Religion in Europe
Religion in Europe has been a major influence on today's society art, culture, philosophy and law. The largest religion in Europe is Christianity. Three countries in Southeastern Europe have Muslim majorities. Ancient European religions included veneration for deities such as Zeus. Modern revival movements of these religions include Heathenism, Rodnovery, Romuva, Druidry, Wicca, and others. Smaller religions include Indian religions, Judaism, and some East Asian religions, which are found in their largest groups in Britain, France, and Kalmykia.
Little is known about the prehistoric religion of Neolithic Europe. Bronze and Iron Age religion in Europe as elsewhere was predominantly polytheistic (Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Roman religion, Basque mythology, Finnish paganism, Celtic polytheism, Germanic paganism, etc.). The Roman Empire officially adopted Christianity in AD 380. During the Early Middle Ages, most of Europe underwent Christianization, a process essentially complete with the Christianization of Scandinavia in the High Middle Ages. The emergence of the notion of "Europe" or "Western World" is intimately connected with the idea of "Christendom", especially since Christianity in the Middle East was marginalized by the rise of Islam from the 8th century, a constellation that led to the Crusades, which although unsuccessful militarily were an important step in the emergence of a religious identity of Europe. At all times, traditions of folk religion existed largely independent from official denomination or dogmatic theology.
The Great Schism of the 11th century and Reformation of the 16th century were to tear apart Christendom into hostile factions, and following the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, atheism and agnosticism have spread across Europe. 19th-century Orientalism contributed to a certain popularity of Buddhism, and the 20th century brought increasing syncretism, New Age, and various new religious movements divorcing spirituality from inherited traditions for many Europeans. The latest history brought increased secularisation, and religious pluralism.
European countries have experienced a decline in church membership and church attendance. A relevant example of ongoing trend is Sweden where the church of Sweden, previously the state-church until 2000, claimed to have 82.9% of the Swedish population as its flock in 2000. Surveys showed this had dropped to 72.9% by 2008 and 64.6% by 2014. However, in the 2005 eurobarometer poll just 23% and in the 2010 eurobarometer poll just 18% of the Swedish population said they believed in a personal God.
Gallup poll 2008–2009
During 2008–2009, a Gallup poll asked in several countries the question "Is religion important in your daily life?" The table and map below shows percentage of people who answered "Yes" to the question.
Eurobarometer poll 2010
The Eurobarometer Poll 2010 found that, on average, 51% of the citizens of EU member states state that they "believe there is a God", 26% "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" while 20% "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". 3% declined to answer. According to a recent study (Dogan, Mattei, Religious Beliefs in Europe: Factors of Accelerated Decline), 47% of Frenchmen declared themselves as agnostic in 2003. This situation is often called "Post-Christian Europe". A decrease in religiousness and church attendance in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden has been noted, despite a concurrent increase in some countries Greece (2% in 1 year) . The Eurobarometer poll must be taken with caution, however, as there are discrepancies between it and national census results. For example, in the United Kingdom, the 2001 census revealed over 70% of the population regarded themselves as "Christian" with only 15% professing to have "no religion", though the wording of the question has been criticized as "leading" by the British Humanist Association. Romania, one of the most religious countries in Europe, witnessed a threefold increase in the number of atheists between 2002 and 2011, as revealed by the most recent national census.
The following is a list of European countries ranked by religiosity, based on belief in a God, according to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010. The 2010 Eurobarometer Poll asked whether the person believed "there is a God", believed "there is some sort of spirit or life force", or "didn't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".
|Country|| "I believe
there is a God"
| "I believe there is some
sort of spirit or life force"
| "I don't believe there is any sort|
of spirit, God or life force"
|Turkey (EUCU, not EU)||94%||1%||1%|
|Croatia (joined EU in 2013)||69%||22%||7%|
|Switzerland (EFTA, not EU)||44%||39%||11%|
|Iceland (EFTA, not EU)||31%||49%||18%|
|Norway (EFTA, not EU)||22%||44%||29%|
The decrease in theism is illustrated in the 1981 and 1999 according to the World Values Survey, both for traditionally strongly theist countries (Spain: 86.8%:81.1%; Ireland 94.8%:93.7%) and for traditionally secular countries (Sweden: 51.9%:46.6%; France 61.8%:56.1%; Netherlands 65.3%:58.0%). Some countries nevertheless show increase of theism over the period, Italy 84.1%:87.8%, Denmark 57.8%:62.1%. For a comprehensive study on Europe, see Mattei Dogan's "Religious Beliefs in Europe: Factors of Accelerated Decline" in Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion. Malta and Romania are the most religious countries and Estonia and Czech Republic are the least religious countries in Europe.
