Religion in Germany

Predominant confessions in Germany as revealed by the 2011 census; purple: EKD Protestant, yellow: Catholic, blue: Nonreligious.

Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with an estimated 61% of the country's population[1][2] (66.8% at the 2011 census).[3] The two largest churches are the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). In 2014 the Catholic Church accounted for 29.5%[4] and the Evangelical Church for 27.9%[5] of the population. Other Christian churches and groups summed up to 3.3%[1] with estimations for the Orthodox Church between 1.3%[2] and 1.9%.[1] 34% of the country's population are not affiliated with any church or religion.[1][2] The second largest religion is Islam, with between 2.1 and 4 million adherents (2.6% to 5%).[1][2] Smaller religious groups (less than 1%) include Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism.[1][2]


Since its foundation in 1871, Germany has been about two-thirds Protestant[6] and one-third Roman Catholic, with a notable Jewish minority. Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany almost lost its Jewish minority during the Holocaust and the country's religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following 1945, with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies. It continues to diversify after the German reunification in 1990.[7]

The Aula Palatina of Trier, a basilica constructed during 306–337 AD
The Palatine Chapel, Aachen, built during 800-814 AD

Prehistory to early Roman settlement: 1st millennium BC to 300 AD

Late Roman and Carolingian eras: 300-1000

Further information: Carolingian architecture

In the territories of Germany under the control of the Roman Empire (the provinces Germania Superior and Germania Inferior), early Christianity was introduced and began to flourish after the 4th century. Although pagan Roman temples existed beforehand, Christian religious structures were soon built, such as the Aula Palatina in Trier (then the capital of the Roman province Gallia Belgica), completed during the reign of Constantine I (306-337 AD).

During the Carolingian period, Christianity spread throughout Germany, particularly during the reign of Charlemagne (r. 800-814 AD) and his expansionary military campaigns. Religious structures built during the Carolingian period include the Palatine Chapel, Aachen, a surviving component of the Palace of Aachen.

Pre-Reformation: 1000-1500

Territories of the present-day Germany, like much of Europe, were entirely Roman Catholic with religious break-offs being suppressed by both the Papacy and the Holy Roman Emperor.

Reformation: 1500-1648

Martin Luther (1483–1546)

Roman Catholicism was the sole established religion in the Holy Roman Empire until the advent of the Protestant Reformation changed this drastically. In the early 16th century there was much discontent occasioned by abuses such as selling indulgences in the Catholic Church, and a general desire for reform. In 1517 the Reformation began with the publication of Martin Luther's 95 Theses which detailed 95 assertions Luther believed to show corruption and misguidance within the Catholic Church. It demonstrated Luther's disagreement both with the way in which the higher clergy, especially the pope, used and abused power, and with the very idea of the pope. In 1521 Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms. But the Reformation spread rapidly.[8] Luther translated the Bible from Latin to German, establishing the basis of the German language. A curious fact is that Luther spoke a dialect which had minor importance in the German language of that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect evolved into what is now the modern German.

Bible translated into Modern High German by Luther, 1534

With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Imperial Diet of Speyer (1529) and rejection of the Lutheran "Augsburg Confession" at Augsburg (1530), a separate Lutheran church emerged.[9]

From 1545 the Counter-Reformation began in Germany. The main force was provided by the Jesuit order. It restored Catholicism to many areas.[10] The Holy Roman Empire became religiously diverse; for the most part, the states of northern and central Germany became Protestant (chiefly Lutheran, but also Calvinist/Reformed), while the states of southern Germany and the Rhineland largely remained Catholic. In 1547, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Protestant rulers. The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 brought recognition of the Lutheran faith. But the treaty also stipulated that the religion of a state was to be that of its ruler (Cuius regio, eius religio).[11]

In 1608/1609 the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed. The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. The war was fought primarily in German lands, and involved most of the countries of Europe. It was largely a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics.[12]


Two main developments reshaped religion in Germany after 1814. Across the land, there was a movement to unite the larger Lutheran and the smaller Reformed Protestant churches. The churches themselves brought this about in Baden, Nassau, and Bavaria. However, in Prussia King Frederick William III was determined to handle unification entirely on his own terms, without consultation. His goal was to unify the Protestant churches, and to impose a single standardized liturgy, organization and even architecture. The long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches. In a series of proclamations over several decades the Church of the Prussian Union was formed, bringing together the more numerous Lutherans, and the less numerous Reformed Protestants. The government of Prussia now had full control over church affairs, with the king himself recognized as the leading bishop. Opposition to unification came from the "Old Lutherans" in Silesia who clung tightly to the theological and liturgical forms they had followed since the days of Luther. The government attempted to crack down on them, so they went underground. Tens of thousands migrated, to South Australia, and especially to the United States, where they formed the Missouri Synod, which is still in operation as a conservative denomination. Finally in 1845 a new king Frederick William IV offered a general amnesty and allowed the Old Lutherans to form a separate church association with only nominal government control.[13][14][15]

The religious situation in the German Empire about 1895. Tan, purple, and pink areas are predominantly Protestant, lilac and blue areas predominantly Catholic.

