Royal Malaysia Police

Royal Malaysia Police
Polis Diraja Malaysia
Abbreviation RMP/PDRM

Logo of the Royal Malaysia Police

Flag of the Royal Malaysia Police
Motto "Polis dan Masyarakat, Berpisah Tiada"
Police and The Community, Will not Separate
Agency overview
Formed 25 March 1807
Preceding agencies
Volunteers Sukarelawan Simpanan Polis Diraja Malaysia
Sukarelawan Siswa Polis Diraja Malaysia
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
National agency
(Operations jurisdiction)

329, 847 km
127, 355 sq mi

Population = 30, 543, 632
Legal jurisdiction National
Governing body Government of Malaysia
General nature
Operational structure
Headquarters Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur
Sworn members 112,583
Elected officer responsible Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, Minister of Home Affairs
Agency executive Tan Sri Khalid Abu Bakar, Inspector-General of Police
Parent agency Ministry of Home Affairs
Child agencies
  • Management Department
  • Logistic Department
  • Criminal Investigation Department
  • Commercial Crimes Investigation Department
  • Narcotics Crimes Investigation Department
  • Special Branch
Police stations 1,000
Police cars Proton Waja, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X, Mitsubishi Lancer 2.0 GTS, Proton Inspira, and many others.
Police boats Marine Alutech Watercat M14

The Royal Malaysia Police (often abbreviated RMP) (Malay: Polis Diraja Malaysia (PDRM)), is a (primarily) uniformed federal police force in Malaysia. The force is a centralised organisation with responsibilities ranging from traffic control to intelligence gathering. Its headquarters are located at Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur. The police force is led by an Inspector-General of Police (IGP) who, as of March 2016, was Tan Sri Khalid Abu Bakar.

The constitution, control, employment, recruitment, funding, discipline, duties and powers of the police force are specified and governed by the Police Act 1967. In carrying out its responsibilities, the regular RMP is also assisted by a support group of Extra Police Constables, Police Volunteer Reserves, Auxiliary Police, Police Cadets and a civilian service element.

Rakan Cop is a community outreach programme launched on 9 August 2005. The RMP constantly co-operates closely with police forces worldwide, including from those six neighbouring countries Malaysia shares a border with: Indonesian National Police,[1] Philippine National Police,[2] Royal Brunei Police Force,[3] Royal Thai Police,[4] Singapore Police Force[5] and Vietnam People's Public Security.[6][7]


The Royal Malaysia Police headquarters at Bukit Aman in Kuala Lumpur.

A police force has been in existence in Malaysia since the days of the Malacca Sultanate. Malacca's canonical law created what was essentially a police force in Malaysia in the fifteenth century, through the institution of the Temenggung and Hulubalang, or royal warriors. During the Sultan of Malacca's absence, the Bendahara, or Prime Minister, held absolute authority, with the power to hand out sentences, but it was the Temenggung who acted as the Police Chief or Inspector General of Police. His tasks were to arrest criminals, build jails and implement sentences. Apart from the Temenggung, there were a number of Penghulu or village chiefs who had the duty of policing their respective villages. Their main tasks included tax collection, law enforcement and preserving village security. These Malacca police systems ended when, on 10 August 1511, a Portuguese fleet led by Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca for the Portuguese crown. Police duties were then largely performed by the Portuguese soldiers.

During the sixteenth century, Malaysia became a cosmopolitan society and the Portuguese government introduced the Kapitan administration. On 14 January 1641, however, the Portuguese lost Malacca to the Dutch Empire, when the Dutch invaded with the help of soldiers from Johor state, at a time when the Portuguese were at war with the Sultanate of Acheh. The Dutch retained the Kapitan system, but when the growing number of Europeans in Malaysia made change necessary, a police force known as the 'Burgher Guard' was established. The Burgher Guard was controlled by the Dutch, but their subordinates were made up of the local citizens. Village leaders continued to assume the duties of policemen under Dutch rule, as they had since before the Portuguese arrived.

Following the assimilation of Malacca into the British Empire in 1795, a modern police organisation in Malaysia was formed, on 25 March 1807, after the Charter of Justice in Penang was granted. Most of the officers were of British origin. Later, this organisation was developed in the Straits Settlements and other Malay states, particularly the Federated Malay States. At that time, independent police forces were established for each respective state. Only after World War II was a central police organisation formed, known as the Civil Affairs Police Force. This organisation was formed in Malaya and led by a British colonial, H.B. Longworthy, who had to stabilise the police forces after the anarchy of Japanese occupation. One of the immediate problems faced by the police at this time was the rebellion of the communist party. During the confrontation between Malaysia and Indonesia, which lasted from 1963 to 1965, the police force, along with military forces, fought against the infiltration of Indonesian forces into the states of Johor and Sabah.

Almost a year after Independence Day, on 24 July 1958, the King of Malaysia, Tuanku Abdul Rahman Ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhamad, bestowed the title Royal to the Malayan Federations Police Force. In 1963, the Royal Federation of Malayan Police (RFMP), the North Borneo Armed Constabulary and the Sarawak Constabulary were merged to form the Royal Malaysia Police. The Singapore Police Force became a component unit of the RMP until Singapore's independence in 1965.


Policemen during a parade displaying uniforms worn by the Special Constable police force in the past.

The flag and insignia of the Royal Malaysia Police has a blue coloured background which symbolises the Malaysian masses. In the centre of the flag is the PDRM symbol coloured silver or white. The police symbol is made up of an intersected Kris and Ilang / Klewang machete. Above the PDRM symbol, there is a tiger head garlanded by "Paddy Garland" and under it, is a scroll with the words: "Polis Diraja Malaysia". Arabic lettering in the Crown includes the words Allah on the right and Muhammad on the left.

Moon and star

The Moon and Star symbolise Islam as the official religion of Malaysia.


The crown, depicted on the Royal Malaysia Police insignia, is a panegyric reference to the King of Malaysia, bestowing the "Royal" title to its name. The words Allah and Muhammad in Arabic, which respectively symbolise Allah the Almighty and Muhammad as the Messenger, signifies Islam as the official religion and faith of RMP personnel, who are willing to uphold justice and the security of the people of Malaysia.

