ICD-9-CM 23.2-23.6
MeSH D011476

Prosthodontics, also known as dental prosthetics or prosthetic dentistry, is the area of dentistry that focuses on dental prostheses. It is one of nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA), Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, Royal College of Surgeons of Glasgow, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons. The ADA defines it as "the dental specialty pertaining to the diagnosis, treatment planning, rehabilitation and maintenance of the oral function, comfort, appearance and health of patients with clinical conditions associated with missing or deficient teeth and/or oral and maxillofacial tissues using biocompatible substitutes."[1]


According to the American College of Prosthodontists, a prosthodontist is a dentist who:[2]

  1. Specializes in the aesthetic (cosmetic) restoration and replacement of teeth.
  2. Receives three to four years of additional training after dental school.
  3. Restores optimum appearance and function to your smile. The planning and restoration of implants, treatment of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ), and rehabilitation of occlusion with prostheses all fall under the field of prosthodontics.

The American College of Prosthodontists (ACP)[2] ensures standards are maintained in the field. Becoming a prosthodontist requires an additional three years of postgraduate specialty training after obtaining a dental degree. Recently, the ADA's Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) passed the updated educational standards for all prosthodontics programs in the United States that now mandates surgical placement of dental implants at an in-depth competency level (on par with other surgical dental specialties)[3] Training consists of rigorous clinical and didactic preparation in the basic sciences, head and neck anatomy, biomedical sciences, biomaterial sciences, implant surgery, function of occlusion (bite), TMJ, and treatment planning and experience treating full-mouth reconstruction cases, and esthetics. Due to this extensive training, prosthodontists are required to treat complex cases, full-mouth rehabilitation, TMJ-related disorders, congenital disorders, and sleep apnea by planning and fabricating various prostheses. There are only 3,200 prosthodontists in comparison to 170,000 general dentists in the United States.[4] Prosthodontists have been consistently ranked at 6th or 7th positions by Forbes among America's most competitive and highest salaried jobs.[5][6][7][8]

Board certification is awarded through the American Board of Prosthodontics (ABP)[9] and requires successful completion of the Part I written examination and Part 2, 3 and 4 oral examinations. The written and one oral examination may be taken during the 3rd year of speciality training and the remaining two oral examinations taken following completion of speciality training. Board eligibility starts when an application is approved by the ABP and lasts for six years.[10] Diplomates of the ABP are ethically required to have a practice limited to prosthodontics. Fellows of the American College of Prosthodontists (FACP) are required to have a dental degree, have completed three years of prosthodontic speciality training, and be board certified by the ABP.

According to the ADA, specialties are recognized in those areas where advanced knowledge and skills are essential to maintain or restore oral health (Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct). Not all areas in dentistry will satisfy the requirements for specialty recognition. Acknowledged by the profession, the contributions of such and their endeavors are encouraged.[11]

The American Dental Association does not recognize Cosmetic dentistry as a speciality.[12] Prosthodontics is the only dental speciality under which the concentration of cosmetic/esthetic dentistry falls.[13] General dentists may perform some simple cosmetic procedures. Consequently, there are questions regarding whether it is ethical for general dentists to treat "smile makeovers" or complex cosmetic and full-mouth reconstruction cases, as they are not qualified to address the complex needs of the patient.[12][14] Likewise, there is no specialty recognized by the ADA for dental implants.

Maxillofacial prosthodontics/prosthetics

Maxillofacial prosthetics (Oral and Maxillofacial Prosthodontics) is a sub-specialty (or super-specialty) of Prosthodontics.[15] All Maxillofacial prosthodontists are prosthodontists first and then attain a fellowship training (1 year) exclusively in Maxillofacial prosthetics that includes oral surgical and prosthodontic treatments.[13][16] Maxillofacial prosthodontists treat patients who have acquired and congenital defects of the head and neck (maxillofacial) region due to cancer, surgery, trauma, and/or birth defects. Maxillary obturators, speech-aid prosthesis (formerly called as Pharyngeal/soft palate obturators) and mandibular-resection prostheses are the most common prostheses planned and fabricated by Maxillofacial prosthodontists.[16] Other types of prostheses include artificial eyes, nose and other facial prostheses fabricated in conjunction with an anaplastologist.[17]

Treatment is multidisciplinary, involving oral and maxillofacial surgeons, plastic surgeons, head and neck surgeons, ENT doctors, oncologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and other healthcare professionals.


Treatment modalities

See also


  1. American Dental Association. "Specialty Definitions: Definitions of Recognized Dental Specialties".
  2. 1 2 "American College of Prosthodontists".
  3. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. "Careers and Wages". American College of Prosthodontists.
  5. Kneale, Klaus (4 May 2009). "In Pictures: America's Best-Paying Jobs". Forbes.
  6. "Prosthodontic Forum Organization Reports November 2007" (pdf). American College of Prosthodontists. November 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
  7. Weiss, Tara (11 July 2008). "By The Numbers: America's Most Competitive Jobs". Forbes.
  8. "Prosthodontist Salary". PayScale. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  9. "American Board of Prosthodontics".
  10. "Guidelines for the Certification Process" (pdf). American Board of Prosthodontics. 20 February 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
  11. "Dental Specialties". American Dental Association.
  12. 1 2 Maihofer MG (February 2009). "Cosmetic dentistry is not a recognized specialty". The Journal of the Michigan Dental Association. 91 (2): 18. PMID 19288658.
  13. 1 2 "American Dental Association".
  14. Felton DA (June 2009). "Ethics, dentistry, and the prosthodontist". Journal of Prosthodontics. 18 (4): 291. doi:10.1111/j.1532-849X.2009.00484.x. PMID 19635064.
  16. 1 2 "Referring Physicians". American Academy of Maxillofacial Prosthetics.
  17. "Patient Resources". American Academy of Maxillofacial Prosthetics.
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