Rawadid dynasty

Rawwadid or Ravvadid (also Revend or Revendi) (955–1071), was a Kurdish[1][2][3][4] principality ruling Iranian Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 11th centuries, centered on Tabriz and Maragheh.[5] According to Minorsky and Bosworth, the Rawadids were originally of Arabic ancestry, and arrived in the region in the mid eighth century,[6][7] but they had become Kurdicized by the early 10th century and began to use Kurdish forms like Mamlan for Muhammad and Ahmadil for Ahmad as their names[8][9]

The earliest form of the name is written "Rewend" in the Sharafnameh. According to Kasravi, Rawwadids conquered the lands of the Musafirid ruler Ibrahim I ibn Marzuban I, in Azarbaijan in 979. Wahsudan bin Mamlan is the best known Rawwadid ruler, and he is mentioned by Ibn Athir. The regions of Tabriz, Maragheh and the strongholds of Sahand mountain were in his possession. In 1029, he helped the Hadhbani Kurds in Maragheh to defeat the invading Oghuz Turkic tribes.

Wahsudan also sent an expedition to Ardebil under the command of his son Mamlan II. The ruler (sipahbod) of Moghan had to submit to the conqueror. Mamlan also built a fortress in Ardebil.[10]

Toghrul conquered the principality in 1054 CE, and he defeated the prince of Tabriz Wahsudan ibn Mamlan.[11] In 1071, when Alp Arslan returned from his campaign against the Byzantine Empire, he deposed Mamlan. Wahsudan's successor, Ahmad bin Wahsudan, lord of Maragheh, took part in the Muhammad Malik Shah's campaign against Syria in 1110 CE.[12] His full title was Ahmadil bin Ibrahim bin Wahsudan al-Rawwadi al-Kurdi.[13] Ahmadil took part in the crusades on behalf of Muslims. Joscelin made a peace treaty with him during the siege of Tell Bashir (in present-day southern Turkey, south-east of Gaziantep). He was stabbed to death by the Ismailis in 1117 in Baghdad. His descendants continued to rule Maragheh and Tabriz as Atabakane Maragha until the Mongol invasion in 1227.[14][15]

Rawadid Rulers

  1. Muhammad Ibn Husain (? – c. 951 ?)
  2. Husain I (955–988)
  3. Mamlan I (988–1000)
  4. Husain II (1000–1019)
  5. Vahsudan (Wahsudan) (1019–1054)
  6. Abu Nasr Mamlan II[16] (1054–1071)

See also


  1. Hugh Kennedy, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates The Kurdish dynasties which emerged in the second half of tenth century...the Rawwadids
  2. Sharaf Khan Bidlisi The Sharafnam̂a Rawwadi Kurds..
  3. Mehrdad R. Izady The Sharafnam̂a, or, The history of the Kurdish nation, 1597 "Rawwadi Kurds.."
  4. Ian Richard Netto, Encyclopaedia of Islam "There was a succession of Kurdish dynasties such as ... Rawwadids of Tabriz and Azerbayjan"
  5. Jamie Stokes, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Volume 1, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8160-7158-6, p. 382.
  6. Vladimir Minorsky, Prehistory of Saladin http://rbedrosian.com/Ref/Minorsky/vmpsal1.htm#124.
  7. Massoume Price, Iran's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook, ABC-CLIO, 2005, ISBN 9781576079935, p. 43.
  8. C.E. Bosworth, The new Islamic dynasties, 389 pages, Columbia University Press, 1996, ISBN 9780231107143 (p.150)
  9. The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 32. ISBN 9780521069366
  10. V. Minorsky, A Mongol Decree of 720/1320 to the Family of Shaykh Zahid, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1954, p.524
  11. P. Blaum, Diplomacy gone to seed: a history of Byzantine foreign relations, 1047-57 A.D., International Journal of Kurdish Studies, Jan. 2005, p.15
  12. (see under Turkish Conquest)
  13. The Supreme Muslim Council: Islam Under the British Mandate for Palestine by Uri M. Kupferschmid
  14. P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (editors), Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition), "Marāg̲h̲a", Brill Online.
  15. Minorsky, La Domination des Dailamites, presented in a Conference of the Societé des Etudes Iraniennes, Paris, 28 May 1931. Also see Minorsky, Daylam in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1962, pp. 189–94
  16. The Cambridge History of Iran, Band 4 by R. N. Frye
  1. Rawwadids, Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  2. A Chronology of World Political History(801 - 1000 C.E.)(see Rawwadid)
  3. List of Rawadid Rulers
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