Kris and the Ilang sword

The Kris is an important symbol of the Malay Peninsular. This particular weapon was used by Malay warriors in the past. According to Frey (2003), who concluded from Sir Stamford Raffles' (1817) study of the Candi Sukuh, the kris came into existence around AD 1361. Others believe that early forms were inspired by the daggers of the Dong-Son in Vietnam (circa 300 BC). In the temples of Borobudur (825 CE) and Prambanan (850CE), renderings of the Kris have been found.

The traditional machete, Ilang or Klewang symbolises the states of Sarawak and Sabah in East Malaysia and it represents the spirit of heroism of a multitude of ethnic tribes such as the Dayak, Dusun, Bajau and Kadazan.

Tiger head

The tiger head symbolises courage, strength and spirits of RMP. Previously, RMP used a lion head as the symbol of courage from 16 September 1963, after the formation of Malaysia, until 15 May 1994, when it was replaced with the tiger head by an official order of Malaysian government. The former lion head also symbolised the states of Singapore (until 1965) and Sabah.

Paddy flower

Paddy flower is a reference to paddy and rice, the staple food for Malaysians and it signifies national prosperity.


The RMP motto represents team spirit and determination.

Sang Saka Biru

The PDRM flag is called the Blue Perennial or Sang Saka Biru; each colour has its own distinctive meaning and the flag symbolises the force's pride and integrity.

Police pledge

Section 3 (3) Police Act 1967 stipulates that the duties of the Royal Malaysia Police personnel are as follows:

  1. Apprehending all persons whom he is by law authorised to apprehend;
  2. Processing security intelligence;
  3. Conducting prosecutions;
  4. Giving assistance in the carrying out of any law relating to revenue, excise, sanitation, quarantine, immigration and registration;
  5. Giving assistance in the preservation of order in the ports, harbours and airports of Malaysia, and in enforcing maritime and port regulations;
  6. Executing summonses, subpoenas, warrants, commitments and other process lawfully issued by any competent authority;
  7. Exhibiting information;
  8. Protecting unclaimed and lost property and finding the owners thereof;
  9. Seizing stray animals and placing them in a public pound;
  10. Giving assistance in the protection of life and property;
  11. Protecting public property from loss or injury;
  12. Attending the criminal courts and, if specially ordered, the civil courts, and keeping order therein; and
  13. Escorting and guarding prisoners and other persons in the custody of the police.

Modern day

Part of Bukit Aman's police facilities, as seen towards the northwest from Dataran Merdeka, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

RMP organisational structure

Apart from the two departments involved in the administration: Management Department and Logistics Department. The RMP have six departments involved in crime prevention: Criminal Investigation Division, Narcotics Criminal Investigation Division, Internal Security and Public Order Department, Special Branch, Commercial Crime Investigation Department and Traffic Enforcement and Investigation Department. All departments are led by the directors with the rank of Commissioner of Police (Army Equivalent rank of Three Stars General or Lieutenant-General)

Police heads

Inspector-General of PoliceInspector-General of PoliceIGP Tan Sri Dato' Sri Khalid Bin Abu Bakar
Deputy Inspector-General of PoliceDeputy Inspector-General of PoliceDIG Dato' Sri Noor Rashid Bin Ibrahim
Perlis Police ChiefSenior Assistant CommissionerSAC Shafie Bin Ismail
Kedah Police ChiefCommissioner of PoliceCP Dato' Zamri Bin Yahya
Penang Police ChiefDeputy Commissioner of PoliceDCP Dato' Ghaffar Bin Rajab
Perak Police ChiefCommissioner of PoliceCP Dato' Wira Abdul Rahim Bin Haji Hanafi
Kelantan Police ChiefDeputy Commissioner of PoliceDCP Dato' Mazlan Bin Lazim
Terengganu Police ChiefDeputy Commissioner of PoliceDCP Dato' Rosli Bin Ab. Rahman
Pahang Police ChiefCommissioner of PoliceCP Dato' Sri Sharifuddin Bin Abd Ghani
Kuala Lumpur Police ChiefCommissioner of PoliceCP Dato' Amar Singh S/O Ishar Singh
Selangor Police ChiefCommissioner of PoliceCP Dato' Abdul Samah Bin Mat
Negeri Sembilan Police ChiefDeputy Commissioner of PoliceDCP Dato' Jaafar Bin Mohd Yusof
Malacca Police ChiefDeputy Commissioner of PoliceDCP Dato' Ramli Bin Din
Johore Police ChiefCommissioner of PoliceCP Dato' Wan Ahmad Najmuddin Bin Mohd
Police Commissioner of SabahCommissioner of PoliceCP Dato' Abdul Rashid Bin Harun
Police Commissioner of SarawakCommissioner of PoliceCP Dato' Mazlan Bin Mansor

Staff departments

Management DepartmentMDCP Dato' Sri Zulkifli Bin Abdullah
Strategic Resources & Technology DepartmentLDCP Dato' Fatimah Binte Ghazali
Criminal Investigation DepartmentCIDCP Dato' Sri Mohmad Bin Salleh
Narcotics Criminal Investigation DepartmentNCIDCP Dato' Sri Mohd Mokhtar Bin Haji Mohd Shariff
Commercial Crimes Investigation DepartmentCCIDCP Dato' Sri Mortadza Bin Nazarene
Special BranchSBCP Dato' Sri Mohamad Fuzi Bin Harun
Crime Prevention and Community Safety DepartmentCPCSDCP Dato' Acryl Sani Bin Haji Abdullah Sani
Internal Security and Public Order DepartmentISPODCP Dato' Sri Muhammad Sabtu Bin Osman
Integrity and Standards Compliance DepartmentISCDCP Dato' Jalaluddin Bin Abdul Rahman
Traffic Enforcement and Investigation DepartmentTEIDSAC Dato' Mahamad Akhir Bin Darus

Management Department

The Management Department is tasked with the routine of management and administration affairs of the RMP. This department is also the nerve centre of the RMP and acts as the support services platform for the rest of the force.