Eurobarometer poll 2012
According to new polls about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union accounting 72% of EU citizens. Catholics are the largest Christian group in EU, accounting for 48% EU citizens, while Protestants make up 12%, and Eastern Orthodox make up 8%, and other Christians account for 4% of the EU population. Non believer/Agnostic account 16%, Atheist account's 7%, and Muslim 2%.
The first newspaper reference to the religious movement began with coverage of the Báb, whom Bahá'ís consider the founder of a precursor religion, occurred in The Times on 1 November 1845, only a little over a year after the Báb first started his mission. British, Russian, and other diplomats, businessmen, scholars, and world travelers also took note of the precursor Bábí religion most notably in 1865 by Frenchman Arthur de Gobineau who wrote the first and most influential account. In April 1890 Edward G. Browne of Cambridge University met Bahá'u'lláh and left the only detailed description by a Westerner.
Starting in the 1890s Europeans began to convert to the religion. In 1910 Bahá'u'lláh's son and appointed successor, 'Abdu'l-Bahá embarked on a three-year journey to including Europe and North America and then wrote a series of letters that were compiled together in the book titled Tablets of the Divine Plan which included mention of the need to spread the religion in Europe following the war.
A 1925 list of "leading local Bahá'í Centres" of Europe listed organized communities of many countries - the largest being in Germany. However the religion was soon banned in a couple countries: in 1937 Heinrich Himmler disbanded the Bahá'í Faith's institutions in Germany because of its 'international and pacifist tendencies' and in Russia in 1938 "monstrous accusations" against Bahá'ís and a Soviet government policy of oppression of religion resulted in Bahá'í communities in 38 cities across Soviet territories ceasing to exist. However the religion recovered in both countries. The religion has generally spread such that in recent years the Association of Religion Data Archives estimated the Bahá'ís in European countries to number in hundreds to tens of thousands.
The majority of Europeans describe themselves as Christians, divided into a large number of denominations. Christian denominations are usually classed in three categories: Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism (a diverse group including Lutheranism, Calvinism and Anglicanism as well as numerous minor denominations, including Baptists, Methodism, Evangelicalism, Pentecostalism, etc.).
European culture, throughout most of its recent history, has been heavily influenced by Christian belief and has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture. The Christian culture was one of the more dominant forces to influence western civilization, concerning the course of philosophy, art, music, science, social structure and architecture. The Civilizing influence of Christianity includes social welfare, founding hospitals, economics (as the Protestant work ethic), politics architecture, literature and family life.
Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe according to a 2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves Christians at that time. According to a 2012 study about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union (account 72% of EU population), Catholics were the largest Christian group in EU, and accounted for 48% of the EU population, While Protestants made up 12%, and Eastern Orthodoxs made up 8%, and other Christians 4%.
- Roman Catholicism is the largest denomination with adherents mostly existing in Latin Europe (which includes France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Malta, San Marino, Monaco, Vatican City,); southern [Wallon] Belgium, Czech Republic, Ireland, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, western Ukraine, parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Mostly in predominantly Croat areas), but also the southern parts of Germanic Europe (which includes Austria, Luxembourg, northern [Flemish] Belgium, southern and western Germany, parts of the Netherlands, and Liechtenstein).
