Shikoku dialect

Shikoku Japanese
Native to Japan
Region Shikoku
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog shik1243[1]

Shikoku dialect area. Orange: Kyoto-type pitch accent. Yellow: Kyushu-type.

The Shikoku dialects (四国方言 Shikoku hōgen) are a group of the Japanese dialects spoken in Shikoku Island.

The Shikoku dialects are:

The Shikoku dialect has many similarities to Chūgoku dialect in grammar. Shikoku dialect uses ken for "because", and -yoru in progressive aspect and -toru or -choru in the perfect. Some people in Kōchi Prefecture use kin, kini, or ki instead of ken, - (Hata) or - (Tosa) instead of -yoru, and -chō (Hata) or -chū (Tosa) instead of -choru.

The largest difference between Shikoku dialect and Chūgoku dialect is in pitch accent. Except southwestern Ehime and Eastern Kochi (yellow area on the right map), many dialects in Shikoku uses Kyoto-Osaka-type accent or its variations and are similar to Kansai dialect, but Chūgoku dialect uses a Tokyo-type accent.


  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Shikoku". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
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