  1. Service / Designation – Includes: Recruitment, Service Records Administration, Confirmations, Promotions, Transfers, Salaries & Allowances Administration and Retirements.
  2. General Administration And Policy – Includes: General Administration, Research & Development, Civil Affairs, Welfare, Sports And PERKEP (Persatuan Keluarga Polis or Police's Family Association, generally social activities for the families of the policemen)
  3. Training – Includes: Basic Course, Development Courses, Further Studies and Rehabilitation Courses.
  4. Discipline – Includes: Monitoring of Terms Of Reference / Filtering, Investigations / Action / Counseling.
  1. Administration
  2. Welfare
  3. Training
  4. Research & Development
  5. Services / Designation
  6. Public Affairs
  7. Public Relations
  8. Intake
  9. Ceremonies
  10. Camp Commandant
  11. BAKA
  12. RMP Sports Council

Logistics Department

The Logistics Department provides equipment needed in the RMP.

  1. Operate operating budget and RMP's development
  2. Plan, manage, operate and maintain communications, information technology, transport and weaponry
  3. Manage projects and maintain buildings and properties
  4. Manage turnover and supply of general equipment
  5. Manage RMP's assets
  1. Naziran's Branch / Administration
  2. Communications Branch
  3. Information Technology Branch
  4. Transport Branch
  5. Finance Branch
  6. Technical Turnover
  7. Weaponry Branch
  8. General Turnover
  9. Part of the Building
  10. Disposal / Stock / Verification / Write-off

Criminal Investigation Division

The Royal Malaysia Police UNIMOG police trucks.

This department deals with the investigation, arrest and prosecution of hard crimes (murder, robbery, rape etc.) and petty crimes (theft, house-breaking etc.). This department also specialises in gambling, vice and secret societies (triads).

  1. Investigations and Detective Duties
  2. Arrests and Prosecutions
  3. Enforcement of laws related to gambling, vice and secret societies

The Criminal Investigation Division is headed by a Commissioner of Police (CP). It also runs Unit Tindakan Cepat.

Narcotics Criminal Investigation Division

Recruits of Royal Malaysia Police with senior police officers in a shooting course, armed with MP5 sub-machineguns at PULAPOL Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

This department's function is to fight against dangerous drugs by enforcing the law to stop and reduce the demand and supply of dangerous drugs.

  1. Enforce drug abuse and drug trafficking
  2. Collect, study, assess and spread drug-related information
  3. Investigate distributors activities and drug trafficking syndicates
  4. Fight drug smuggling activities including chemicals used to process drugs
  5. Implement prevention of drug abuse programmes
  6. Exchange data/information with domestic and international agencies
  7. Keep records and statistics related to drug distribution and other drug-related matters
  8. Surveillance activity for former drug offenders or members formerly associated with drug trafficking syndicates
  9. Provide training locally/overseas for officers / members of narcotics department
  10. Attend the meetings, seminars related to drugs, locally/oveseas
  1. Special Investigation Divisions
  2. Coordinator Part / International-relations
  3. Administrative Divisions
  4. Detention Divisions
  5. Estate Stripping
  6. Interrogate
  7. Expert / Technical Assistance
  8. Record / Statistics
  9. Registration
  10. Logistics Divisions
  11. Airport Customs Staff

Narcotics Criminal Investigation Division lead by Police Commissioner (CP).

Internal Security and Public Order Department (KDN / KA)

Female traffic police officers during Independence Day.

This department is tasked with the maintenance of public security and order. It is responsible for traffic control and search & rescue (SAR) operations. In this role, this department cooperates with other agencies, such as the Malaysian Armed Forces and Army / Navy Maritime Patrol to prevent piracy and to secure the national borders. In addition, it assists the Transport Ministry and the Public Enterprises Ministry in the enforcement of the Traffic Act.

The main branches under this department are:

General Operations Force

Members of the Senoi Praaq in 1953

The Police Field Force (PFF) organised in battalions, was once the para-military units of the Royal Malaysia Police. The force, which was also known as the Jungle Squad (Pasukan Polis Hutan (PPH) in Malay) was tasked to operate in the jungle fringes in counter-insurgency roles during the Malayan Emergency, Indonesia–Malaysia confrontations and later Communist guerrilla insurgencies along the Malaysian-Thai border and in the jungles of Sabah and Sarawak. When the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and Clandestine Communist Organisation (CCO) finally gave up their armed struggle in 1989 and 1990, PFF lost its role. It was reorganised as the General Operations Force (GOF). The GOF has 19 battalions and the 19th Special Battalion is tasked to provide VIP security.

When established in the year 1948, the PFF had 19 battalions of which two battalions were made up of indigenous people. These battalions were known as Senoi Praaq Battalions. One battalion was a Special Security Battalion.

Policemen during a parade displaying the uniforms and equipment of Jungle Squad units in former times.

The 19 battalions are organised into 5 brigades, each headed by a Superintendent of Police. The North Brigade and Sabah Brigade have 4 battalions each, the Central Brigade has 5 battalions, and South-East Brigade and Sarawak Brigade have 3 battalions each.

It all began in the year 1948, when Malayan Communist Party murdered 3 European farmers at Sungai Siput, Perak and also murdered the 3 leaders of Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party).Sir Edward Gent declared an emergency on 7 July 1948 in all Malaya Federations, starting with Perak on 16 June 1948 and Johore on 19 June 1948. To deal with rebellion and to hunt down the Communist terrorists in the jungle, a military based team was formed in 1948 and it was named the Flying Squad and later renamed as Jungle Squad, with their main mission to fight against the Communists. The first Jungle Squad unit was established at Sik, Kedah in 1949. Training centres were opened in Sungai Buluh, Selangor and in Dusun Tua, Hulu Langat, Selangor which was known as Field Force Special Training Centre (SLPPH). In 1964, SLPPH was transferred to Kroh, Perak then changed to Kentonmen, Ulu Kinta, Perak. After being renamed the General Operations Force or Pasukan Gerakan Am in 1997, SLPPH is now known as Sekolah Latihan Pasukan Gerakan Am (General Operations Force Training Centre, SLPGA).

