LuxSE: SESG |
|Headquarters||Château de Betzdorf, Betzdorf, Luxembourg|
|Romain Bausch (Chairman), Karim Michel Sabbagh (President and CEO)|
|Products||Communications satellites and services|
|Revenue||€2.015 billion (2015)|
|€894.6 million (2015)|
|Profit||€544.9 million (2015)|
|Total assets||€9.952 billion (end 2014)|
|Total equity||€3.490 billion (including non-controlling interests, end 2014)|
Number of employees
|1,237 (full-time equivalent, end 2014)|
SES S.A. is a communications satellite owner and operator based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg. The company's stock is listed on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange and Euronext Paris with ticker symbol SESG and is a component of the LuxX, CAC Next 20, and Euronext 100 stock market indexes.
The company was founded in 1985 as Société Européenne des Satellites (SES). It renamed itself SES Global in 2001, reverting to SES in 2006.
SES operates a fleet of more than 50 active and occasional use geostationary communications satellites with names including AMC, Astra, Ciel, NSS, Quetzsat, YahSat and SES, providing broadcast TV and radio channels and satellite communication services to businesses and government agencies worldwide.
Business and Services
(67% of revenue)
Video and TV distribution is SES' first and foremost activity, accounting for 70% of the business. With 53 active satellites in geostationary orbit in 37 orbital locations, providing 1,502 active transponders (1,086 in use), SES has the world’s leading video platform, delivering TV and radio signals direct to homes, and via cable and IPTV. As well as distribution SES also provides technical services to broadcasters such as content management, playout, encryption and interactive services, in particular through the MX1 (was SES Platform Services) division.
SES has been a major player in the development of the direct-to-home market in Europe and the cable TV and DBS markets in the U.S. SES satellites transmit a variety of formats from radio to High Definition TV, (HDTV) in MPEG-2 and MPEG-4, and in Europe SES has been instrumental in defining HDTV standards with the HD ready TV specification and label. In the U.S., SES provides cable-feed services and HD-PRIME, the U.S.' largest satellite-based HD channel platform.
(15% of revenue)
SES provides high-throughput data distribution infrastructures to meet the increasing needs for capacity in sectors such as telecommunications, oil and gas, banking, transportation, health, and education. In both geostationary orbit and medium earth orbit (through its investment in O3b), SES offers satellite and integrated connectivity services worldwide.
SES supplies the SES Broadband (previously ASTRA2Connect) satellite-based, broadband internet access for users in remote locations where terrestrial broadband services are not available.
(3% of revenue)
SES is a major actor in maritime and aeronautical connectivity, using the high-bandwidth, global coverage of the SES and O3b satellite fleets to provide media content, technology and connectivity solutions to the travel industry. Maritime users at sea across the globe benefit from high-speed internet connectivity for web browsing, VoIP telephone, email, etc. SES satellites are also used to fulfil the growing popularity of connectivity in the aeronautical industry, such as on-board fast broadband access and high-quality in-flight entertainment.
(13% of revenue)
SES is active in the Hosted payload market, selling space on planned and under-construction satellites to governments and institutions to provide globally redundant and secure networks for end-to-end solutions in security, defence, and information-gathering as well as for humanitarian purposes such as natural disaster response. SES has a history of providing satellite capacity to U.S. Government customers for the delivery of video, internet, voice and data, with clients including the Army, Navy, Air Force, NASA, Coast Guard, Department of State, and the National Park Service, and continues to build on this relationship with new long-term contracts such as the Army WIN-T network.
For Europe, SES' Astra 5B and SES-5 satellites incorporate European geostationary navigation overlay system EGNOS payloads, a supplementary network to the Galileo navigation system. and in a unique partnership, SES and the Luxembourg Government have jointly established LuxGovSat to design, commission, and launch a satellite to provide mission critical secure communications for individual European Governments and NATO.
SES has pioneered many industry technological developments, including DTH transmission, co-location of satellites, free-to-air broadcast neighbourhoods, digital broadcasting, HDTV and 3DTV. SES has also helped develop innovative reception technology such as the first home dish LNBFs, Universal LNBs, optical fibre signal distribution and the SAT>IP system for receiving and distributing satellite signals over home computer networks.