- Eastern Orthodoxy (the churches are in full communion, i.e. the national churches are united in theological concept and part of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Orthodox Church)
- Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
- Russian Orthodox Church
- Serbian Orthodox Church
- Romanian Orthodox Church
- Greek Orthodox Church
- Bulgarian Orthodox Church
- Cypriot Orthodox Church
- Albanian Orthodox Church
- Polish Orthodox Church
- Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia
- Turkish Orthodox Church (unrecognized by other Orthodox churches/schismatic)
- Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric (unrecognized by other Orthodox churches/schismatic)
- Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate (unrecognized by other Orthodox churches/schismatic)
- Montenegrin Orthodox Church (unrecognized by other Orthodox churches/schismatic)
- Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church
- Danish National Church
- Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church
- Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
- Evangelical Lutheran Church—Synod of France and Belgium
- Evangelical Church in Germany
- Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Hungary
- Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia
- Church of Sweden
There are numerous minor Protestant movements, including various Evangelical congregations.
Islam came to parts of European islands and coasts on the Mediterranean during the 8th-century Muslim conquests. In the Iberian Peninsula and parts of southern France, various Muslim states existed before the Reconquista; Islam spread in southern Italy briefly through the Emirate of Sicily and Emirate of Bari. During the Ottoman expansion, Islam was spread from into the Balkans and even part of central Europe. Muslims have also been historically present in Ukraine (Crimea and vicinity, with the Crimean Tatars), as well as modern-day Russia, beginning with Volga Bulgaria in the 10th century and the conversion of the Golden Horde to Islam. In recent years, Muslims have migrated to Europe as residents and temporary workers.
Muslims make up 99% of the population in Northern Cyprus, 96% in Kosovo, 56% in Albania, 51% in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 39.3% in Macedonia, 20% in Montenegro, between 10 and 15% in Russia, 7 -9% in France, 8% in Bulgaria, 6% in the Netherlands, 5% in Denmark, just over 4% in Switzerland and Austria, between 3 and 4% in Greece and almost 5% in the United Kingdom and Germany.
The Jews were dispersed within the Roman Empire from the 2nd century. At one time Judaism was practiced widely throughout the European continent; throughout the Middle Ages, Jews were accused of ritual murder and faced pogroms and legal discrimination. The Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany decimated Jewish population, and today, France is home to the largest Jewish community in Europe with 1% of the total population (between 483,000 and 500,000 Jews). Other European countries with notable Jewish populations include the United Kingdom (291,000 Jews), Germany (119,000), and Russia (194,000) which is home to Eastern Europe's largest Jewish community.
During the Enlightenment, Deism became influential especially in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Biblical concepts were challenged by concepts such as a heliocentric universe and other scientific challenges to the Bible. Notable early deists include Erasmus, Voltaire, Kant and Spinoza.
The trend towards secularism during the 20th century has a number of reasons, depending on the individual country:
- France has been traditionally laicist since the French Revolution. Today the country is 16% Atheist. The remaining population is made up evenly of both Christians and people who believe in a god or some form of spiritual life force, but aren't involved in organized religion. French society is still secular overall.
- Some parts of Eastern Europe were secularized as a matter of state doctrine under communist rule in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc. Albania was an officially (and constitutionally binding) atheist state from 1967 to 1991. The countries where the fewest people reported a religious belief were the Czech Republic (19%, traditionally Protestant) and Estonia (16%, traditionally Lutheran). The region of Eastern Germany, which was also under communist rule, is believed to be the least religious region in Europe. Other post-communist countries, however, have seen the opposite effect, with religion being very important in countries such as Romania, Lithuania and Poland.
- The traditionally Protestant countries have seen a general decrease in church attendance since the 1970s. This concerns Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia.
The trend towards secularism has been less pronounced in the traditionally Catholic countries of Mediterranean Europe. Greece as the only traditionally Eastern Orthodox country in Europe which has not been part of the communist Eastern Bloc also retains a very high religiosity, with in excess of 95% of Greeks adhering to the Greek Orthodox Church.
According to Pew Research Center survey in 2012 religiously unaffiliated (include agnostic and atheist) make up about 18.2% of Europeans population. According to the same survey religiously unaffiliated make up a majority of the population only in two European countries: Czech Republic (75%) and Estonia (60%).
Atheism and Agnosticism
During the late 20th and early 21st centuries, atheism or agnosticism has increased, with falling church attendance and membership in various European countries. The 2010 eurobarometer poll found that on total average, of the EU27 population, 51% "believe in a God", 26% believe in "some sort of spirit or life force" and 20% had neither of these forms of belief. Across the EU, belief was higher among women, increased with age, those with strict upbringing, those with the lowest levels of formal education and those leaning towards right-wing politics.:10–11 Results were varied widely between different countries, on the one end 94% of Maltese respondents stating that they believe in a God and on the other end only 16% of the people of Czech Republic stating the same.
