Post-Soviet states

The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU)[1] or former Soviet Republics, are the 15 independent states that emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its dissolution in December 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union. On March 11, 1990, Lithuania was the first to declare its independence, with Estonia and Latvia following suit in August 1991. All three Baltic states claimed continuity from the original states that existed prior to their annexation by the Soviet Union in 1944 and were admitted to the United Nations on 17 September 1991.[2][3] The remaining 12 republics all subsequently seceded.[2] 12 of the 15 states, excluding the Baltic states, initially formed the CIS and most joined CSTO, while the Baltic states focused on European Union and NATO membership.

Country comparison

States and geographical groupings

Common groupings of the post-Soviet states:
  Central Asia
  East-Central Europe
  Baltic states
  Southern Caucasus

The 15 post-Soviet states are typically divided into the following five groupings. Each of these regions has its own common set of traits, owing not only to geographic and cultural factors but also to that region's history in relation to Russia. In addition, there are a number of de facto independent, but internationally unrecognized states (see the section Separatist conflicts below).

General statistics

CountryCoat of armsFlagCapitalIndependenceArea (km²)Area (mi²)PopulationDensity
DatePopulation source
Russian Federation
Moscow December 12, 1991[4] 17,098,242 6,601,668 143,975,923 8.42 21.8 January 1, 2015 Official estimate
Ukraine[5] Kiev August 24, 1991 603,628 233,062 45,377,581 75 194 April 1, 2014 Monthly official estimate
Republic of Belarus
Minsk August 25, 1991 207,600 80,155 9,765,469 46 119 July 1, 2014 Quarterly official estimate
Republic of Uzbekistan
Tashkent August 31, 1991 444,103 171,469 30,492,800 69 179 January 1, 2014 Official estimate
Republic of Kazakhstan
Astana December 16, 1991 2,724,900 1,052,090 17,186,000 6.31 16 February 1, 2014 Monthly official estimate
Georgia Tbilisi (executive)
Kutaisi (legislative)
April 9, 1991 69,700 26,911 4,490,500 64 166 January 1, 2014 Official estimate
Republic of Azerbaijan
Baku August 30, 1991 86,600 33,436 9,477,100 109 282 December 31, 2013 Official estimate
Republic of Lithuania
Vilnius February 16, 1918 (current)
March 11, 1990 (restored)
65,300 25,212 2,944,459 45 117 January 1, 2014 Monthly official estimate
Republic of Moldova
Chișinău August 27, 1991 33,843 13,067 3,559,500 105 272 January 1, 2012 Official estimate
Republic of Latvia
Riga November 18, 1918 (current)
August 21, 1991 (restored)
64,562 24,928 2,005,200 31 80 January 1, 2014 Monthly official estimate
Kyrgyz Republic
Bishkek August 31, 1991 199,945 77,199 5,895,100 29.5 76 2015 Official estimate
Republic of Tajikistan
Dushanbe September 9, 1991 143,100 55,251 8,160,000 57 148 January 1, 2014 Official estimate
Republic of Armenia
Yerevan September 21, 1991 29,743 11,484 3,024,100 102 264 2012 Official estimate
Turkmenistan Ashgabat October 27, 1991 491,210 189,657 5,240,000 10.7 27.7 July 1, 2013 UN estimate
Republic of Estonia
Tallinn February 24, 1918 (current)
August 20, 1991 (restored)
45,339 17,505 1,313,271 29 75 January 1, 2015 Official estimate
 Total overall of the Former USSR December 26, 1991 22,307,815 8,613,096 292,610,734 13.1 34 Various Dates Various Sources

Area includes land and water.

Current leaders

Heads of state

  1. ^ After the death of Islam Karimov on September 2, 2016, Nigmatilla Yuldashev was the acting president for seven days. On September 8, 2016, prime minister Shavkat Mirziyoyev was named the interim president of Uzbekistan for three months before elections in accordance to article 96 of the Uzbek Constitution.
  2. ^ Holds both presidency and executive powers since the former Prime Minister of Turkmenistan role was abolished.