So far, there are two Senoi Praaq battalions specialising in search and rescue operations. After VAT 69 was absorbed into Pasukan Gerakan Khas, along with anti-terrorist police force and Special Action Unit (UTK – Unit Tindakan Khas), a special platoon of PGA, Tiger Platoon was established.

Police Counter–Terrorism Units

When the seeming threat of global terrorism started to increase after the incident of 11 September in United States, followed up by several series of bombings in Bali and Jakarta, Indonesia and in Malaysia, the RMP has formed 2 anti-terrorism corps. These two elite forces are known as Pasukan Gerakan Khas (PGK) and Unit Gempur Marin (UNGERIN).

Pasukan Gerakan Khas
Main article: Pasukan Gerakan Khas
Police counter-terrorist force Pasukan Gerakan Khas during Close Quarters Combat drill at a 'killing house' in Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur.

Pasukan Gerakan Khas is a major elite force in the Royal Malaysia Police, which is composed of VAT 69 and Special Actions Unit (UTK). This team was first merged in 1997 and became known as the Maroon Berets. However, this integration did not last and in 2003 it was separated. The VAT 69 changed to the Sandy Brown Berets, honoured by British 22nd Special Air Service (SAS). However, both units serve under the Pasukan Gerakan Khas and are under the command of a Senior Assistant Commissioner II.

This special counter-terrorism police team is also involved in some operations within Malaysia, including military operations with Malaysian Army 22nd Commando Regiment Grup Gerak Khas against the Al-Ma'unah organisation formed in Bukit Jenalik, Sauk, Perak. This team also served under the United Nations in Timor Leste and in the search and rescue operation of 700 officers and members of Indonesian National Police BRIMOB (Brigade Mobil) that were lost and trapped during the tsunami incident in Aceh, Indonesia at the end of 2005. This team also cooperated with Criminal Investigation Division to fight against dangerous crimes, among where the PGK successfully tracked down the notorious 'Gang M16' which comprised several ethnic Chinese criminals, including the group leader who was an ex-serviceman of Singapore, and the leader Gang 13 (Mat Komando), as well as other operations. The motto of VAT 69 is WARISAN DARAH PERWIRA (Literal meaning: INHERITANCE OF THE BLOOD OF WARRIORS), while for the UTK it is TANGKAS BANTERAS GANAS (Literal meaning: QUICK TO OVERCOME TERROR).

Main article: UNGERIN
An UNGERIN anti-terror-police on the Community Policing show on 23 May 2009, at the Muar in Johore, Malaysia.

Unit Gempur Marin (UNGERIN) (Marine Combat Unit) was established in 2006 and it was fully operational by the end of 2007 with the first name as the Unit Selam Tempur due to the pressing need to suppress the pirate attacks alongside the coastal area of Malacca Straits and open sea area of South China Sea which were continuously widespread from time to time despite various efforts done to overcome the problem. The members received special training from the United States after realising the need to form a special unit to secure the national waters and riverine fronts from any untoward incidents. This unit is placed under formation Marine Police Branch which is based in the Marine Police Base at Kampung Aceh, Sitiawan, Perak and Lahad Datu, Sabah. It has a big role in handling threats from pirates, robbery, kidnapping and hijacking of ships and terrorist attacks in national waters. The 30 members of UNGERIN are trained by instructors from US Navy SEALs and US Coast Guard in Langkawi and Kota Kinabalu and are armed with special weaponry, such as Glock 19, MP5 and Colt M4A1 (possibly supported by the United States) and utilise maritime anti-terrorist tactics employed by the units of United States Navy commandos. For the unit's restructuring, the name of UST was changed to Unit Gempur Marin or UNGERIN in the year 2008.[8] Its eventual goal is to have 200 operators on standby with UNGERIN.[9]

In the first phase, the 30-personnel strong special force is to undergo training in Langkawi and Kota Kinabalu, by instructors from Navy SEALs. Besides the basic diving training, they will be trained with other basic training, including tactical warfare, marksmanship, sniping, bomb disposal, direct action, sabotage, counter-terrorism, and intelligence gathering and paramedic training, along with special missions which are normally handled by special forces.[10]

Federal Reserve Unit

Main article: Federal Reserve Unit
The FRU riot police units were placed at various places around Kuala Lumpur. A unit was on active duty at the National Mosque.

The Federal Reserve Unit (Malay: Pasukan Simpanan Persekutuan) is better known with the abbreviation FRU. Their role is riot suppression, crowd control, disaster relief & rescue, as well as special operations assistance. Established on 5 December 1955, it consisted of only 3 troops then. The FRU played a role in resolving some high-profile riots, including the racial riots of 13 May 1969 and in the combined operations to catch Ibrahim Libya in the Memali Incident of Baling, Kedah which ended with 16 deaths including Ibrahim and 3 police officers.

The FRU is directly under the Inspector-General of Police. This unit is independent and is able to be rapidly deployed.

As the premiere RMP public order unit, the FRU is designed, equipped and specially trained for duties in suppressing and dismissing riots and illegal assemblies. Aside from the stated roles above, the unit is also tasked with the following functions:

  1. Public Control – during mass public assembly, such as VIPs visitors, sports event, mass rallies and processions,
  2. To deal with pre and post “Chemical, Biological, Radiological And Nuclear" threats,
  3. Disaster Rescue assistance including floods, fires, train derailments, landslides, aircraft crashes, etc; to rescue, prevent theft, and area inclusion involved,
  4. Crime prevention in helping a District Police Chief in the area which particular experience sharp rise frequent a crime rate or crime happened, to certain term,
  5. Massive operation, such as encircle and find, heat and arrested on extremist groups or gangster elements, intensive patrol and Curfew enforcement.

The FRU is led by a Commander, and assisted by a Deputy Commander. They report to the Director of Public Order. They are aided by a few Staff Officers and known as Commanding Headquarters. FRU each in lead by one Commanding Officer. Every FRU troops in lead by one Troop Officer. FRU training centre presided by a Commandant. Per unit and FRU training centre has a membership to aid the administration and known as group headquarters unit.