SES is currently pioneering the broadcast of next generation Ultra High Definition TV (UHD) and helping to establish the international technical standards for UHD broadcast and reception. SES first produced demonstration UHD broadcasts in 2012 and transmitted the first HEVC-standard UHD TV in 2013. A continuous SES UHD demonstration channel is broadcast to Europe from SES’ Astra 19.2°E satellite position and Europe's first free-to-air Ultra HD channel launched in September 2015, broadcast via Astra 19.2°E. As of April 2016, SES broadcasts 23 Ultra HD channels, of which 15 are commercial operations.
SES-8 was the first geostationary satellite to be launched (in 2013) by privately funded company, SpaceX, which has revolutionised the costs of satellite launches. The SES-10 satellite, due to be launched in October 2016 on a Falcon 9 rocket, will be the first SpaceX launch with a 'flight-proven' (reused) Falcon first stage, recovered from a previous launch. The SES-12, SES-14 and SES-15 satellites (due for launch in 2017) are being constructed with an electric plasma propulsion system for orbit raising and in-orbit manoeuvres to save weight and enable a larger communications payload to be included. SES reckons that SES-12 would weigh some 4700 kg more with a conventional chemical propulsion system.
SES' satellites are positioned in more than 30 orbital 'slots' around the World. SES claims that its satellites can reach 99% of the World’s population and (as of end 2015) they carry 7,268 TV channels, including 2,230 High Definition TV channels. The number of channels broadcast by region is as follows:
|Region||Total TV Channels||HDTV Channels|
|Satellite service companies||
SES is managed by the Executive Committee, responsible for running the day-to-day operations as well as for preparing the decisions of the Board of Directors. This was put in place in May 2011 to consolidate the then subsidiary companies, SES Astra and SES World Skies under a new "streamlined" management structure. The SES Executive Committee comprises:
- Karim Michel Sabbagh – President and CEO
- Padraig McCarthy – Chief Financial Officer
- Martin Halliwell – Chief Technology Officer
- Ferdinand Kayser – Chief Commercial Officer
- Christophe De Hauwer – Chief Development Officer
SES was formed on the initiative and support of the Luxembourg Government in 1985 as Société Européenne des Satellites (SES). The Luxembourg State remains a major shareholder. In 1988, as Europe’s first private satellite operator, SES launched its first satellite, Astra 1A, to the 19.2° east orbital position. Rupert Murdoch’s Sky TV, along with German broadcasters Pro7, Sat.1, and RTL were among Astra’s first major customers.
By 1990, Astra was broadcasting to 14 million cable and DTH viewers. SES was the pioneer of ‘co-location’ by which several satellites share the same orbital position to provide mutual backup and increase the number of channels available to a fixed receiving dish, creating what became known as a 'satellite neighbourhood'. Astra's prime slot, 19.2° east, saw as many as eight satellites sharing the position simultaneously and helped to build up Astra’s reputation for reliability.
Rapid growth in Germany, in what would become Astra’s largest European market, was helped by the German government’s decision to liberalize the installation of dishes in 1991. In this time SES became the leading satellite system providing direct-to-home transmission, and became the world’s largest satellite platform for TV distribution.
In 1996, after the launch of Astra 1E, SES pioneered digital satellite transmission with the French Canal+. In 1998, SES launched Astra 2A for the UK market, transmitting at the new orbital position 28.2° east, and eventually moving all of its UK and Ireland transmission capacity to this orbital slot.
In the same year, SES went public on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange trading as SESG (in 2005 SES would also list on the Paris Euronext).
From 1999 SES began a period of ambitious global expansion beyond its European home market. Geographic expansion went hand-in-hand with the diversification of SES’ services beyond just TV broadcasting, to cover telecommunication services for businesses, telecommunications companies and government customers, as well as broadband access and technical consultancy services.