Heads of government

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference UZBPres was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference TKMPM was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


The dissolution of the Soviet Union took place as a result and against the backdrop of general economic stagnation, even regression. As the Gosplan, which had set up production chains to cross SSR lines, broke down, the inter-republic economic connections were also disrupted, leading to even more serious breakdown of the post-Soviet economies.

Most of the formerly Soviet states began the transition to a market economy in 1990-1991 and made efforts to rebuild and restructure their economic systems, with varying results. The process triggered a severe transition decline, with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dropping by more than 40% between 1990 and 1995.[6] This decline in GDP was much more intense than the 27% decline that the United States suffered in the wake of the Great Depression between 1930 and 1934.[7] The reconfiguration of public finance in compliance with the principles of market economy resulted in dramatically reduced spending on health, education and other social programs, leading to a sharp increase in poverty.[8] The economic shocks associated with wholesale privatization resulted in the deaths of roughly 1 million working age individuals throughout the former Soviet bloc in the 1990s.[9][10]

The initial transition decline was eventually arrested by the cumulative effect of market reforms, and after 1995 the economy in the post-Soviet states began to recover, with GDP switching from negative to positive growth rates. By 2007, 10 of the 15 post-Soviet states had reached GDP greater than what they had in 1991.[11] Only Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan had GDP significantly below the 1991 level. The recovery in Russia was marginal, with GDP in 2006-2007 just nudging above the 1991 level. This could be perceived as failure of capitalism to improve the standard of living in Russia, and combined with the aftershocks of the 1998 economic crisis it led to a return of more interventionist economic policies by Vladimir Putin's administration.

Change in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in constant prices, 1991-2015[12]

Eastern European states
Russia100 63.1 74.5 103.3 118.3 119.8 1997
Ukraine100 47.2 51.8 73.7 75.9 63.4 2000
Belarus100 67.9 94.0 141.5 192.5 193.9 1996
Moldova100 45.2 45.0 62.5 74.5 83.2 1997
Baltic states
Estonia100 ? ? ? ? ? ?
Latvia100 67.8 92.9 143.1 130.1 145.8 1993
Lithuania100 64.6 81.5 119.8 123.9 139.6 1995
Central Asia
Kazakhstan100 69.3 88.5 141.4 185.7 219.0 1996
Kyrgyzstan100 58.9 76.1 89.6 114.4 133.9 1996
Tajikistan100 34.1 45.2 56.0 98.1 124.5 1997
Turkmenistan100 68.4 107.7 215.5 351.8 515.5 1998
Uzbekistan100 82.9 102.6 137.5 208.4 281.2 1996
Armenia100 63.3 84.2 154.7 172.5 202.6 1994
Azerbaijan100 42.7 65.2 150.2 241.1 276.5 1996
Georgia100 39.8 49.8 74.1 93.2 109.3 1995

*Economy of most Soviet republics started to decline in 1989-1990, thus indices for 1991 don't match pre-reform maximums.

**The year when GDP decline switched to GDP growth.

List of the present Gross domestic product (GDP) (figures are given in 2013 United States dollars for the year 2013 according to The World Factbook[13][14][15][16]):

Country nominal
per capita
per capita
Russia Russian Federation 2,113,000 14,600 2,553,000 18,100
Ukraine Ukraine 175,500 3,800 337,400 7,400
Belarus Belarus 69,240 7,500 150,400 16,100
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 55,180 1,900 112,600 3,800
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 224,900 12,700 243,600 14,100
Georgia (country) Georgia 15,950 3,200 27,300 6,100
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 76,010 7,900 100,400 10,800
Lithuania Lithuania 46,710 15,300 67,430 22,600
Moldova Moldova 7,880 2,200 12,680 3,600
Latvia Latvia 30,380 15,400 38,870 19,100
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 7,234 1,300 14,300 2,500
Tajikistan Tajikistan 8,537 1,000 19,000 2,300
Armenia Armenia 10,440 3,400 20,610 6,300
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 40,560 7,900 55,160 9,700
Estonia Estonia 24,280 18,300 29,940 22,400

Developmental progress

The post-Soviet states listed according to their Human Development Index scores (2013).

