Rephotography is the act of repeat photography of the same site, with a time lag between the two images; a "then and now" view of a particular area. Some are casual, usually taken from the same view point but without regard to season, lens coverage or framing. Some are very precise and involve a careful study of the original image.
Rephotography and photogrammetry in the sciences
Since the 1850s techniques were developed for surveying and scientific study, especially in systems (Paganini, 1880; Deville, 1889; Finsterwalder, 1890) of photogrammetry in which precise measurements made from triangulation of points in numbers of photographic records are made in order to track changes in ecological systems. Rephotography continues to be used by the scientific world to record incremental or cyclical events (of erosion, or glacier flow for example), or to measure the extent of sand banks in a river, or other phenomena which change slowly over time.
In social investigation
Rephotography has also been a useful visual method for researchers in sociology and communication to understand social change. Three main approaches are common - photographs of places, participants, or activities, functions, or processes – with scholars examining elements of continuity. This method is advantageous to studying social change due to the capacity of cameras to record scenes with greater completeness and speed, to document detailed complexities at a single time, and to capture images in an unobtrusive manner. Repeat photographs offer "subtle cues about the changing character of social life" (Reiger, 1996, p. 7). Upon analysis of elements of continuity within the images, researchers must be cautious to not make erroneous interpretations of change. Another closely related use of rephotography has been the political one made by Gustavo Germano in Argentina, who rephotographed family pictures of disappeared, thus making explicit both the missing people and the life that goes on.
Procedures and techniques
The accurate rephotographer usually determines several facts before taking a new image. An important starting point is the choice of the older image. To show continuity between the two images, rephotographers usually include in the frame a building or other object which is present in the modern view. Some urban scenes change so much that the original buildings shown have been completely obscured by subsequent skyscrapers, or have been demolished. A "then and now" photograph could be taken but there would be nothing in common to link the two images.
The vantage point from which the original photographer took the view may have disappeared over the years, so the rephotographer has to choose an original view for which the vantage point is still accessible, or arrange to rent equipment to duplicate the original position of the camera.
Through scrutiny of the original image, the rephotographer determines the season and the time of day from observation of the vegetation and the shadows shown. The best way to do this is to set up a camera at the original viewpoint, at approximately the right season and time, and wait with the original view in hand, until the shadows reach the same positions relative to surrounding objects. If done with extreme accuracy it should be possible to place one image over the other, and see the edges of buildings match exactly.
This type of rephotography can be seen in the McCord Museum of Canadian History's virtual exhibition "Urban Life through Two Lenses." It shows the nineteenth-century views of Montreal by William Notman, rephotographed by Andrzej Maciejewski in 2002. Another is Douglas Levere's project, "New York Changing"; here Levere rephotographed 114 of Berenice Abbott's, "Changing New York" images. The French rephotographer Vincent Zénon Rigaud is comparing views of Reims in Champagne before and after the almost complete destruction of the city by first world war bombshells. "Reims avant, pendant et après la première guerre mondiale" Rigaud's work shows the impact of war on urbanism. War severely damaged The cathedral Notre-Dame of Reims, UNESCO's utmost masterpiece of Gothic architecture which is still under several heavy restoration processes where accurate rephotography is used as a site supervision and a duty of memory.
Mobile and computationally assisted digital rephotography
Smart phones, because they include both cameras and computing, have the potential to simplify the re-photography process. To date, examples of this include "Computational Rephotography", an approach that uses feature-matching and structure-from-motion to tell a photographer how to move so that the current view best matches the previous view, and "Collaborative Rephotography", which overlays the current view transparently over the original image to allow the photographer to line up elements of the scene before taking the picture. Specific projects include: rePhoto, a rephotography app for Citizen Science projects including turtle tracking and urban tree monitoring; and Retake Melbourne, a crowd-participatory, crowd-funded, mobile app-enabled Deakin University project to rephotograph the fifty-year-old archive of Melbourne (Australia) streetscapes by Mark Strizic.
- The Great Postcard Hunt, 2006.
- The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods Editors Eric Margolis, Luc Pauwels. Publisher SAGE, 2011. Pt. 2 - Ch. 6, 7, 8; Pt. 3 - Ch. 13
- Rogers, Garry F., Harold E. Malde, and Raymond M. Turner (1984) Bibliography of Repeat Photography for Evaluating Landscape Change. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
- Wheeler, Arthur (1920) The Application of Photography to the Mapping of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Canadian Alpine Journal, 10: 76–96.
- Webb, Robert H & Boyer, Diane E & Turner, Raymond M. (2010). Repeat photography : methods and applications in the natural sciences. Island Press, Washington, DC
- Malde, H. E. (1973) Geologic Benchmarks by Terrestrial Photography. US Geological Survey Journal of Research, 1(2): 193–206.
