S-200 (missile)

S-200 Dubna
SA-5 Gammon

S-200 missile (Vega) on its launcher
Type Strategic SAM system
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1967-present
Used by See list of present and former operator
Production history
Designer Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence[1]
Designed early 1950s
Variants S-200, S-200V (S-200VE), S-200D (S-200DE), S-200A

semi-active radar homing

The NPO Almaz S-200 Angara/Vega/Dubna (Russian Ангара\Вега\Дубна), NATO reporting name SA-5 Gammon, is a very long range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system designed in the 1960s to defend large areas from bomber attack or other strategic aircraft. Each battalion has 6 single-rail missile launchers for the 10.8 m (35 ft) long missiles and a fire control radar. It can be linked to other, longer-range radar systems.


Two-stage V-400 (5V11) Angara missile of the «Dal» SAM system in Saint-Petersburg Artillery museum.

The S-200 surface-to-air missile system was designed for the defense of the most important administrative, industrial and military installations from all types of air attack. S-200 provides defeat of modern and advanced aircraft, including air command and control centers, AWACS aircraft, aircraft jamming creation and other manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The S-200 is an all-weather system that can be operated in various climatic conditions.[2]

By 1966, the S-200 was officially accepted into service in order to replace the failed anti-ballistic missile RZ-25/5V11 "Dal". The Dal was assigned the NATO reporting name SA-5 "Griffon" before it was cancelled.

The first S-200 operational regiments were deployed in 1966 with 18 sites and 342 launchers in service by the end of the year. By 1968 there were 40 sites, and by 1969 there were 60 sites. The growth in numbers then gradually increased throughout the 1970s (1100 launchers)[3] and early 1980s until the peak of 130[1] sites and 2030 launchers was reached in 1980-1990.[3]


Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1967-present
Used by See list of operators
Production history
Designer Petr Grushin design bureau
Variants 5V21, 5V28, 5V28V
Specifications (5V28V[1])
Weight 7,100 kg (15,700 lb)
Length 10.8 m (35 ft)
Warhead Frag-HE
Warhead weight 217 kg (478 lb)
proximity and command fuzing[4]

Propellant dual-thrust liquid-fueled rocket motor
300 kilometres (190 mi)
Flight altitude 40,000 metres (130,000 ft)
Boost time 4 solid-fueled strap-on rocket boosters
Speed 2,500 m/s (5,600 mph)
semi-active radar homing seeker head

Each missile is launched by 4 solid-fueled strap-on rocket boosters. After they burn out and drop away (between 3 and 5.1 seconds from launch) it fires a 5D67 liquid fueled sustainer rocket engine (for 51–150 seconds) which burns a fuel called TG-02 Samin (50% xylidine and 50% triethylamine), oxidized by an agent called AK-27P Melange (fuming nitric acid enriched with nitrogen oxides, phosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid).[5] Maximum range is between 150 km (81 nmi) and 300 km (160 nmi), depending on the model.[6] The missile uses radio illumination mid-course correction to fly towards the target with a terminal semi-active radar homing phase. Maximum target speed is around Mach 4. Effective altitude is 300 m (980 ft) to 20,000 m (66,000 ft) for early models and up to 35,000 m (115,000 ft) for later models. The warhead is either 217 kg (478 lb) high-explosive fragmentation (16,000 × 2 g fragmentation pellets and 21,000 × 3.5 g pellets) triggered by radar proximity fuse or command signal, or a 25 kt nuclear warhead triggered by command signal only. Each missile weighs around 7,108 kg (15,670 lb) at takeoff.[6]

The system utilises radio semi active guidance throughout the missile's flight, which is far more accurate at long range than the command guidance method used by the earlier S-75 Dvina and other missiles. The existence of an optional terminal passive radar homing mode for use against AEW aircraft remains unconfirmed. Peak missile speed is around Mach 8 and the single-shot kill probability is quoted as 0.85, presumably against a high altitude bomber-type target.

Main radar system

The fire control radar of the S-200 system is the 5N62 (NATO: Square Pair) CW H band radar, whose range is 270 km (170 mi). It is used for both the tracking of targets and their illumination.