From the religious point of view of the typical Catholic or Protestant, major changes were underway in terms of a much more personalized religiosity that focused on the individual more than the church or the ceremony. The rationalism of the late 18th century faded away, and there was a new emphasis on the psychology and feeling of the individual, especially in terms of contemplating sinfulness, redemption, and the mysteries and the revelations of Christianity. Pietistic revivals were common among Protestants. Among Catholics there was a sharp increase in popular pilgrimages. In 1844 alone, half a million pilgrims made a pilgrimage to the city of Trier in the Rhineland to view the Seamless robe of Jesus, said to be the robe that Jesus wore on the way to his crucifixion. Catholic bishops in Germany had historically been largely independent Of Rome, but now the Vatican exerted increasing control, a new "ultramontanism" of Catholics highly loyal to Rome.[16] A sharp controversy broke out in 1837-38 in the largely Catholic Rhineland over the religious education of children of mixed marriages, where the mother was Catholic and the father Protestant. The government passed laws to require that these children always be raised as Protestants, contrary to Napoleonic law that had previously prevailed and allowed the parents to make the decision. It put the Catholic Archbishop under house arrest. In 1840, the new King Frederick William IV sought reconciliation and ended the controversy by agreeing to most of the Catholic demands. However Catholic memories remained deep and led to a sense that Catholics always needed to stick together in the face of an untrustworthy government.[17]

Kulturkampf: 1870

Main article: Kulturkampf

Bismarck would not tolerate any a base of power outside Germany—in Rome—having a say in German affairs. He launched a Kulturkampf ("culture war") against the power of the pope and the Catholic Church in 1873, but only in Prussia. This gained strong support from German liberals, who saw the Catholic Church as the bastion of reaction and their greatest enemy. The Catholic element, in turn, saw in the National-Liberals as its worst enemy and formed the Center Party.[18]

Catholics, although about a third of the national population, were seldom allowed to hold major positions in the Imperial government, or the Prussian government. After 1871, there was a systematic purge of Catholics; in the powerful interior ministry, which handled all police affairs, the only Catholic was a messenger boy. Jews were likewise heavily discriminated against.[19][20]

Between Berlin and Rome, Bismarck (left) confronts Pope Pius IX, 1875

Most of the Kulturkampf was fought out in Prussia, but Imperial Germany passed the Pulpit Law which made it a crime for any cleric to discuss public issues in a way that displeased the government. Nearly all Catholic bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws, and were defiant facing the increasingly heavy penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government. Historian Anthony Steinhoff reports the casualty totals:

As of 1878, only three of eight Prussian dioceses still had bishops, some 1,125 of 4,600 parishes were vacant, and nearly 1,800 priests ended up in jail or in exile....Finally, between 1872 and 1878, numerous Catholic newspapers were confiscated, Catholic associations and assemblies were dissolved, and Catholic civil servants were dismissed merely on the pretence of having Ultramontane sympathies.[21]

The British ambassador Odo Russell reported to London in October 1872 how Bismarck's plans were backfiring by strengthening the ultramontane (pro-papal) position inside German Catholicism:

The German Bishops who were politically powerless in Germany and theologically in opposition to the Pope in Rome – have now become powerful political leaders in Germany and enthusiastic defenders of the now infallible Faith of Rome, united, disciplined, and thirsting for martyrdom, thanks to Bismarck's uncalled for antiliberal declaration of War on the freedom they had hitherto peacefully enjoyed.[22]

Bismarck underestimated the resolve of the Catholic Church and did not foresee the extremes that this struggle would entail.[23][24] The Catholic Church denounced the harsh new laws as anti-catholic and mustered the support of its rank and file voters across Germany. In the following elections, the Center Party won a quarter of the seats in the Imperial Diet.[25] The conflict ended after 1879 because Pius IX died in 1878 and Bismarck broke with the Liberals to put his main emphasis on tariffs, foreign policy, and attacking socialists. Bismarck negotiated with the conciliatory new pope Leo XIII.[26] Peace was restored, the bishops returned and the jailed clerics were released. Laws were toned down or taken back (Mitigation Laws 1880-1883 and Peace Laws 1886/87), but the main regulations such as the Pulpit Law and the laws concerning education, civil registry (incl. marriage) or religious disaffiliation remained in place. The Center Party gained strength and became an ally of Bismarck, especially when he attacked socialism.[27]

Religious freedom: 1919-2015

Since 2008 all religions can be presented on road signs.