FRU was awarded a pennant flags in year 1971 and further replaced in year 1997. These pennants are given by King of Malaysia as an appreciate charity service and FRU service during a unit establishment for maintain a national public order. During official ceremonies where the FRU affect as a parent body or detachment; such as Guard of Honour, Mess Night of FRU or Parade in conjunction with Police Anniversaries and FRU Anniversaries, FRU banner may be issued and am being marched by directing and IGP approval, Internal Security and Public Order Director or FRU Commander.

C4-i Implementations System

The Police Patrol personnel monitoring on the residence of VIP property. The police patrol mobile unit is a part of the C4-i Implementation System.

C4-i Implementation System (abbreviation for Command, Control, Communications, Computer-Integrated) unit is based at Police Control Centre in all police contingents in Malaysia. This unit is assigned to patrol the city and the suburbs. This unit was first established in Bukit Aman and Kuala Lumpur is the first contingent to implement this system. This unit is equipped with the CCTV system which is installed in different parts of the city and monitored by the Contingent Control Centre and each patrol car is also equipped with C4-i's system connected to a laptop. The C-4i also plays a role in forming Rakan Cops in 2006 to foster closer ties with the civilian community. Since then, the crime rates in major towns have decreased and brought about good reviews on the C4-i's and Rakan Cops implementation.

Marine Operations Force

The Marine Operations Force or Malay: Pasukan Gerakan Marin is the Marine Police division tasked with maintaining law and order and co-ordinating search and rescue operations in the Malaysian Maritime Zone and on the high seas. Its responsibility was to maintain security at the parts in Penang and the Straits of Johor. On 6 February 2009, the name of Malaysian Marine Police was changed and known as Pasukan Gerakan Marin (English: Marine Operations Force). The rename of the organisation was launched by the Minister of Home Affair, Dato' Seri Syed Hamid Albar at PULAMAR (Abbreviation of Pusat Latihan Marin or Marine Police Training Centre), Tampoi, Johor Bahru and witness by Tan Sri Musa Hassan, the Inspector General of Police and all senior police officers and the media.[11]

It operates from five regional bases around the peninsula and East Malaysia. Each of these regional bases are organised similarly to the Neighbourhood Police Centres of the land divisions, and conduct patrols within their maritime sectors. The PGM conducts round-the-clock patrols in Malaysian territorial waters from its five regional bases, in an area of more than 142, 393 km2 and 450, 233 km2 for EEZ as well as 4490 km for coastline. It is also responsible for maintaining law and order on most of Malaysia's islands. The PGM use 15 PZ class patrol boats, 33 PX class, 68 PA/PT/PC/PLC and 4 PSC/PGR/PAR class patrol boats. The branch have five main bases, 11 small bases and 24 forward bases.

Royal Malaysian Police Air Wing Unit

Royal Malaysia Police Air Wing Unit or Unit Udara PDRM (UUP) is a special unit of Royal Malaysia Police. Has a vital role in maintaining national security with thorough surveillance and patrol from the air. Established on 1 February 1979. The commander of the unit was known as Air Wing Chief initially. Started police operations with 4 Cessna CU 206G officially on 7 April 1980 with operations focused in Peninsula of Malaysia. Now, UUP owns 10 helicopters AS355 F2 and N series, 6 CE 208 Caravan, 5 Pilatus Porter PC-6, 4 Cessna 172Sp, and 5 Beechcraft KingAir 350 (KingAir 350 is an advanced aircraft with latest Proline-21 avionics system). Police Air Unit has 4 bases in Sg. Besi Base (Simpang Airport), PLUUP (Ipoh Airport), Sarawak Base (Kuching International Airport) and Sabah Base (Kota Kinabalu International Airport).

The Internal Security and Public Order Department is led by a Commissioner of Police, CP Dato' Salleh.

Special Branch

This department is responsible for collecting intelligence for national security. Its role is to collect security intelligence related to both domestic and external threats, intercept subversive activities by extremist groups and individuals which could threaten the nation's stability. Also, it is in charge of obtaining, processing, evaluating and disseminating information to other departments and organisations. This department is divided into several branches: Technical Intelligence, Social Intelligence, External Intelligence, Political Intelligence, Economic Intelligence And Security Intelligence.

The Special Branch is headed by a Commissioner of Police CP Mohd Fadhli Bin Mohd Noh G/8786

Commercial Crimes Investigation Department

This department's main function is to investigate, arrest, and prosecute offenders committing white collar crimes such as fraud, breach of trust, cyber-crimes, forgery, counterfeiting etc.

The Commercial Crimes Investigation Department is headed by a Commissioner of Police (CP).

Police uniform and equipment

General Operations Force wears dark navy blue long sleeve shirts along with their dark navy blue cargo pants tucked into military boots.

The new Police Constable uniform was introduced in 2008. The headgear is a dark navy blue beret with a silver police force emblem on top of the left eye. Dark navy blue long sleeve shirts are worn along with dark navy blue cargo pants tucked into military boots.

A personal name tag is worn on the right side together with the police shield above it while the word "Polis" ("police" in Malay) is emblazoned in the other side. A police service number is under the name tag and a rank insignia on the right arm.

The Sam Browne belt was replaced by the brand new ballistic nylon police duty belt equipped with a standard issue Walther P99 or Px4 Storm handgun, two extra 10 round magazines, a pair of Hiatt Speedcuffs, a T-baton, a pepper spray, an LED torch and a walkie-talkie. Sometimes they are equipped with a Heckler & Koch MP5 sub-machine-gun during special situations.

Traffic officers weara white helmet or dark navy blue cap while on duty, a white long sleeve shirt with a reflective yellow vest, black riding pants with a yellow stripe and riding boots. Their equipment is the same as constables except that they have a whistle in their left pocket.