In 1999, SES acquired a 34.13% stake in Hong Kong-based satellite operator AsiaSat and took a foothold in Asia and the Pacific region. A year later, SES acquired 50% of Scandinavian satellite broadcaster Nordic Satellite AB (NSAB), later renamed SES Sirius, which strengthened SES’ coverage in northern and eastern Europe. The same year, SES also took a participation of 19.99% in Brazilian satellite operator Star One, gaining a first presence in Latin America.
In 2001, SES bought 28.75% of Argentina’s Nahuelsat and acquired GE Americom, giving it a solid presence in the important North American market. This resulted in the formation of SES Global, a corporate entity with two operating companies, SES Astra and SES Americom. Altogether, SES operated a fleet of 41 geostationary satellites, the largest in the world in 2001.
Further acquisitions followed. In 2003 SES’ stake in NSAB was increased to 75% and in 2005 SES acquired a participation in Canadian satellite operator Ciel and in Mexico’s Quetzsat, as well as the divestment from Nahuelsat.
SES acquired services provider, Digital Playout Centre GmbH (later Astra Platform Services, then SES Platform Services, now MX1 ) in 2005. and in 2006 SES also acquired ND SatCom, a German provider of government services, developing a services portfolio beyond just bandwidth provision.
Also in 2006, SES acquired New Skies Satellites, later renamed SES New Skies, adding six satellites to the SES fleet and strengthening coverage in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.
In 2008, SES increased its stake in NSAB to 90%. and merged its two international operating units, SES Americom and SES New Skies into a new segment which was branded SES World Skies in September 2009.
In 2009, SES and Middle East satellite operator Yahsat announced the formation of a joint venture, YahLive, to commercialise 23 Ku-band transponders on Yahsat 1A, serving the Middle East, North Africa and South-West Asia with direct-to-home TV services. Also in 2009, SES announced its investment in O3b Networks a project to build a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellite constellation to deliver high-speed, low-latency, fibre-like internet broadband trunking to the world's emerging regions ("the Other 3 billion").
In 2010, SES grew its stake in SES Sirius to 100% and closed the acquisition of the in-orbit satellite Protostar-2/Indostar-2, renaming it SES-7 and integrating it into its fleet covering India and South East Asia.
In May and September 2011, SES restructured and rebranded the company to streamline the organisation’s activities under a single management team and one main brand (SES), incorporating the company’s two previous operating entities, SES Astra and SES World Skies.
In February 2012, SES-4 was successfully launched to become SES' 50th satellite and the largest, heaviest and most powerful in the fleet. In July 2012, SES-5, the 51st SES Satellite was launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan to 5°E with 36 Ku-band transponders to provide coverage over Sub-Saharan Africa and the Nordic and the Baltic regions in Europe, and 28 C-band transponders for Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
In September 2012, Astra 2F was successfully launched from Kourou in French Guiana, the first of three "next generation" satellites at the second Astra orbital position at 28.2°E. The satellite has Ku-band coverage of all Europe, the British Isles and sub-Saharan Africa for DTH television, and Ka-band coverage of Central Europe for the SES Broadband satellite internet service.
SES-6 was launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on 3 June 2013 to 40.5°E, to replace NSS-806 and provide continuity of service and expansion capacity in C-band for Latin America and the Caribbean. The satellite has 43 C-band and 48 Ku-band transponders with comprehensive coverage of North America, Latin America, Europe and the Atlantic Ocean.
Astra 2E was launched to the Astra 28.2°E position from Baikonur in Kazakhstan on 30 September 2013 to provide free-to-air and encrypted DTH digital TV and satellite broadband services for Europe and the Middle East. The successful launch followed a 10-week delay due to the postponement of all launches by launch services provider ILS after a catastrophic failure of the rocket in a previous launch.
In March 2014, Astra 5B was launched as SES' 56th satellite to the Astra 31.5°E position from Kourou in French Guiana to provide transponder capacity and extend geographical reach over Central and Eastern Europe, Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States for DTH, direct-to-cable and contribution feeds to digital terrestrial television networks.
In April 2014, Romain Bausch stepped down as President and CEO of SES, a position he had held since 1995 overseeing the growth of the company from a European Direct-to-home satellite system with four satellites into a global satellite industry leader operating a fleet of more than 50 satellites. Bausch continues to serve SES as a non-executive Director, and is elected to take the role of Chairman at the start of 2015. He was succeeded as CEO by Karim Michel Sabbagh.
