Pulp and paper industry

Paper mill Mondi SCP in Ružomberok, Slovakia.

The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, board and other cellulose-based products.

The industry is dominated by North American (United States and Canada), northern European (Finland, Sweden, and North-West Russia) and East Asian countries (such as East Siberian Russia, China, Japan, and South Korea). Australasia and Brazil also have significant pulp and paper enterprises. The United States had been the world's leading producer of paper until it was overtaken by China in 2009.[1]

The industry is criticized by environmental groups like the Natural Resources Defense Council for unsustainable deforestation and clearcutting of old-growth forest.[2] The industry trend is to expand globally to countries like Russia, China and Indonesia with low wages and low environmental oversight.[3] According to Greenpeace, farmers in Central America illegally rip up vast tracts of native forest for cattle and soybean production without any consequences,[4] and companies who buy timber from private land owners contribute to massive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest.[5]

Considering that the pulp and paper industry is a practitioner of nanotechnology,[6] then it is easily the world's largest.[7]

List of main countries by production quantity

According to statistic data by RISI, main producing countries of paper and paperboard, not including pulp, in the world are as follows:[8]

CountryProduction in 2011
(1,000 ton)
Production in 2010
(1,000 ton)
1 China99,30024.9%192,599
2 United States75,08318.8%275,849
3 Japan26,6276.7%327,288
4 Germany22,6985.7%423,122
5 Canada12,1123.0%512,787
6 South Korea11,4922.9%811,120
7 Finland11,3292.8%611,789
8 Sweden11,2982.8%711,410
9 Brazil10,1592.5%109,796
10 Indonesia10,0352.5%99,951
 World Total398,975100.0% 394,244

List of main company groups by production quantity

The world's main paper and paperboard company groups are as follows. (Some figures are estimates.):[9]

RankCompany GroupCountryProduction in 2010
(1,000 ton)
Rank by Sales
1Asia Pulp and Paper Indonesia19,0001
1International Paper United States11,9222
2Stora Enso Finland10,8123
3UPM Finland9,9147
4Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget Sweden8,9486
5Smurfit Kappa Group Ireland7,6509
6Nippon Paper Japan7,2925
7Nine Dragons Paper China7,28031
8Sappi South Africa6,90011
9Oji Paper Japan6,8614
10Smurfit-Stone Container United States5,89613
11Abitibi Bowater Canada5,31820
12NewPage United States4,40023
13Norske Skog Norway3,99830
14Mondi United Kingdom/
 South Africa
15Temple-Inland United States3,66028
16Lee & Man Paper China3,50046
17Domtar Canada3,48215
18Shandong Chenming Paper Holdings China3,35035
19Cascades Canada3,33022
20Siam Cement (SCC) Thailand3,19151

List by net sales


In 2007, the top 10 forest, paper and packaging products companies were:[10]

RankCompanyCountry2007 Net Sales
2007 Net Income (Loss)
1International Paper  USA 21,8901,168
2Stora Enso  Finland 18,322(291)
3Kimberly-Clark  USA 18,2661,822
4SCA  Sweden 15,6751,056
5Weyerhaeuser  USA 13,949462
6UPM  Finland 13,748111
7Oji Paper  Japan 10,439146
8Metsäliitto  Finland 10,507(12)
9Nippon Unipac  Japan 9,990195
10Smurfit Kappa  Ireland 9,963202


In 2008, the top 10 forest, paper and packaging products companies were:[11]

RankCompanyCountry2008 Net Sales
2008 Net Income (Loss)
1International Paper  United States 24,829(1,282)
2Kimberly-Clark  United States 19,4151,690
3SCA  Sweden 16,965857
4Stora Enso  Finland16,227(991)
5UPM  Finland 13,920(263)
6Oji Paper  Japan 12,788114
7Nippon Unipac  Japan 11,75355
8Smurfit Kappa  Ireland 10,390(73)
9Metsäliitto  Finland 9,335(313)
10Mondi Group  UK/ South Africa 9,466(310)

Leading manufacturers of capital equipment with over $1 billion in annual revenue for the pulp and paper industry include:

See also


  1. De Sisti, Mike (12 December 2012). "China's Paper Operation". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  2. "NRDC: Paper Industry Laying Waste to North American Forests". www.nrdc.org. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
  3. "A crumpling paper industry". Oregon Local News. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
  4. "Amazon draught speeds up destruction The WE News Archives". www.thewe.cc. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
  5. Phillips, Tom (2011-05-20). "Brazil forms 'crisis cabinet' following unexpected deforestation surge". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
  6. Pira International Ltd. Nanotechnology in Paper Production. iSmithers Rapra Publishing. ISBN 184735811X.
  7. Hubbe, M.A. (2006). "Does production of the world's highest-tonnage manufactured item often involve nanotechnology?". Nanotechnology Perceptions. 2 (3): 263–265. ISSN 1660-6795.
  8. "Japan in the World (according to the figure in Annual Review of Global Pulp and Paper Statistics by RISI)" (in Japanese). Japan Paper Association. Retrieved Dec.17, 2011 and Nov.15, 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  9. "The PPI Top 100 - most companies in the black". RISI. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
  10. "Global Forest, Paper & Packaging Industry Survey: 2008 Edition – Survey of 2007 Results" (pdf). PricewaterhouseCoopers. p. 7. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  11. "Global Forest, Paper & Packaging Industry Survey: 2009 Edition - Survey of 2008 Results" (pdf). PricewaterhouseCoopers. p. 12. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
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