Police rank

Senior Officers
Gazetted Officers Commissioners
Inspector-General of Police (IGP)
Deputy Inspector-General of Police (DIG)
Commissioner of Police (CP)
Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP)
Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police (SAC)
Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP)
Superintendents Superintendent of Police (SUPT)
Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP)
Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)
Inspector (Insp)
Probationary Inspector (P/Insp)
Rank and File Officers
Non-commissioned officers Sub-Inspector (SI)
Sergeant Major (SM)
Sergeant (Sgt)
Corporal (Cpl)
Constables Lance Corporal (L/Cpl)
Constable (PC)

Lower ranks of police officers apart from sub-inspectors wear their rank insignia on the right sleeve of their uniforms. Sub-inspectors and higher ranks wear their rank insignia on epaulettes on both shoulders.

Police fleet


Model Service Details Origin
Beretta 92 Service handguns of RMP (92Compact L / 92FS)  Italy
Browning Hi Power Service handguns of RMP  Belgium
Vektor SP1 Service handguns  South Africa
Yavuz 16 Compact Service pistol  Turkey
Glock pistols Service handguns (Model 19), PGK (Model 17/18C/26/34)  Austria
Heckler & Koch USP Service handguns (Compact 9mm), PGK (Tactical 9mm)  Germany
SIG Sauer P226 Service handguns of RMP   Switzerland
SIG Sauer SP2022 Service handguns of RMP   Switzerland
Beretta PX4 Storm New semi-auto handgun to replace obsolete .38 S&W  Italy
Smith & Wesson Model 15 Service revolver of RMP (to be retired)  United States
Walther P99[12] New service handguns of RMP  Germany
Heckler & Koch MP7 PGK  Germany
Heckler & Koch MP5 Service SMG (A2/A3/A4), PGK/UNGERIN (A5/Navy/K-A4/SD6)  Germany
Remington 870 Service Shotgun  United States
Benelli M3 Super 90 PGK  Italy
Colt M4A11 PGK/UNGERIN  United States
Colt M16A1 Standard service rifle of RMP  United States
Heckler & Koch HK416 PGK  Germany
Heckler & Koch PSG-1 PGK/UNGERIN  Germany
Accuracy International L96A1 PGK/UNGERIN  United Kingdom
Remington 700 PGK  United States
FN MAG Standard machine guns  Belgium
Heckler & Koch HK11 Standard machine guns  Germany
Heckler & Koch HK69 Standard grenade launcher  Germany
M203 Standard grenade launcher  United States

1M4 Carbine; replacing M16 rifles, the future standard issue rifles supplied by SME Ordnance[13]

Major cases and incidents

Sulu militants intrusion in Sabah

Following the Sulu militants intrusion, a military standoff commenced on 11 February 2013 and ended after conflict about 24 March 2013.[14] 235 militants, most of whom were armed,[15] arrived by boat in Lahad Datu district from Philippines territory and occupied the village of Tanduo. They were sent by Jamalul Kiram III, a claimant to the throne of the Sultanate of Sulu. His stated goal was to assert the Philippine territorial claim to eastern Sabah as part of the North Borneo dispute.[16][17][18] In response, Malaysian security forces surrounded the village. Attempts by the Malaysian and the Philippine governments to reach a peaceful solution with Kiram's supporters were unsuccessful and the standoff escalated into an armed conflict on 1 March 2013.[19][20] At the end of the standoff, around 56 militants were killed along with 6 civilians and 10 Malaysian security forces (of which 6 were Malaysian police members).[14][21] The rest of the militants were either captured or escaped back to the Philippines.[22][23]

Shooting of Aminulrasyid Amzah

A schoolboy, Aminulrasyid Amzah, was shot dead by police after allegedly trying to escape from a car accident which he was involved in. Aminulrasyid was driving his sister's car without a valid driver's licence after midnight on 3 May 2010, together with his friend, Azamuddin, who was the passenger. He had been trying to flee a number of motorcyclists who were chasing both boys after their vehicle had sideswiped a car earlier that night. After Aminulrasyid was shot, his friend Azamuddin was assaulted and beaten by the police but managed to escape. The IGP and the police have made many statements to the press saying that Aminulrasyid was trying to ram a police roadblock as well as carrying a weapon in the car. Azamuddin and Aminulrasyid's family has refuted many of the police claims. Many members of the public and the opposing politicians have criticised the police's response, alluding to the fact that the police are trying to cover up the incident and fabricate evidence. The boy's family has rejected calls for an inquest into the shooting because they did not believe they would receive a fair and transparent investigation, especially from the police. Instead, they have called on the government to establish a royal commission of inquiry to investigate Aminulrasyid's death. A special eight-member panel has been formed to scrutinise the investigation of the shooting; however, opposing politicians and the boy's family have derided the formation of the panel as a publicity stunt by the government.[24][25][26] On 24 March 2016, the High Court in Selangor awarded more than MYR400,000 in damages to the family of the victim to alleviate their pain and suffering.[27]

Recapture of Mas Selamat Kastari

The escaped terrorist, Mas Selamat Kastari, who escaped detention in Singapore in 2008, was nabbed by Bukit Aman and Johore Police while he was asleep in a secluded village house in Skudai, 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Johor Bahru, Johore.[28][29] He found a traditional kampung house on stilts in Kampung Tawakal, a tiny village with a population of less than 100. Located about 10 km away from the North-South Expressway near the Kempas exit, it is almost impossible to locate for those not familiar with the area. The Singaporean terrorist, who captured world attention when he escaped from the republic's maximum security Whitley Detention Centre in February last year, could barely put up a fight in his shorts and T-shirt when caught during a dawn raid in April. At 6 am, about 30 armed policemen surrounded the kampung house and ordered Mas Selamat to come out. Police broke through two doors and rushed in when he refused to surrender.[30] He was arrested together with two others, Abdul Matin and Johar Hassan, by a PGK and police Special Branch officers following intelligence sharing with the police forces of Indonesia and Singapore. Police also seized documents and other paraphernalia that allegedly revealed their planned operation.[31] This report was later confirmed by both the Singapore and Malaysian governments, with the date of capture given as 1 April 2009.[32]

