|Single by Aretha Franklin|
|from the album I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You|
|Released||April 29, 1967|
|Recorded||Atlantic Records Studio, New York City: February 14, 1967|
|Aretha Franklin singles chronology|
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
"Respect" is a song written and originally released by American recording artist Otis Redding in 1965. The song became a 1967 hit and signature song for R&B singer Aretha Franklin. The music in the two versions is significantly different, and through a few minor changes in the lyrics, the stories told by the songs have a different flavor. Redding's version is a plea from a desperate man, who will give his woman anything she wants. He won't care if she does him wrong, as long as he gets his due respect, when he comes home. However, Franklin's version is a declaration from a strong, confident woman, who knows that she has everything her man wants. She never does him wrong, and demands his "respect". Franklin's version adds the "R-E-S-P-E-C-T" chorus and the backup singers' refrain of "Sock it to me, sock it to me, sock it to me..."
Franklin's cover was a landmark for the feminist movement, and is often considered as one of the best songs of the R&B era, earning her two Grammy Awards in 1968 for "Best Rhythm & Blues Recording" and "Best Rhythm & Blues Solo Vocal Performance, Female", and was inducted in the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1987. In 2002, the Library of Congress honored Franklin's version by adding it to the National Recording Registry. It is number five on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. It was also included in the list of Songs of the Century, by the Recording Industry of America and the National Endowment for the Arts. Franklin included a live recording on the album Aretha in Paris (1968).
At first a ballad, it was written by Redding for Speedo Sims, who intended to record it with his band, the Singing Demons. Redding rewrote the lyrics and sped up the rhythm. Speedo then went with band to the Muscle Shoals studios, but was unable to produce a good version. Redding then decided to sing the song himself, which Speedo agreed to. Redding also promised to credit Speedo on the liner notes, but this never happened; Speedo, however, never charged him for not doing so.
The song was included on Redding's third studio album, Otis Blue (1965). The album became widely successful, even outside of his largely R&B and blues fan base. When released in the summer of 1965, the song reached the top five on Billboard's Black Singles Chart, and crossed over to pop radio's white audience, peaking at number thirty-five there. At the time, the song became Redding's second largest crossover hit (after "I've Been Loving You Too Long") and paved the way to future presence on American radio. Redding performed it at the Monterey Pop Festival.
The two versions of "Respect" as performed by Otis Redding originally and later re-imagined by Aretha Franklin are significantly different. While both songs have similar styles and tempos the writers and performers of the lyrics clearly had two different messages in mind when producing these songs. The songs only differ lyrically in the refrains while the verses by and large stay the same. Otis Redding's version plays out as follows:
Though it isn't much of a refrain as most of Redding's version is made up of shorter verses, this line appears as a conclusion to every verse and echoes into the next line tying it all together. Redding's short refrain comes at the end of each verse and leads into the next. Redding's version was written from the perspective of a hardworking man who can only look forward to getting home and finally receiving the respect he deserves from his family. His version is less a plea for respect and more a comment on a man's feeling of worth in his work life and at home. The original version of "Respect" was produced by Steve Cropper, who also played instrumentals for the hit track along with William Bell and Earl Sims on backup vocals.
The inspiration for the song had come when, in response to Redding's complaints after a hard tour, MGs drummer Al Jackson reportedly said, "What are you griping about? You're on the road all the time. All you can look for is a little respect when you come home".
Producer Jerry Wexler brought Redding's song to Franklin's attention. While Redding's version was popular among his core R&B audience, Wexler thought the song had potential to be a crossover hit and to demonstrate Franklin's vocal ability. "Respect" was recorded on February 14, 1967.
Franklin's re-imagination of the song lent it an entirely new meaning. While still maintaining much of the original lyrics she made it her own anthem by adding a few key lines. This climactic break near the end of the song contains new lyrics and powerful new, soon-famous hooks:
- Find out what it means to me
- Take care … TCB
- Sock it to me, Sock it to me, Sock it to me, Sock it to me [etc]
The repeated "sock it to me" line, sung by Franklin's sisters Erma and Carolyn, was an idea that Carolyn and Aretha had worked out together; spelling out "R-E-S-P-E-C-T" was (according to engineer Tom Dowd) Carolyn's idea.