In July 2014 SES announced that nearly half of the SES satellite fleet is controlled from the new satellite operations center (SOC) opened at its sales and engineering offices in Princeton, New Jersey. 23 satellites are controlled from Princeton with the remainder operated from SES’s global headquarters in Luxembourg.
Astra 2G, the final "next generation" satellite for the Astra 28.2°E orbital position was launched from the Baikonur in December 2014 to deliver broadcast, VSAT and broadband services to Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and to connect West Africa to Europe via Ka-band.
On January 13, 2015, SES announced that it plans to procure and launch a satellite in partnership with the Luxembourg Government, to be called GovSat-1. Jointly owned, the satellite will be launched in 2017 to an orbital position above Europe and provide governmental and military communications in the X-band and Ka-band with coverage of Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia-Pacific.
In February 2016, it was announced that, subject to regulatory approvals, subsidiary, SES Platform Services would purchase RR Media, a global digital media services provider to the broadcast and media industries, based in Israel. In July 2016, SES announced that the acquisition was complete and that the merged company would be known as MX1.
In March 2016, the SES-9 satellite was successfully launched by a Falcon 9 full thrust rocket from Cape Canaveral after four previous attempts on February 24, 2016, February 25, 2016, February 28, 2016, and March 1, 2016 - all aborted due to weather and launcher problems. The satellite used electric propulsion to reach geostationary orbit and will be positioned at 108.2°E to provide 81 Ku-band transponder equivalents for pay-TV, data and mobility across North east and South Asia, and Indonesia.
In April 2016, SES announced that (subject to regulatory approvals which are expected to be completed by the end of 2016) it will pay $US20 million to increase its fully diluted ownership of O3b from 49.1% to 50.5%, taking a controlling share in the company. In May 2016, SES said it would raise another $710 million to purchase 100% of O3b Networks, exercising a call option with O3b minority shareholders and eliminating the possibility of an O3b stock offering, and then subsequently announced the completion of the capital raising.
In May 2016, Modern Times Group, owner of the Viasat DTH platform announced that the Viasat Ultra HD channel would launch in the autumn on the SES-5 satellite at 5°E, as the first UHD channel for the Nordic region and the first UHD Sports channel in the World. The channel will feature selected live sport events especially produced in Ultra HD and Viasat will also be launching an Ultra HD set-top box from Samsung and a TV-module to enable existing UHD TVs to display the channel. SES claimed the launch of Viasat Ultra HD will bring the number of UHD channels (including test channels and regional versions) carried on SES satellites to 24, or 46% of all UHD channels broadcast via satellite worldwide.
The following active satellites are owned and operated by SES
|AMC fleet (launched 1996-2008)|
|Astra fleet (launched 2006-2014)|
|Satellite||Astra 1KR||Astra 1L||Astra 1M||Astra 1N||Astra 2B||Astra 2E||Astra 2F||Astra 2G||Astra 3B||Astra 4A||Astra 5B|
|NSS fleet (launched 1994-2009)|
|SES fleet (launched 2009-2016)|
Future satellite launches
|Satellite name||Launch date||Orbital position||Frequency bands||Coverage area||Launcher||Launch site|
|SES-10||January 2017||67°W||Ku||Latin America||Falcon 9||Cape Canaveral|
|SES-11||Early 2017||105°W||Ku and C||North America, Latin America and the Caribbean||Falcon 9||Cape Canaveral|
|SES-12||H2, 2017||95°E||Ku and Ka||South Asia, Asia-Pacific||Ariane 5||Kourou|
|SES-14||H2, 2017||47.5°W||C, Ku and Ka||North America, South America||Falcon 9||Cape Canaveral|
|SES-15||H1, 2017||129°W||Ku and Ka||North America||Ariane 5||Kourou|
|SES-16/GovSat-1||Q3, 2017||21.5°E||X and Ka||Europe, Middle East, Africa||Falcon 9||Cape Canaveral|
|SES-17||2020||Ka||Americas, Caribbean, Atlantic Ocean|
SES, and its subsidiary companies has teleports across the world, including:
- Alexandria, Virginia, USA
- Betzdorf, Luxembourg
- Bristow, Virginia, USA
- Emek HaEla, Israel
- Hawley, Pennsylvania, USA
- Herzliya, Israel
- Manassas, Virginia, USA
- Re'em, Israel
- South Mountain, California, USA
- Sunset Beach, Hawaii
- Tel Aviv, Israel
- Unterföhring, Germany,
- Woodbine, Maryland, USA
SES Government Solutions operates Earth stations at the following US Government locations:
- New Boston
- Thule, Greenland
In September 2016, SES announced that it would build a new teleport on the Isle of Man to provide satellite telemetry, tracking and command, and capacity management, as well as uplink, downlink, and contribution services, and is expected to enter into service in 2017.
