|мыхӀабишды чӀел myxʼabišdy č̣el|
|Native to||Russia, Azerbaijan|
|Region||Southern Dagestan, Russian–Azerbaijani border|
30,000 in Russia (2010 census)|
17,000 in Azerbaijan (no date)
Official language in
Rutul in the Caucasus
Rutul is a language spoken by the Rutuls, an ethnic group living in Dagestan (Russia) and some parts of Azerbaijan. It is spoken by 30,000 people in Dagestan (2010 census) and 17,000 (no date) in Azerbaijan. The word Rutul derives from the name of a Dagestani village where speakers of this language make up the majority.
Rutul was not a written language until the writing system for it (based on Cyrillic) was developed in 1990. A Latin alphabet was developed in 2013 based on the Shin-Shorsu dialect. Speakers are often bilingual or multilingual, having a good command of the Azeri, Lezgian and/or Russian languages. There are 8 dialects and 2 subdialects of Rutul. The literary version of the language remains in the process of development. In the Rutul-populated regions of southern Russia, Rutul is taught in primary schools (grades 1 to 4).
Among the languages of the Lezgic group, Tsakhur appears to be the closest relative of Rutul. Other than these two, there are seven more languages in the Lezgic group, namely: Lezgian, Tabasaran, Aghul, Budukh, Kryts, Udi and Archi.
- Rutul at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Rutul language at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Rutul". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года
- (Russian) ETHEO: Rutul Language
- Published in: Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages. Edited by Christopher Moseley. London & New York: Routledge, 2007. 211–280.
- UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger
- Clarkson, Jonathan; Iurkova, Elena (December 2015). "Important Factors in the Development of an Orthography: Shin-Shorsu Rutul—a Case Study". SIL Forum for Language Fieldwork 2015-002. SIL International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015. Retrieved 2016-06-22.
- (Russian) The Tsakhur language. The ETHEO Project. Last updated 11 October 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2006
|Rutul language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Rutul dictionary online (select simple or advanced browsing)
- Appendix:Cyrillic script
- Folk Songs and Dances of the Rutuls of Azerbaijan
- Rutul basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database (3 Rutul dialects: Mukhad, Ixrek, Luchek)