - 6:31
  4. "Valse Sinistre" - 4:56
  5. "Floater" - 5:56
  6. "Walking Batteriewoman" - 4:24
  • Recorded at Grog Kill Studio, Willow, New York in September–December 1980.



  1. Discogs album entry accessed August 3, 2010
  2. ECM/WATT discography accessed August 25, 2016
  3. 1 2 Henderson, A. Allmusic Review accessed August 3, 2010
  4. 1 2 Cook, Richard; Brian Morton (2008) [1992]. The Penguin Guide to Jazz Recordings. The Penguin Guide to Jazz (9th ed.). New York: Penguin. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-14-103401-0.
  5. Swenson, J. (Editor) (1985). The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide. USA: Random House/Rolling Stone. p. 26. ISBN 0-394-72643-X.
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