European indigenous religions
Germanic indigenous religion
In the United Kingdom Census 2001, 300 people registered as Heathen in England and Wales. However, many Heathens followed the advice of the Pagan Federation (PF) and simply described themselves as "Pagan", while other Heathens did not specify their religious beliefs. In the 2011 census, 1,958 people self-identified as Heathen in England and Wales. A further 251 described themselves as Reconstructionist and may include some people reconstructing Germanic paganism.
Ásatrúarfélagið (Esetroth Fellowship) was recognized as an official religion by the Icelandic government in 1973. For its first 20 years it was led by farmer and poet Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson. By 2003, it had 777 members, and by 2014, it had 2,382 members, corresponding to 0.8% of Iceland's population. In Iceland, Germanic religion has an impact larger than the number of its adherents.
In Sweden, the Swedish Forn Sed Assembly (Forn Sed, or the archaic Forn Siðr, means "Old Custom") was formed in 1994 and is since 2007 recognized as a religious organization by the Swedish government. In Denmark Forn Siðr was formed in 1999, and was officially recognized in 2003 The Norwegian Åsatrufellesskapet Bifrost (Esetroth Fellowship Bifrost) was formed in 1996; as of 2011, the fellowship has some 300 members. Foreningen Forn Sed was formed in 1999, and has been recognized by the Norwegian government as a religious organization. In Spain there is the Odinist Community of Spain — Ásatrú.
A number of countries in Europe have official religions, including Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, the Vatican City (Catholic); Armenia (Apostolic Orthodoxy) ; Denmark, Iceland and the United Kingdom (England alone) (Anglican). In Switzerland, some cantons are officially Catholic, others Reformed Protestant. Some Swiss villages even have their religion as well as the village name written on the signs at their entrances.
Georgia has no established church, but the Georgian Orthodox Church enjoys de facto privileged status. Much the same applies in Germany with the Evangelical Church and the Roman Catholic Church, and the Jewish community. In Finland, both the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Lutheran Church are official. England, a part of the United Kingdom, has Anglicanism as its official religion. Scotland, another part of the UK, has Presbyterianism as its national church, but it is no longer "official". In Sweden, the national church used to be Lutheranism, but it is no longer "official" since 2000. Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, France, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain and Turkey are officially secular.
Hinduism mainly among Indian immigrants. Growing rapidly in recent years, notably in the United Kingdom, France, and the Netherlands. In 1998, there were an estimated 1.4 million Hindu adherents in Europe.
Sikhism has nearly 1 million adherents in Europe. Most of the community live in United Kingdom (750,000) and Italy (70,000). Around 10,000 in Belgium and France. The Netherlands and Germany have a Sikh population of 12,000. All other countries have 5,000 or fewer Sikhs such as Greece.
Other religions represented in Europe include:
- Creativity Movement
- Beliefs of the Romani people
- Unitarian Universalism
- Rastafari communities in the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy and elsewhere.
- Traditional African Religions (including Muti), mainly in the United Kingdom and France, including
- West African Vodun and Haitian Vodou (Voodoo), mainly among West African and black Caribbean immigrants in the UK and France.
- "Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204" (PDF). Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010.
- Hans Knippenberg (2005). The Changing Religious Landscape of Europe. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. pp. 7–9. ISBN 90-5589-248-3.
- Ronan McCrea (17 June 2013). "Ronan McCrea – Is migration making Europe more secular?". Aeon Magazine. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Church attendance faces decline almost everywhere retrieved 3 July 2011
- "Svenska kyrkans medlemsutveckling år 1972–2008" [Swedish church's membership development in the years 1972–2008]. svenskakyrkan.se (in Swedish). Archived from the original (XLS) on 13 August 2010.
- Svenska kyrkan i siffror Svenska kyrkan
- "Special Eurobarometer: Social values, Science and Technology" (PDF). European Commission Public Opinion. June 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2006.