The Redding composition had no bridge section, so producer Jerry Wexler added one in which King Curtis' tenor saxophone soloed over the chords from Sam and Dave's song "When Something Is Wrong With My Baby". Spooner Oldham played piano for the number; in an interview he explained it was not uncommon for Franklin herself to play accompanying piano.
The resulting song was featured on Franklin's 1967 breakthrough Atlantic Records debut album, I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You. As the title track became a hit on both R&B and pop radio, Atlantic Records arranged for the release of this new version of "Respect" as a single.
Franklin's rendition found greater success than the original, spending two weeks atop the Billboard Pop Singles chart, and eight weeks on the Billboard Black Singles chart. The changes in lyrics and production drove Franklin's version to become an anthem for the increasingly large Civil Rights and Women's Rights movements. She altered the lyrics to represent herself, a strong woman demanding respect from her man. It also became a hit internationally, reaching number ten in the United Kingdom, and helping to transform Franklin from a domestic star into an international one. Otis Redding himself was impressed with the performance of the song. At the Monterey Pop Festival in the summer of the cover's release, he was quoted playfully describing "Respect" as the song "that a girl took away from me, a friend of mine, this girl she just took this song".
- Written by Otis Redding.
Otis Redding version
- Produced by Steve Cropper
- Musicians: Otis Redding (vocals), Booker T. Jones (keyboards, piano), Isaac Hayes (keyboards, piano), Steve Cropper (guitar), Donald "Duck" Dunn (Bass), Al Jackson Jr. (drums), Andrew Love (sax), Gene "Bowlegs" Miller (trumpet), Floyd Newman (sax), Wayne Jackson (trumpet).
- Background vocals by William Bell and Earl Sims.
Aretha Franklin version
- Produced by Jerry Wexler and Arif Mardin.
- Engineering by Tom Dowd.
- Musicians: Cornell Dupree (guitar), Willie Bridges (sax), Charles Chalmers (sax), Gene Chrisman (drums) (Roger Hawkins is generally credited as being the drummer on this track), Tommy Cogbill (bass), Dewey 'Spooner' Oldham (keyboards), and Curtis Ousley aka King Curtis (sax).
- Background vocals by Carolyn Franklin and Erma Franklin.
"Groovin'" by The Young Rascals
|Billboard Hot 100 number one single (Aretha Franklin version)
June 3–10, 1967
| Succeeded by|
"Groovin'" by The Young Rascals
"Jimmy Mack" by Martha & the Vandellas
|Billboard's Hot Rhythm & Blues number one single (Aretha Franklin version)
May 20 – July 8, 1967
| Succeeded by|
"I Was Made to Love Her" by Stevie Wonder
Sheet Music Respect Hanson Publications cover design by Helen Hersh
Franklin's version of the song contains the famous lines (as printed in the lyrics included in the 1985 compilation album Atlantic Soul Classics):
"TCB" is an abbreviation, commonly used in the 1960s and 1970s, meaning "Taking Care (of) Business". It was particularly widely used in African-American culture. However, it was somewhat less well-known outside of that culture. The last line is often misquoted as "Take out, TCP", or something similar, and indeed most published music sheets which include the lyrics contain this incorrect line, possibly because those who transcribed Franklin's words for music sheets weren't familiar with the culture. Nevertheless, "TCB in a flash" later became Elvis Presley's motto and signature.
"R-E-S-P-E-C-T" and "TCB" are not present in Redding's original song, but were included in some of his later performances with the Bar-Kays. There seems to be some confusion over which artist first used "TCB" in the song.
Franklin added lyrics in which she demands "her propers" when he gets home. This particular line probably influenced hip-hop's later use of both the word "proper" and "props" in the context of proper respect.
Franklin's version of the song was released in 1967, amid notable societal changes; these included the Civil Rights Movement, the war in Vietnam, the Equal Rights Amendment, and the Black Panthers movement. Franklin's message is conveyed as a demand for increased respect towards women during this time, many of whom were playing roles as civil rights activists without adequate recognition.
