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Pratikraman (literally Sanskrit "introspection"), is a process during which Jains repent (prayaschit) for their sins during their daily life, and remind themselves not to repeat them. Although frequency of repenting varies, devout Jains often practice Pratikraman at least twice a day. It is one of the 28 primary attributes (mūla guņa) of both Shwetambar monk and Digambara monk
There are five types of Pratikraman:
Devasi Pratikraman is performed daily in the evening, Raysi Pratikraman is performed in the early morning, Pakhi Pratikraman is done once every fifteen days. Chaumasi Pratikraman is done once in four months on the Purnima (full moon) of the Kartik, Falgun and Aṣaṛh months of the Vira Nirvana Samvat calendrical year for the sins committed during that period.
Samvatsari Pratikraman includes all six things a Śrāvaka (householders) must do: Pratikraman is a combination of six avshyakas (essential rituals).
- Sāmāyika - maintain equanimity
- Chauvisanttho - honor the Tirthankaras
- Vandana - honor all Jain monkss and nuns
- Pratikraman - repent wrongdoing
- Kayotsarga - meditation and prayer
- Pratyakhan - take vows to keep self-control
Jainism considers the soul, in its pure form, to have infinite perception, knowledge, and vigor, and to be non-attached. These attributes are not seen in a worldly soul because it is soiled with karmas. By following religious principles principals and activities, Jains believe they overcome karmas and promote liberation of the soul. There are various rituals, of which Pratikraman is the most important. During pratikraman, Jains repent for non-meritorious activities on a daily basis.
Pratikraman must be performed twice every day, or at least once every day after sunset. If that is not possible, at least on every Pakkhi (24 times in a year).
Pratikramana is also done while performing the sāmāyika (periodic concentration). In performing sāmāyika, the śrāvaka has to stand facing north or east and bow to the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi. He then sit down and recites the Namokara mantra a certain number of times, and finally devotes himself to holy meditation. This consists in:
- pratikramana, recounting the sins committed and repenting for them,
- pratyākhyanā, resolving to avoid particular sins in future,
- sāmāyika karma, renunciation of personal attachments, and the cultivation of a feeling of regarding every body and thing alike,
- stuti, praising the four and twenty Tīrthankaras,
- vandanā, devotion to a particular Tīrthankaras, and
- kāyotsarga, withdrawal of attention from the body (physical personality) and becoming absorbed in the contemplation of the spiritual Self.
- "Jainism Simplified Chapter 18 - Pratikraman". Umich.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-05.
- Jain, Champat Rai (1917). The Householder's Dharma: English Translation of The Ratna Karanda Sravakachara. The Central Jaina Publishing House. p. 44-45, 61.