- Crabtree, Steve. "Religiosity Highest in World's Poorest Nations". Gallup. Retrieved 27 May 2015. (in which numbers have been rounded)
- GALLUP WorldView - data accessed on 17 january 2009
- "The Census Campaign 2011". British Humanist Association. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Cristina Lica (4 December 2012). "Tot mai mulţi români "sţau lepadat" de Dumnezeu. Harta ateilor din România" [More and more Romanians "have been rejected" by God. Mapping atheists in Romania] (in Romanian). evz.ro. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "Religion and morale: Believe in God". World Values Survey. Retrieved 25 July 2007.
- "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-02, retrieved 14 August 2013 The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be ...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
- Bahá'í Information Office (United Kingdom) (1989). "First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith". Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- Momen, Moojan (1981), The Babi and Baha'i Religions, 1844–1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, Oxford, England: George Ronald, ISBN 0-85398-102-7
- U.K. Bahá'í Heritage Site. "The Bahá'í Faith in the United Kingdom -A Brief History". Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- Alessandro Bausani; Dennis MacEoin (1989). Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on 2008-02-26.
- Abbas, 'Abdu'l-Bahá; Mirza Ahmad Sohrab; trans. and comments (April 1919). Tablets, Instructions and Words of Explanation.
- Hassall, Graham; Fazel, Seena. "100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe". Bahá'í Studies Review. 1998 (8). pp. 35–44.
- Kolarz, Walter (1962). Religion in the Soviet Union. Armenian Research Center collection. St. Martin's Press. pp. 470–473 – via Questia (subscription required) .
- "Notes on the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its Territories", by Graham Hassall, Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5.3 (Sept.-Dec. 1993)
- "Most Baha'i Nations (2010)". QuickLists → Compare Nations → Religions. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "Europe". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- Orlandis, A Short History of the Catholic Church (1993), preface.
- How The Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-09-07.
- Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-298-4.
- Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6.
- Encyclopædia Britannica Church and social welfare
- Encyclopædia Britannica Care for the sick
- Encyclopædia Britannica Property, poverty, and the poor,
- Weber, Max (1905). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
- Encyclopædia Britannica Church and state
- Sir Banister Fletcher, History of Architecture on the Comparative Method.
- Buringh, Eltjo; van Zanden, Jan Luiten: "Charting the "Rise of the West": Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, A Long-Term Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries", The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 69, No. 2 (2009), pp. 409–445 (416, table 1)
- Encyclopædia Britannica The tendency to spiritualize and individualize marriage
- Global Christianity A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Christian Population Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, p.15
- The Global Religious Landscape A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010 Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, p.18
- "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013
- "Adherents.com". Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- W. A. R. Shadid (1995). Religious Freedom and the Position of Islam in Western Europe. Peters Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 90-390-0065-4.
- Pew Forum, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, January 2011, , ,
- "In Europa leben gegenwärtig knapp 53 Millionen Muslime" [Almost 53 million Muslims live in Europe at present] (in German). islam.de. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- LAU Archived 16 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. General Information on North Cyprus
- "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in daily life" (PDF). Milliyet News. KONDA Research and Consultancy. 8 September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2010.
- "The World Factbook". Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "The World Factbook". Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Miller, Tracy, ed. (October 2009), Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population (PDF), Pew Research Center, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-10-10, retrieved 2009-10-08
- "Census of population, households and dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013: Final results" (PDF). Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. June 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050" in: Pew Research Center, Retrieved 3 December 2016
- Republic of Macedonia, in: Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures, Retrieved 3 December 2016
- "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011] (PDF) (Press release) (in Serbo-Croatian and English). Statistical office, Montenegro. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-24.
- "The World Factbook". Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Minister of the Interior (France) (28 June 2010). "Entre 5 et 6 Millions de Musulmans en France" (in French). Le Point.
- Minister of the Interior (France), Article du Figaro, 28 June 2010
- Minister of the Interior (France), Article de Libération
- "Bulgaria: People and Society". CIA World Factbook. 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "Religion in England and Wales 2011". Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Muslims in Europe: Country guide, BBC News, 23 December 2005, accessed 3 May 2007
- Number of Muslims in Germany, accessed 13 October 2014
- "The World Factbook". Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- DellaPergola, Sergio; Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira, eds. (2 November 2012). "World Jewish Population, 2012" (PDF). Current Jewish Population Reports. Storrs, Connecticut: North American Jewish Data Bank. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Encyclopedia Of The Enlightenment Ellen Judy Wilson, Peter Hanns Reill - 2004
- The Founders' Facade R. L. Worthy - 2004
- "Eurobarometer 73.1: Biotechnology Report 2010" (PDF). European Commission Public Opinion. October 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2010.