Aretha Franklin version
|1967||R&B Singles Chart||1|
|Billboard Hot 100||1|
|Australian Singles Chart||1|
|Canadian Singles Chart||2|
|Italian Singles Chart||7|
|UK Singles Chart||10|
- A cover by The Rationals reached #92 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1966.
- Stevie Wonder covered the song later in 1967 with slightly modified lyrics, and he played his harmonica over the "R-E-S-P-E-C-T" section.
- Crazy Elephant released a version of the song on their 1969 album, Crazy Elephant.
- The Chipettes covered the song in 1986 for the Alvin and the Chipmunks episode "Cinderella? Cinderella!".
- A house music cover with altered lyrics was released by Scottish singer Adeva in 1989, which reached #17 on the UK Singles Chart.
- In 2012, Christine Anu covered the song on her album, Rewind: The Aretha Franklin Songbook.
- In 2012, Melanie Amaro recorded an uptempo version of the song for a Pepsi commercial alongside Elton John as a part of her prize for winning the first season of The X Factor USA. The single peaked at No. 3 on Billboard's Hot Dance Club Songs.
- Rock band The Vagrants recorded a garage rock version of this song, which was later featured on the Nuggets compilation.
"Respect" has appeared in dozens of films and still receives consistent play on radio stations. In the 1970s, Franklin's version of the song came to exemplify the feminist movement. Producer Wexler said in a Rolling Stone interview, that Franklin's song was "global in its influence, with overtones of the civil-rights movement and gender equality. It was an appeal for dignity." Although she had numerous hits after "Respect", and several before its release, the song became Franklin's signature song and her best-known recording. I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You was ranked eighty-third in Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003. A year later, "Respect" was fifth in the magazine's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. The song "Respect" is part of the The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll list.
In the video for Franklin's later hit "Freeway of Love", a license plate on one of the cars says "Respect" in reference to the song.
- "The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". RollingStone.com. Retrieved 2007-06-02.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 184–185.
- Len Comaratta (October 3, 2010). "Rock History 101: Otis Redding at the Monterey Pop Festival". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
- "OTIS REDDING lyrics – Respect". oldielyrics.com.
- Classic Tracks. Back To Back Singles. Thunder Bay Press, 2008, p. 71.
- "Aretha Franklin, 'Respect'". Rolling Stone.
- Soeder, John. "The inside story on Aretha Franklins chart topping anthem". Sun News.
- Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 52 - The Soul Reformation: Phase three, soul music at the summit. [Part 8] : UNT Digital Library" (audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu.
- Dobkin, Matt (2004). I Never Loved a Man the Way I Loved You: Aretha Franklin, Respect, and the Making of a Soul Music Masterpiece. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 169–170. ISBN 0-312-31828-6.
- Landy, Eugene E. The Underground Dictionary, New York: Simon and Schuster (1971), ISBN 0-671-21012-2.
- Redding, Otis. "Respect", 1965, Volt Records.
- Billboard Chart History,http://www.billboard.com/artist/418935/rationals/chart?mobile_redirection=false,accessed October 2015.
- Lyrics to Respect, Stevie Wonder version http://genius.com/Stevie-wonder-respect-lyrics
- "Crazy Elephant, Crazy Elephant". Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Kembrew McLeod et al: Creative License: The Law and Culture of Digital Sampling, Duke University Press, 2001, p. 228.
- Deborah Norville: The Power of Respect: Benefit from the Most Forgotten Element of Success, Thomas Nelson Inc, 2009, p. 18.
- "500 Songs That Shaped Rock". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
- Soeder, John. "The inside story behind Aretha Franklin's chart topping anthem". Sun News.
- The Very Best of Otis Redding. Rhino/Atlantic Recording Corporation, 1992. Los Angeles, CA.
- I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You. Atlantic Recording Corporation, 1967. New York, NY.
- Guralnick, Peter (1999). Sweet Soul Music: Rhythm and Blues and the Southern Dream of Freedom. Back Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-316-33273-6. OCLC 41950519.