Additional radar systems


Command post S - 300 (SA-20/SA-20A/SA-20B) can manage in any combination the elements of S - 200 and S-300.[10][11] Missiles complex S - 200 Dubna can be controlled command post system S - 300,[11] command post S - 300 may also be controlled[12] by the command post S - 400 (S - 200 Dubna still have in service)[9] Or through a higher-level command post (Organize Use PVO 73N6 "Baikal-1").[13]

Iranian air defense force has implemented several improvements on their S-200 systems such as using solid state parts and removing restrictions on working time. They destroyed a UAV target beyond 100 km range in military drill in recent years.[14] They use two new solid propellant missile named Sayyad-2 and Sayyad-3 via interface systems Talash-2 and Talash-3 in cooperation with S-200 system. These missiles can cover medium and long ranges at high altitudes.[15][16]

َAlso Iran claims to have developed a mobile launcher for the system.[17]

Operational history


Syrian Army Constructed New S-200 site at Kweires airport, near Aleppo in July 2016.[18] On 12 September 2016, Israel Defense Forces confirmed that two Syrian S-200 missiles were fired at Israeli attack planes while they were on a mission inside the Syrian airspace. Syrian Defense Ministry claimed to have shot down an Israeli jet and drone, according to IDF spokesman's office the claims are "total lies" and "at no point was the safety of IDF aircraft compromised". [19]


Map of S-200 operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators

Former operators

Incidents involving the S-200

See also


Wikimedia Commons has media related to S-200.
  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 "Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence S-200 Angara/Vega (SA-5 'Gammon') low to high-altitude surface-to-air missile system". Jane's Information Group. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "C-200". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  3. 1 2 http://pvo.guns.ru/s200/index.htm#10
  4. "S-200 SA-5 GAMMON". 1998-07-03. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
  5. http://www.uni-ulm.de/~s_mlomni/S-200/komplex/rakete/marschtriebwerk.html
  6. 1 2 http://www.uni-ulm.de/~s_mlomni/S-200/komplex/rakete/rakete.html
  7. 1 2 http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/missile/wobb/c200/c200.shtml
  8. 1 2 "RusArmy.com - -200". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  9. 1 2 3 "-200". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  10. "Средства управления 83М6Е2 - ОАО "НПО «Алмаз"". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  11. 1 2 "-300 836". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  12. "ГСКБ Концерна ПВО Алмаз-Антей имени академика А.А. Расплетина (ОАО НИЭМИ) : с-25 беркут, бункин борис васильевич, с 300 пму, с-300 пму, зрс, с-400 триумф, средства пво, четырёхсотка, противовоздушная оборона.". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  13. "736 "-1"". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  14. http://www.mashreghnews.ir/fa/news/99367
  15. http://www.mashreghnews.ir/fa/news/316229/
  16. http://www.mashreghnews.ir/fa/news/363390
  17. "Iran upgrades S-200 long-range air defence system.". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  18. https://en.zamanalwsl.net/news/17079.html
  19. http://edition.cnn.com/2016/09/13/middleeast/syria-israel-warplane-denial/
  20. The Military Balance 2010. — P. 123.
  21. The Military Balance 2010. — P. 253.
  22. "Анализ состояния ПВО и ВВС Ирана". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  23. "Lenta.ru: Наука и техника: КНДР усилила противовоздушную оборону Пхеньяна". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  24. "N. Korea boosts anti-aircraft missiles to defend Pyongyang: source". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  25. "Romanian Armed Forces". European Defense Information. Armed Forces.co.uk. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  26. "/ /  : ?". 26 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  27. Administrator. "ПВО Сирии против авиации НАТО: возможные сценарии - Военный Обозреватель". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  28. The Military Balance 2010. — P. 273.
  29. "The Military Balance - IISS". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  30. The International Institute For Strategic Studies IISS The Military Balance 2012. — Nuffield Press, 2012. — С. 349 с.
  31. http://syria.liveuamap.com/en/2016/29-july-sa5-air-defense-site-active-again-at-kweires-ab-in
  32. World Missile Directory, FLIGHT international, 1985
  33. Ukrainian military portal(Ukrainian)
  34. "After 9 Days, Ukraine Says Its Missile Hit A Russian Jet".
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