- Gallagher, Amelia (1997). "The Albanian atheist state, 1967–1991".
- "Eurobarometer 225: Social values, Science & Technology" (PDF). Eurostat. 2005. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- "WHY EASTERN GERMANY IS THE MOST GODLESS PLACE ON EARTH". Die Welt. 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
- "East Germany the "most atheistic" of any region". Dialog International. 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
- Zuckerman (2005), p. 24.
- "Religiously Unaffiliated". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Zuckerman, Phil (2005). "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns" (PDF). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- Grimoire for the Apprentice Wizard - Page 353, Oberon Zell-Ravenheart - 2004
- Bonewits 2006. pp. 128–140.
- Blain, Jenny (2005). "Heathenry, the Past, and Sacred Sites in Today's Britain". In Strmiska, Michael F. Modern Paganism in World Cultures. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 181–208. ISBN 978-1-85109-608-4. p. 191
- Office for National Statistics, 11 December 2012, 2011 Census, Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales. Accessed 12 December 2012.
- Strmiska, Michael F.; Sigurvinsson, Baldur A. (2005). "Asatru: Nordic Paganism in Iceland and America". In Strmiska, Michael F. Modern Paganism in World Cultures. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 127–179. ISBN 978-1-85109-608-4. p. 168
- "Populations by religious organizations 1998–2013". Reykjavík, Iceland: Statistics Iceland.
- Strmiska, Michael F.; Sigurvinsson, Baldur A. (2005). "Asatru: Nordic Paganism in Iceland and America". In Strmiska, Michael F. Modern Paganism in World Cultures. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 127–179. ISBN 978-1-85109-608-4. p. 174
- "Forn Siðr - Forn Siðr". Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Constitution Religion at the Wayback Machine (archived 26 March 2009) (archived from the original on 2009-03-26).
- "Constitution of Malta, Article 2". legirel.cnrs.fr. 21 September 1964. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "Constitution de la Principauté, Article 9" [Constitution of the Principality, Article 9]. Principaute De Monaco, Ministère d'Etat (in French). 17 December 1962. Archived from the original on 16 April 2007.
- "Vatican City". Catholic-Pages.com. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- Denmark – Constitution: Section 4 State Church, International Constitutional Law.
- Constitution of the Republic of Iceland: Article 62, Government of Iceland.
- "Statistics Iceland - Statistics » Population » Religious organisations". Statice.is. 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
- "The History of the Church of England". The Archbishops' Council of the Church of England. Retrieved 2006-05-24.
- "Listina základních práv a svobod" [Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms]. Parliament of the Czech Republic (in Czech). 16 December 1992. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "U.S.Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic" (PDF). The Pew Forum. February 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- Buddhism fastest growing religion in West. Asian Tribune (2008-04-07). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- "Vipassana Foundation - Buddhists around the world".
- "BuddhaNet - Buddhism in the West".
- Contemporary Buddhist Revival in Kalmykia: Survey of the Present State of Religiosity | AsiaPortal - Infocus. Infocus.asiaportal.info (2012-02-06). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- Curtis, Polly (29 November 2007). "Hindu school is first to make vegetarianism a condition of entry". UK: The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- "Adherents by Location". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- "Hinduism". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- Paul Weller (2005). "Jain Origins and Key Organisations in the UK". multifaithcentre.org.
- A Brief Introduction to Jainism | religion | resources. Kwintessential.co.uk. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- UK | Wales | South East Wales | Sikhs celebrate harvest festival. BBC News (2003-05-10). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- NRI Sikhs in Italy. Nriinternet.com (2004-11-15). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- Sikhs in Nederland - Introduction. Sikhs.nl. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- Sikhs in Germany Seek Meeting with German Leaders on Turban Issue. Fateh.sikhnet.com (2004-05-20). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Religion in Europe.|