- Astra (satellite)
- SES World Skies
- SES Americom
- SES Sirius
- SES Broadband
- SES Platform Services
- EchoStar Mobile
- SES S.A. "Full Year 2015 Results" (PDF). Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- SES S.A. "SES Annual Report 2014". Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- SES S.A. "Fleet and Coverage". Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES Accessed December 31, 2015
- SES Global Connections via Satellite. (September, 2011). Company brochure
- SES S.A. "What we do". Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- SES S.A. (30 October 2015). "SES YTD and Q3 2015 Results". Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- ASTRA2Connect provides a broadband connection wherever you live ASTRA2Connect website. Retrieved 24 September 2011
- "Orbital ATK" (PDF). Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- High Above – The untold story of Astra, Europe’s leading satellite company Broadgate Publications April 2010
- Robert Briel. "Astra confirms 3D demo channel launch". Broadband TV News. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- "SES WORLD SKIES To Host Extensive 3D TV Tests". Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- "SES to pioneer first Ultra HD transmission in new standard at SES Industry Days" (Press release). SES. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "4KTV via satellite". SES.com. SES. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "EUROPE'S FIRST FREE-TO-AIR ULTRA HD CHANNEL TO BROADCAST ON ASTRA 19.2 DEGREES EAST" (Press release). SES. 20 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- SES has 23 Ultra HD channels April 29, 2016 Broadband TV News. Accessed May 30, 2016
- Beyond Frontiers Broadgate Publications (September 2016) pp12
- Creating Space - The Satellite Revolution SES white paper. March 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2015
- SpaceX to launch SES-10 on previously flown Falcon 9 this year Space News. August 30, 2016. Accessed August 30, 2016
- "SES ENTRUSTS ARIANESPACE WITH SES-12 SATELLITE LAUNCH SCHEDULED FOR Q4 2017" (Press release). SES. January 22, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- www.lyngsat.com Accessed January 29, 2016
- Joseph O'Halloran HDTV, emerging markets drive SES TV channel growth to outpace industry Rapid TV News January 13, 2016. Accessed January 28, 2016
- Veronica Magan SES TV Channels Grow by 11.3 Percent in 2015 Satellite Today January 13, 2016. Accessed December 1, 2016
- Companies and participations SES website. Accessed July 27, 2016
- "SES OPERATES UNDER NEW MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE" (Press release). SES. 2 May 2011.
- Management SES Website. Accessed December 5, 2015
- "Romain Bausch consacré "Satellite Executive of the Year"" (in French). Paperjam.lu. 5 February 2002. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- "SES GROUP PROFIT UP 21.4 % IN 2000" (Press release). SES. 19 March 2001. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "More Than Space Allows". Cable & Satellite Europe. December 2001. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- "SES GLOBAL Increases Stake In NSAB To 75%". Business Wire. 15 December 2003. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- "SES ASTRA increases shareholding in ND SatCom to 100%" (Press release). ND Satcom. 24 May 2006.
- "SES Completes New Skies Acquisition" (PDF). Space Business Review. March 2006. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "AsiaSat Announces New Major Shareholder GE" (PDF) (Press release). AsiaSat. 2 April 2007.
- "SES Increases Ownership In SES SIRIUS To 90 Percent" (Press release). SES. 31 January 2008.