The national constitutions of 1919 and 1949 guarantee freedom of faith and religion; earlier, these freedoms were mentioned only in state constitutions. The modern constitution of 1949 also states that no one may be discriminated against due to their faith or religious opinions. No state church exists in Germany.[28]

Religious communities that are of sufficient size and stability and are loyal to the constitution can be recognised as Körperschaften öffentlichen Rechtes (statutory corporations). This gives them certain privileges, for example being able to give religious instruction in state schools (as enshrined in the German constitution, though some states are exempt from this) and having membership fees collected (for a fee) by the German revenue department as "Church tax": a surcharge of between 8 and 9% of the income tax. The status mainly applies to the Roman Catholic Church, the mainline Protestant EKD, a number of Evangelical Free churches and Jewish communities. There has been much discussion about allowing other religious groups like Muslims into this system as well. In the former communist state of East Germany, Christian churches were restricted by the government.[29]

In the 21st century Eastern German territories including the capital Berlin is less religious and more secular than Western Germany.[30][31]


Religion in Germany (according to church data and "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst" (REMID)).[5][4][1]

  Not religious (33.5%)
  Roman Catholicism (29.5%)
  Evangelical Church (27.9%)
  Other Christians including Orthodox Church (3.3%)
  Islam (5%)
  Other Religions (0.8%)

In 2014, about 34% of Germans have no religious denomination.[2]

Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with around 50 million adherents (61%)[1][2] (66.8% at the 2011 census).[3] of whom 22.6 million are Protestants (27.9%)[5] belonging to the EKD and 23.9 million are Catholics (29.5%).[4] The Orthodox Church accounts for around 1.9%.[1][2] In 2008, the remainder belong to small Christian denominations (each considerably less than 0.5% of the German population).[1] The second largest religion is Islam with between 2.1 and 4.5 million adherents (2.6% to 5.5%) followed by Buddhism around 270,000 adherents.[1] Judaism has around 100,000 known adherents[1][2] although there might be a further 90,000 whose religious status is unclear.[1] Hinduism has around 100,000 adherents.[1] Sikhism has about 75,000 adherents (0.1%). All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 (<0.1%) adherents.

Protestantism is concentrated in the north and east and Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west. The former Pope, Benedict XVI, was born in Bavaria. Non-religious people, including atheists and agnostics, might make up as many as 55%, and are especially numerous in the former East Germany and major metropolitan areas.[32]

Belief in a God by country (2010). 44% of Germans agreed with the statement "I believe there is a God".

Most Muslims are Sunnis and Alevis from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'a and other currents.[33][34] 1.3% of the country's overall population declare themselves Orthodox Christians: mainly Serbs and Greeks.[35] Germany has Europe's third-largest Jewish population (after France and the United Kingdom).[36] In 2004, twice as many Jews from former Soviet republics settled in Germany as in Israel, bringing the total Jewish population to more than 200,000, compared to 30,000 prior to German reunification. Large cities with significant Jewish populations include Berlin, Frankfurt, and Munich.[37] Around 270,000 active Buddhists live in Germany; 50% of them are Asian immigrants.[38]

In a 2012 Eurobarometer Poll ("Do you consider yourself to be ...?"), 31% self-identified as Catholic, 30% as Protestant, 2% as Orthodox, 2% as "other Christian", 3% as Muslim, 9% as Atheist, 18% as non-believer/agnostic, 1% "other (spontaneous)", and 4% did not answer (DK).[39]

According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 44% of German citizens agreed with the statement "I believe there is a God", whereas 25% agreed with "I believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 27% said "I do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".[40] According to a 2012 poll released by WIN-Gallup International, 51% of the German citizens said that they were religious, 33% said not religious, 15% said atheist, and 1% gave no answer.