The Home Minister of Malaysia, Dato' Seri Hishammuddin Hussein, and Inspector-General of Police Tan Sri Musa Hassan at Putrajaya confirmed Mas Selamat was arrested and detained under the Internal Security Act.[33] Hishammuddin declined to give details since the case is sensitive as it involves intelligence agencies of Singapore and Indonesia, as well as Malaysia.[33] Musa said the arrest was made possible as police in Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia had been sharing intelligence reports over the past year. It is learnt that Special Branch officers had been working on various leads since March and upon confirming his whereabouts planned the dawn raid that resulted in his arrest.[34][35]

Arrest of Nur Misuari

Nur Misuari who is the main leader and founder of one of the breakaway faction in the Philippines was arrested on 23 November 2001 together with six of his followers in Jampiras Island off Sabah after intruding past the Malaysian border illegally. Misuari is wanted in the Philippines for leading a failed rebellion against the Philippine government,[36] which he was later extradited to the Philippine authorities in December 2001 to face legal action in his country although Malaysia and the Philippines have no extradition treaty.[37]

Al-Mau'nah Arms Heist

In the early morning on 2 July 2000, 21 members of the militant group visited the outpost and camp of Bn 304 Rejimen Askar Wataniah under the guise of a surprise inspection and confiscated the soldiers' weapons and carted the weapons away from the armoury. They took away a huge cache of firearms and ammunition, including 97 M16 assault rifles, four GPMGs, five grenade launchers, 9,095 rounds of 5.56 mm and 60 rounds of 40 mm ammunition. The group was later cornered in the village of Sauk, Perak and involved in a stand-off with the Malaysian Army and Royal Malaysian Police forces. The Malaysian Special Forces threw a containment cordon around Bukit Jenalik. Tpr Matthew anak Medan from 21 Commando was murdered by this militant group and was awarded Pahlawan Gagah Berani.[38] The leader and militant group surrendered to the Malaysian Special Forces and later they were handed over to the police.[39]

The Al-Mau'nah group later surrendered, and the leaders were brought to trial for "waging war upon the King". Mohamed Amin Mohamed Razali and his group were brought to trial for charges of "waging war against the King" and became the first group of people convicted of such charges in Malaysia. Mohamed Amin Mohamed Razali and his two lieutenants, Zahit Muslim and Jamaluddin Darus, were sentenced to death. Sixteen others were given life sentences. Police Detective Korporal Sanghadevan was murdered during the incident.[40][41] Asisten Superintendan Polis Abdul Razak Mohd. Yusof was awarded the Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa for his role in resolving the stand-off.

Memali Incident

Main article: Memali Incident

The Memali Incident occurred in the remote village of Memali, Baling in the Malaysian state of Kedah on 19 November 1985. A task force of 200 policemen under orders from the Acting Prime Minister and Home Minister Musa Hitam, laid siege to kampung (village) houses in Memali. The houses were occupied by an Islamic sect of about 400 people led by Ibrahim Mahmud a.k.a. Ibrahim Libya.[42]

Bukit Kepong Incident

Main article: Bukit Kepong Incident

The Bukit Kepong Incident was an armed encounter which took place on 23 February 1950 between the police and the Malayan Communists during pre-independence Malaya. This conflict took place in an area surrounding the Bukit Kepong police station in Bukit Kepong, a wooden station located on the banks of the Muar River, about 59 km from Muar town, Johor.

Police Headquarters/Formation

The Sabah Police Headquarters building in Kota Kinabalu.

Police Contingent

  1. Bukit Aman Royal Malaysia Police Headquarter, Kuala Lumpur 3°08′55″N 101°41′30″E / 3.148725°N 101.691584°E / 3.148725; 101.691584
  2. Johor Contingent Police Headquarters, Johor 1°28′38″N 103°45′53″E / 1.477227°N 103.764673°E / 1.477227; 103.764673
  3. Kedah Contingent Police Headquarters, Kedah
  4. Kelantan Contingent Police Headquarters, Kelantan
  5. Kuala Lumpur Contingent Police Headquarters, Kuala Lumpur 3°08′32″N 101°42′26″E / 3.142093°N 101.707142°E / 3.142093; 101.707142
  6. Melaka Contingent Police Headquarters, Melaka
  7. Negeri Sembilan Contingent Police Headquarters, Negeri Sembilan
  8. Pahang Contingent Police Headquarters, Pahang
  9. Perak Contingent Police Headquarters, Perak
  10. Perlis Contingent Police Headquarters, Perlis
  11. Pulau Pinang Contingent Police Headquarters, Pulau Pinang
  12. Sabah Contingent Police Headquarters, Sabah
  13. Sarawak Contingent Police Headquarters, Sarawak
  14. Selangor Contingent Police Headquarters, Selangor
  15. Terengganu Contingent Police Headquarters, Terengganu

Marine Police Force

  1. Northern Region Marine Police Base, Batu Uban, Pulau Pinang
  2. East Region Marine Police Base, Kemaman, Terengganu
  3. Southern Region Marine Police Base, Johor Bahru, Johor
  4. Sabah Region Marine Police Base, Sandakan, Sabah
  5. Sarawak Region Marine Police Base, Kuching, Sarawak
  6. Putrajaya Marine Police Base, Putrajaya

Military Police Force

  1. Northern Region Military Police Base
  2. Centre Region Military Police Base
  3. South East Region Military Police Base
  4. Sabah Region Military Base
  5. Sarawak Region Military Base

Air Police Force

  1. Peninsular Malaysia Region Air Police Base
  2. Sabah Region Air Police Base
  3. Sarawak Region Air Police Base

Commando Police Force

  1. 69 Commando Police Base
  2. Special Tactical Unit Police Base

Federal Reserve Unit (Anti Riot Police Force)

  1. 1st Federal Reserve Unit Base
  2. 2nd Federal Reserve Unit Base
  3. 3rd Federal Reserve Unit Base
  4. 4th Federal Reserve Unit Base
  5. 5th Federal Reserve Unit Base
  6. 6th Federal Reserve Unit Base
  7. 7th Federal Reserve Unit Base
  8. Women Federal Reserve Unit Base
  9. Horseman Federal Reserve Unit Base

Royal Malaysia Police in popular culture




Daily life


Complaints Commission

Non-governmental organisations continued to press the government to create an Independent Police Complaints and Misconduct Commission (IPCMC). In 2005 a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the police had recommended a wide range of reforms, including the establishment of an IPCMC by May 2006.[45] Draft legislation to establish an IPCMC remained under consideration by the Attorney General at the end of the year. A range of other reform recommendations, including repeal or review of laws allowing for detention without trial or requiring police permits for public assemblies, were not implemented.