- Photogrammetry-the art of making measurements using images-is the task of determining an object or its dimensions using photographs. Preliminary work on this problem was done by Lambert in what he referred to as "inverting the perspective” and by Beautemps-Beaupre (1791-1793). In surveying these methods were first tested by A. Laussedat (1852-59). Starting in 1855 I. Porro began developing instruments for photogrammetry. A. Meydenbauer brought architectural photogrammetry to high level. W. Jordan17 and C. Koppe approached the problem from the standpoint of geodesy, and G. Hauck approached it from a theoretical point of view. Photogrammetry was practiced on a large scale in Italy by L. P. Paganini since 1880 and in Canada by E. Deville since 1889. S. Finsterwalder has been doing aerial photogrammetry from balloons since 1890. C. Pulfrich has been using stereoscopy since 1890. A. Laussedat has collected material on the history of photographic methods and equipment.” Finsterwalder, S. (1906) Photogrammetrie. In: Encyklopeidie der Mathematischen Wissenschaften mit Einschluft ihrer Anwendungen. Band VI, Teil1, Geodcisie und Geophysik. Leipzig: B.G. Teubner 1906-1925. pp. 98-116.
- Harrison, A. E. (1974) Reoccupying Unmarked Camera Stations for Geological Observations. Geology, 2(9): 469–471.
- Fagre, D. B. and McKeon, L. A. (2010) ‘Documenting disappearing glaciers: Repeat photography at Glacier National Park, Montana, USA’, Repeat Photography: Methods and Applications in the Natural Sciences. Covelo, CA: Island Press.
- Webb, Robert H. (1996) Grand Canyon, a Century of Change: Rephotography of the 1889–1890 Stanton Expedition. Tucson:University of Arizona Press.
- Rose, Gillian (2007). Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Prosser, Jon. Researching with Visual Images: Some Guidance Notes and Glossary for Beginners. Economic and Social Research Council's National Centre for Research Methods, The Universities of Manchester and Leeds, July 2006.
- For diverse examples see Framing Time And Place: Repeats & Returns In Photography Conference, University of Plymouth Time and Place Information (2).pdf Framing Time And Place: Repeats & Returns In Photography Conference, University of Plymouth
- Burke, Peter. Eye-witnessing: The Uses of Images as Historical Evidence. London: Reaktion Books; Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
- Klüver, Billy & Cocteau, Jean, 1889-1963 (1997). A day with Picasso : twenty-four photographs by Jean Cocteau. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
- Snavely, Keith N. (2008) Scene Reconstruction and Visualization from Internet Photo Collections Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation in Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington
- Soonmin Bae, Aseem Agarwala, Fredo Durand. "Computational Re-Photography", ACM Transactions on Graphics (Presented at SIGGRAPH Asia 2010), 29(3), pp. 24:1-24:15.
- "Collaborative rephotography", Ruth West, Abby Halley, Daniel Gordon, Jarlath O'Neil-Dunne, Robert Pless, In ACM SIGGRAPH 2013 Studio Talks, pp. 20, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rephotography.|
- Reims WW1 - Reims, a major city in French history and its cathedral, rebuild after WW1 apocalypse of champagne battlefield.
- Timera - Rephotography Community and mobile application that allows you to create combined images of past and present.
- re.photos - Rephotography Portal which allows you to upload, adjust and present pictures of past and present.
- Toronto Before: A look into the Past, Alden Cudanin - Rephotographs of Toronto, Ontario Canada
- Alpine of the Americas Project - Citizen science rephotography of alpine glaciers and ecosystems
- Tampa Changing - Rephotographs of Tampa, Florida
- Second View - Rephotographic Survey Project
- Urban Life through Two Lenses — Virtual Exhibition
- New York Changing - Douglas Levere Revisits Berenice Abbott's New York
- Third View - A Rephotographic Survey of the American West
- Atlanta Time Machine - Huge collection from Atlanta
- Springfield Rewind - Rephotographs of Springfield, Illinois
- Vertigo Then and Now - photographs of San Francisco. The source of the earlier photos is scenes from Alfred Hitchcock's 1958 thriller Vertigo.
- Hidden Glasgow rephotography in Scotland's biggest city
- Port Townsend Then and Now - A collection of Rephotographs from Port Townsend, WA.
- InTwinPeaks.com Rephotography of theTwin Peaks filming locations, then and now
- Ausencias by Gustavo Germano Rephotography of disappeared in Argentina (then, alive and now, missing)
- Recollecting Landscapes - Rephotography of 60 landscapes in Belgium 1904-1980-2004
- Blitz Ghosts - Rephotography of the Norwich Blitz 1942 - 2011–present
- rePhoto - rephotography app for Citizen Science projects including turtle tracking and urban tree monitoring
- Retake Melbourne; a crowd-participatory, crowd-funded, mobile app-enabled, Deakin University project to rephotograph the fifty-year-old archive of Melbourne (Australia) streetscapes by Mark Strizic.
- Roma Ieri Oggi by Andrea Dorliguzzo - Rephotographs of Rome, Italy