A 2015 study estimated some 15,000 believers in Christ from a Muslim background in the country, most of whom belong to an evangelical or Pentecostal community.[41]

2011 census

According to the 2011 census:


Christianity is with 50 million (61%) membership the largest religion in Germany,[1][2] with the Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) comprising 28.9% of the population and Roman Catholicism comprising 29.9% as of 2014.[1][2] Consequently, a majority of the German people belong to a Christian community, although many of them take no active part in church life. About 1.3% of the population is Orthodox Christian.[1][2]

Independent and congregational churches exist in all larger towns and many smaller ones, but most such churches are small. One of these is the confessional Lutheran Church called Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Germany.




The Coptic Orthodox Monastery of St. Antonious in Waldsolms-Kröffelbach, Germany.



Before World War II, about two-thirds of the German population was Protestant and one-third was Roman Catholic. In the north and northeast of Germany especially, Protestants dominated.[50] In the former West Germany between 1945 and 1990, which contained nearly all of Germany's historically Catholic areas, Catholics have had a small majority since the 1980s. Due to a generation behind the Iron Curtain, Protestant areas of the former states of Prussia were much more affected by secularism than predominantly Catholic areas. The predominantly secularised states, such as Hamburg or the East German states, used to be Lutheran or United Protestant strongholds. Because of this, Protestantism is now strongest in two strips of territory in the former West Germany, one extending from the Danish border to Hesse, and the other extending northeast-southwest across southern Germany.

Berlin has a non-religious majority

There is a non-religious majority in Hamburg, Berlin, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In the eastern state of Saxony-Anhalt only 19.7 percent belong to the two big denominations of the country.[51] This is the state where Martin Luther was born.

In eastern Germany both religious observance and affiliation are much lower than in the rest of the country after forty years of Communist rule. The government of the German Democratic Republic encouraged a state atheist worldview through institutions such as Jugendweihen (youth consecrations), secular coming-of-age ceremonies akin to Christian confirmation which all young people were encouraged to attend. The number of christenings, religious weddings and funerals is also lower than in the West.

According to a survey among German youths (aged between 12 and 24) in the year 2006, 30% of German youths believe in a personal god, 19% believe in some kind of supernatural power, 23% share agnostic views and 28% are atheists.[52]

No religion

Main article: Irreligion in Germany


Main article: Islam in Germany

Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in the country. There are between 2.1 and 4.3 million Muslims.[1][2][53] This lack of exactitude has to do with the fact that about half of the 4.2 million people with origins in the Muslim world are not religious believers, according to a study[2] The majority of Muslims in Germany are of Turkish origin (63.2%), followed by those from Pakistan, countries of the former Yugoslavia, Arab countries, Iran and Afghanistan. This figure includes the different denominations of Islam, such as Sunni, Shia, Ahmadiyya and Alevites. Muslims first came to Germany as part of the diplomatic, military and economic relations between Germany and the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century.[54] In World War I about 15,000 Muslim prisoners of war were interned in Berlin. The first mosque was established in Berlin in 1915 for these prisoners, though it was closed in 1930. After the West German Government invited foreign workers in 1961, the Muslim population continuously rose.


Worms Synagogue (originally built 1034) is the oldest still existing synagogue in Germany.

Jewish communities in German speaking regions going back to the 4th century.[60] In 1910 about 600,000 Jews lived in Germany. Since 1990, Germany is one of the few European countries with a Jewish community that is growing. Especially its capital Berlin has one of the fastest growing communities worldwide.

About ninety thousand Jews from the former Eastern Bloc, mostly from ex-Soviet Union countries, settled in Germany since the fall of the Berlin wall. This is mainly due to a German government policy which effectively grants an immigration opportunity to anyone from the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic states with Jewish heritage, and the fact that today's Germans are seen as significantly accepting of Jews than many people in the ex-Soviet realm.

Buddhism, Hinduism, other religions

Hindu temple in Germany.

Buddhists 270,000 (0.27%)[1]


Matronen altar with offerings in Nettersheim.

Neopagan religions have been public in Germany at least since the 19th century. Nowadays Germanic Heathenism (Germanisches Heidentum, or Deutschglaube for its peculiar German forms) has many organisations in the country, including the Germanische Glaubens-Gemeinschaft (Communion of Germanic Faith), the Heidnische Gemeinschaft (Heathen Communion), the Verein für germanisches Heidentum (Association for Germanic Heathenry) the Nornirs Ætt, the Eldaring, the Artgemeinschaft, the Armanen-Orden, and Thuringian Firne Sitte.