See also


  1. "Indonesian, Malaysian police ramp up cooperation to fight transnational crimes". Xinhua News Agency. Global Times. 13 February 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  2. "RP, Malaysia intensify joint effort vs terrorism, transnational crimes". The Philippine Star. 21 March 2002. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  3. Izam Said Ya'akub (2 December 2010). "Multilateral cooperation needed to counter transnational crime". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  4. "Thai, Malaysian police agree cooperation". The Nation. 14 May 2015. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  5. "Malaysia, Singapore police to work closely in combating cybercrime". Bernama. The Borneo Post. 5 May 2012. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  6. "Vietnam People's Police Force's 70th anniversary marked abroad". Voice of Vietnam 5. 20 August 2015. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  7. "Vietnam, Malaysia sign agreement on transnational crimes". Nhân Dân. 1 October 2015. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  8. "Marine bases to serve as coastal police stations". Daily Express. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2009.
  9. "擴展服務範圍水警兼管查案" (in Chinese). China Press. 21 April 2009. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 3 April 2009.
  10. "Unit Selam Tempur – miliki kemahiran ala komando" (in Malay). Utusan Malaysia. 27 July 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  11. "Polis Marin kini Pasukan Gerakan Marin" (in Malay). Utusan Malaysia. 7 February 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  12. "Whats With PDRM and Walther?". Malaysian Defence. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  13. "M4 carbine also used by Royal Malaysia Police, Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency and others". SME Ordnance Sdn Bhd. Retrieved 13 September 2008.
  14. 1 2 Kronologi pencerobohon Lahad Datu (video) (in Malay). Astro Awani. 15 February 2014. Event occurs at 1:20. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  15. "Philippines' Aquino calls for talks on Sabah". Agence France-Presse. Yahoo! News. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  16. "Heirs of Sultan of Sulu pursue Sabah claim on their own". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 16 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  17. Michael Lim Ubac; Dona Z. Pazzibugan (3 March 2013). "No surrender, we stay". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
  18. Jethro Mullen (15 February 2013). "Filipino group on Borneo claims to represent sultanate, Malaysia says". CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  19. M. Jegathesan (5 March 2013). "Malaysia attacks Filipinos to end Sabah siege". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  20. "Lahad Datu: Malaysian security forces in all out attack against Sulu gunmen". The Star. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  21. Najiah Najib (30 December 2013). "Lahad Datu invasion: A painful memory of 2013". Astro Awani. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  22. "Lahad Datu: Sabah CPO - No halt to Ops Daulat until Sulu terrorists are flushed out". The Star. 30 March 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  23. "Dakwaan anggota tentera terbunuh hanya taktik musuh - Panglima Tentera Darat" (in Malay). Astro Awani. 12 August 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  24. "Cop's trial in Aminul shooting case on Oct 12". The Star. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  25. "Investigation papers on Amunlrasydi's death submitted to DPP for court action". Sin Chew Daily. 12 July 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  26. "Friend recounts eventful night out with Aminulrasyid". The Star. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  27. Maizatul Nazlina (24 March 2016). "Aminulrasyid's family awarded RM400,000 in damages". The Star. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  28. "Singapore's JI leader Mas Selamat reportedly arrested in Malaysia". Channel NewsAsia. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
  29. "Singapore terrorism suspect held". BBC News. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
  30. Meera Vijayan (11 May 2009). "Fugitive militant finds rustic retreat away from prying eyes". The Star. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
  31. Lourders Charles (8 May 2009). "Fugitive Mas Selamat nabbed". The Star. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
  32. "Singapore government confirms arrest of Mas Selamat". Channel NewsAsia. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
  33. 1 2 "We will ensure Mas Selamat does not escape". New Straits Times. 9 May 2009. Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
  34. Lourders Charles; Dharmender Singh (15 January 2009). "Mas Selamat JI leader nabbed in Skudai". The Star. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
  35. Leslie Lopez (8 May 2009). "Mas Selamat captured". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 15 May 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
  36. "Philippines rebel leader arrested". BBC News. 25 November 2001. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015. Malaysia's Inspector-General of Police Norian Mai said Mr Misuari and six of his followers were arrested at 3.30 am on Saturday (1930 GMT Friday) on Jampiras island off Sabah state. Manila had ordered his arrest on charges of instigating a rebellion after the government suspended his governorship of an autonomous Muslim region in Mindanao, the ARMM. Although the Philippines has no extradition treaty with Malaysia, the authorities have already made clear that they intend to hand Mr Misuari over to the authorities in Manila as soon as possible. Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad had said before the arrest that, although his country had provided support to the rebel group in the past in its bid for autonomy, Mr Misuari had not used his powers correctly. "Therefore, we no long feel responsible to provide him with any assistance," he said.
  37. "Nur Misuari to be repatriated to stand trial". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 December 2001. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  38. "Malaysian arms gang took hostages". BBC News. 4 July 2000. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
  39. "Malaysian gunmen surrender". BBC News. 6 July 2000. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  40. "Sauk incident". Utusan Malaysia. 15 January 2001. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  41. "Malaysian arms raid cult charged". BBC News. 8 August 2000. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
  42. Yusoff Kamaruzaman. "Islamic Radicalism in Malaysia: the Middle East connection)" (PDF). Durham University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2005. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
  43. Polis wanita: sejarah bergambar, 1955-2007 (in Malay). Kelana Publication. 2007. ISBN 978-983-42258-0-3.
  44. Inspektor Junid di Medan Jenayah (in Malay). Fajar Bakti. 1987. ISBN 978-0-19-580961-9.
  45. "No more foot-dragging". Aliran Monthly. Archived from the original on 19 November 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2006.

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