- "SES re-brands international divisions". Rapidtvnews.com. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- "SES ASTRA AND YAHSAT START MIDDLE EAST SATELLITE COMPANY" (Press release). SES Astra. 20 April 2009.
- "SES offers cash to back internet satellite project". Financial Times. 31 January 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
- "SES ASTRA TAKES FULL OWNERSHIP OF SES SIRIUS" (Press release). SES. 5 March 2010.
- "ProtoStar II Acquisition Closed Satellite to Be Integrated into SES WORLD SKIES' Satellite Fleet as SES-7". EuroInvestor. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- "New logo and brand identity presented at IBC in Amsterdam" (Press release). SES. 9 September 2011.
- "ASTRA 1N ROARS INTO SPACE ON BOARD ARIANE 5" (Press release). SES. 7 August 2011.
- QuetzSat-1 successfully launched – ILS, QuetzSat-1 successfully launched at Baikonur cosmodrome, ILS – 29 September 2011.
- "50th SES SPACECRAFT IN ORBIT AFTER SUCCESSFUL ILS PROTON LAUNCH" (Press release). SES. 15 February 2012.
- "SES-5 TO PROVIDE FRESH SATELLITE CAPACITY IN MULTIPLE FREQUENCY BANDS TO EUROPE, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST" (Press release). SES. 10 July 2012.
- "SES SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHES ASTRA 2F SATELLITE" (Press release). SES. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "SES-6 SATELLITE LAUNCHED SUCCESSFULLY WITH LARGE BRAZILIAN ANCHOR CUSTOMER" (Press release). SES. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "ASTRA 2E successfully launched" (Press release). SES. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Russia Halts Proton Rocket Launches After Explosive Crash Space.com. 2 July 2013. Accessed 30 September 2013
- "LAUNCH SUCCESS FOR SES-8 SATELLITE ON BOARD SPACEX/FALCON 9" (Press release). SES. December 3, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "SES: ASTRA 5B SATELLITE LAUNCH SUCCESS ON ARIANE 5" (Press release). SES ASTRA. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "SES ANNOUNCES BOARD APPOINTMENTS" (Press release). SES. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "SES UNVEILS NEW SATELLITE OPERATIONS CENTER" (Press release). SES. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "ASTRA 2G SATELLITE ROARS INTO ORBIT" (Press release). SES. November 28, 2014. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- "SES AND LUXEMBOURG GOVERNMENT PLAN TO LAUNCH SATELLITE IN LATE 2017" (Press release). SES. January 13, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "RR Media to Merge with SES Platform Services" (Press release). RR Media. February 26, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- "SES ANNOUNCES SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF MERGER OF RR MEDIA WITH SES PLATFORM SERVICES" (Press release). SES. July 6, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- SpaceX to Try Rocket Landing During Satellite Launch Friday: Watch Live Space.Com. March 1, 2016. Accessed March 30, 2016
- SES-9 Mission Space-X. February 24, 2016. Accessed March 30, 2016
- "SES to take control of O3b Networks" (Press release). SES ASTRA. April 29, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- SES exercises option to buy 100% of O3b Networks, will raise new equity May 26, 2016 Space News. Accessed May 30, 2016
- "SES COMPLETES EUR 908.8 MILLION CAPITAL RAISING TO FUND MOVE TO 100% OF O3B NETWORKS AND ACCELERATION OF COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL SYNERGIES" (Press release). SES. May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- MTG launches first Nordic UHD channel Advanced Television May 13, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2016
- "SES TO TRANSMIT FIRST ULTRA HD CHANNEL IN THE NORDICS AT 5 DEGREES EAST" (Press release). SES. May 13, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- SES Upcoming Launches www.ses.com. Accessed December 1, 2016
- Clark, Stephen (November 29, 2016). "Spaceflight Now — Launch schedule". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
- SES to build teleport on Isle of Man Advanced Television September 9, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016
- Official SES website
- Astra consumer website
- SES Ultra HD website
- SpaceX Falcon 9 SES-9 Mission Briefing, Martin Halliwell, Chief Technology Officer, 23 February 2016. Includes strategic and technical outlook.
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