Other Pagan religions include the Celto-Germanic Matronenkult grassroots worship practiced in Rhineland, Celtoi (a Celtic religious association) and Wiccan groups. 1% of the population of North Rhine-Westphalia adheres to new religions or esoteric groups as of 2006.

Cults, sects, religious movements

The German government provides information and warnings about cults, sects, and new religious movements. In 1997, the parliament set up a commission for Sogenannte Sekten und Psychogruppen (literally "so-called sects and psychic groups") which delivered an extensive report on the situation in Germany regarding NRMs in 1998.[62] In 2002, the Federal Constitutional Court upheld the governmental right to provide critical information on religious organizations being referred to as Sekte, but stated that "defamatory, discriminating, or falsifying accounts" were illegal.[63]

In public opinion, minor religious groups are often referred to as Sekten, which can both refer to destructive cults but also to all religious movements which are not Christian or different from the Roman Catholicism and the mainstream Protestantism. However, major world religions like mainstream Orthodox Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism and Islam are not referred to as Sekten.

When classifying religious groups, the Roman Catholic Church and the mainline Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) use a three-level hierarchy of "churches", "free churches" and Sekten:

  1. Kirchen (churches) is the term generally applied to the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical Church in Germany's member churches (Landeskirchen), and the Orthodox Churches. The churches are not only granted the status of a non-profit organisation, but they have additional rights as statutory corporations (German: Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts), which means they have the right to employ civil servants (Beamter), do official duties or issue official documents.
  2. Freikirchen (free churches) is the term generally applied to Protestant organisations outside of the EKD, e.g. Baptists, Methodists, independent Lutherans, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventists. However, the Old Catholics can be referred to as a free church as well[64] The free churches are not only granted the tax-free status of a non-profit organisation, but many of them have additional rights as statutory corporations.
  3. Sekten is the term for religious groups which do not see themselves as part of a major religion (but maybe as the only real believers of a major religion).[65][65] Although these religious groups have full religious freedom and protection against discrimination of their members, their organisations in most cases are not granted the tax-free status of a non-profit organisation.

Every Protestant Landeskirche (church whose canonical jurisdiction extends over one or several states, or Länder) and Catholic episcopacy has a Sektenbeauftragter (Sekten delegate) from whom information about religious movements may be obtained.

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 REMID Data of "Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst" retrieved 16 January 2015
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 "Religionszugehörigkeit Bevölkerung Deutschland" (PDF) (in German). Forschungsgruppe Weltanschauungen in Deutschland. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  3. 1 2 3 . Zensus 2011 - Page 10.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Official church statistics of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany 2015, retrieved 25. January 2016
  5. 1 2 3 4 Official press release of the Evangelical Church in Germany on 2014 membership data, retrieved 25. January 2016
  6. German Protestantism has been overwhelmingly a mixture of Lutheran, Reformed (i.e. Calvinist), and United (Lutheran & Reformed/Calvinist) churches, with Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists, and various other Protestants being only a recent development.
  7. Solsten, Eric (1999). Germany: A Country Study. Diane Publishing. pp. 173–175. ISBN 9780788181795.
  8. John Lotherington, The German Reformation (2014)
  9. Robert Kolb, Confessing the faith: reformers define the Church, 1530-1580 (Concordia Publishing House, 1991)
  10. Marvin R. O'Connell, Counter-reformation, 1559-1610 (1974)
  11. Lewis W. Spitz, "Particularism and Peace Augsburg: 1555," Church History (1956) 25#2 pp. 110-126 in JSTOR
  12. Peter H. Wilson, The Thirty Years War: Europe's Tragedy 2011
  13. Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom (2006) pp 412-19
  14. Christopher Clark, "Confessional policy and the limits of state action: Frederick William III and the Prussian Church Union 1817–40." Historical Journal 39.04 (1996) pp: 985-1004. in JSTOR
  15. Hajo Holborn, A History of Modern Germany 1648-1840 (1964) pp 485-91
  16. Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom (2006) pp 419-21
  17. Holborn, A History of Modern Germany 1648-1840 (1964) pp 498-509
  18. Douglas W. Hatfield, "Kulturkampf: The Relationship of Church and State and the Failure of German Political Reform," Journal of Church and State (1981) 23#3 pp. 465-484 in JSTOR(1998)
  19. John C.G. Roehl, "Higher civil servants in Germany, 1890-1900" in James J. Sheehan, ed., Imperial Germany (1976) pp 128-151
  20. Margaret Lavinia Anderson, and Kenneth Barkin. "The myth of the Puttkamer purge and the reality of the Kulturkampf: Some reflections on the historiography of Imperial Germany." Journal of Modern History (1982): 647-686. esp. pp 657-62 in JSTOR
  21. Anthony J. Steinhoff, "Christianity and the creation of Germany," in Sheridan Gilley and Brian Stanley, eds., Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8: 1814-1914 (2008) p 295
  22. Quoted in Edward Crankshaw, Bismarck (1981) pp 308-9
  23. John K. Zeender in The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Oct., 1957), pp. 328-330.
  24. Rebecca Ayako Bennette, Fighting for the Soul of Germany: The Catholic Struggle for Inclusion after Unification (Harvard U.P. 2012)
  25. Blackbourn, David (Dec 1975). "The Political Alignment of the Centre Party in Wilhelmine Germany: A Study of the Party's Emergence in Nineteenth-Century Württemberg". Historical Journal. 18 (4): 821–850. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00008906. JSTOR 2638516.
  26. Clark, Christopher (2006). Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947. pp. 568–576.
  27. Ronald J. Ross, The failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and state power in imperial Germany, 1871-1887 (1998).
  28. Basic Law Art. 140
  29. "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  30. Eastern Germany: the most godless place on Earth
  31. Why Eastern Germany Is The Most Godless Place On Earth
  32. (German) Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst; 31 October 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  33. "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09. Demnach leben in Deutschland zwischen 3,8 und4,3 Millionen Muslime [. . .] beträgt der Anteil der Muslime an der Gesamtbevölkerungzwischen 4,6 und 5,2 Prozent. Rund 45 Prozent der in Deutschland lebenden Muslime sind deutsche Staatsangehörige,rund 55 Prozent haben eine ausländische Staatsangehörigkeit.
  34. "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 97. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09. Der Anteil der Sunniten unter den in den Haushalten lebenden Muslimen beträgt 74 Prozent
  35. "EKD-Statistik: Christen in Deutschland" [EKD Statistics: Christians in Germany]. Evangelical Church in Germany (in German). Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  36. Blake, Mariah (10 November 2006). "In Nazi cradle, Germany marks Jewish renaissance". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  37. "The Jewish Community of Germany". European Jewish Congress. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
  38. (German) Die Zeit 12/07, page 13
  39. European Commission (2012). Special Eurobarometer 393 , Discrimination in the EU 2012, pp. T98-T99
  40. Eurobarometer Biotechnology report 2010 p.381
  41. Miller, Duane; Johnstone, Patrick (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10). Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  42. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Germany
  43. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 By Location
  44. 1 2 By Location
  45. 1 2 3 By Location
  46. By Location
  47. de:Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Baden
  48. "Evangelical Lutheran Free Church - Germany".
  49. LDS Newsroom (Germany)
  50. Ericksen & Heschel, Betrayal: German churches and the Holocaust, p.10, Fortress Press.
  52. Thomas Gensicke: Jugend und Religiosität. In: Deutsche Shell Jugend 2006. Die 15. Shell Jugendstudie. Frankfurt a.M. 2006.
  53. Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (2009). "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland 2008", pp 11, 80
  54. State Policies Towards Muslim Minorities. Sweden, Great Britain and Germany, "Muslims in German History until 1945", Jochen Blaschke
  55. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Mitgliederzahlen: Islam", in: Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst|Religionswissenschaftliche Medien- und Informationsdienst e. V. (Abbreviation: REMID), Retrieved 4 January 2016
  56. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Anzahl der Muslime in Deutschland nach Glaubensrichtung im Jahr 2015* (in 1.000)", in: Statista GmbH, Retrieved 4 January 2016
  57. "Was ist "Ahmadiyyat"?", in: Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat Germany Website, Retrieved 4 January 2016
  58. "Mosque construction continues with community support: Ahmadi Muslim leader, Retrieved 22 July 2016
  59. Der Tagesspiegel: Moschee in Wilmersdorf: Mit Kuppel komplett, 29 August 2001, Retrieved 5 January 2016
  60. "Germany: Virtual Jewish History Tour". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  61. "Zentralrat - Mitglieder" [Central Council - Members]. Central Council of Jews in Germany (in German). Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  62. Final report of the commission of the Bundestag on the investigation into so-called sects and psycho groups
  63. Decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court: BVerfG, Urteil v. 26.06.2002, Az. 1 BvR 670/91
  64. Altkatholiken Freikirche
  65. 1 2 Definition "Sekte"

Further reading

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.