Very High Human Development:

High Human Development:

Medium Human Development:

Regional organizations

GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development Georgia (country) Azerbaijan Ukraine Moldova Tajikistan Turkmenistan Collective Security Treaty Organization Eurasian Economic Union Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Kazakhstan Armenia Union State Belarus Russia Commonwealth of Independent States Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area Baltic Assembly Lithuania Latvia Estonia Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations Transnistria Abkhazia South Ossetia Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational organisations in the territory of the former Soviet Unionvde
  CIS members
  States that joined EU and NATO
  Other EU or NATO members

A number of regional organizations and cooperating blocs have sprung up since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Only organizations that are mainly (or completely) composed of post-Soviet states are listed in this section; organizations with wider memberships are not discussed. The 15 post-Soviet states are divided in their participation to the regional blocs:

Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) consists of 11 former Soviet Republics that differ in their membership status. As of December 2010, 9 countries have ratified the CIS charter and are full CIS members (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan), one country (Turkmenistan) is an associate member, one country (Ukraine) is a founding and participating country, but legally not a member country, and one country (Georgia) left the organization in 2009. In 2014, Ukraine declined its CIS chairmanship and considered withdrawal from the organization.[22]

In 1994, the CIS countries agreed to create a free trade area, but the agreements were never signed. On October 19, 2011 Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine signed a free trade agreement.[23] Uzbekistan joined the free trade area in 2013.[24]

Eurasian Economic Community

  EAEC members
  GUAM members
  Other CIS members

The Eurasian Economic Community (EURASEC), formerly the CIS Customs Union, was established by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Ukraine and Moldova have observer status in the community; however, Ukraine has declared its desire not to become a full member state. Because having common borders with the rest of the community is a prerequisite for full membership, Moldova is barred from seeking it. Uzbekistan applied for membership in October 2005,[25] when the process of merging Central Asian Cooperation Organization and the Eurasian Economic Community began; it joined on 25 January 2006. Uzbekistan subsequently suspended its membership in 2008.[26]

On 10 October 2014 an agreement on the termination of the Eurasian Economic Community was signed in Minsk after a session of the Interstate Council of the EAEC. The Eurasian Economic Community was terminated from 1 January 2015 in connection with the launch of the Eurasian Economic Union.[27]

Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

Economical integration blocs in European / Post-Soviet area: EU, EFTA, CEFTA and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan created a customs union that entered into force in July 2010. Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan indicated interest in joining at the time.[28][29] Russia has been eager for Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine to join the custom union instead of the European Union, and the Moldovan break-away state of Transnitria has supported this. In 2013, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia announced plans to seek membership, but division over the issue in Ukraine led to the 2014 Ukrainian revolution after the Ukrainian government backed out of an EU Eastern Partnership in favor of the union. In 2014, voters in the Moldovan autonomous region of Gagauzia rejected closer ties to the EU in favor of the union.[30]

On 1 January 2012, Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus established the Single Economic Space which ensures the effective functioning of a single market for goods, services, capital and labour, and to establish coherent industrial, transport, energy and agricultural policies.[31][32] The agreement included a roadmap for future integration and established the Eurasian Economic Commission (modelled on the European Commission).[33] The Eurasian Economic Commission serves as the regulatory agency for the Eurasian Customs Union, the Single Economic Space and the Eurasian Economic Union.[31]

Eurasian Economic Union

  EEU members
  Acceding EEU Members
  Other CIS Members

The Eurasian Economic Union is an economic union of post-Soviet states. The treaty aiming for the establishment of the EEU was signed on 29 May 2014 by the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, and came into force on 1 January 2015.[34] Treaties aiming for Armenia's and Kyrgyzstan's accession to the Eurasian Economic Union were signed on 9 October 2014 and 23 December respectively. Armenia's accession treaty came into force on 2 January 2015.[35] Although Kyrgyzstan's accession treaty will not come into force until May 2015, provided it has been ratified,[36] it will participate in the EEU from the day of its establishment as an acceding state.[37][38][39][40][41]

Collective Security Treaty Organization

  CSTO members
  GUAM members
  Other CIS members

Seven CIS member states, namely Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Armenia, have enhanced their military cooperation, establishing the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), this being an expansion of the previous Collective Security Treaty (CST). Uzbekistan which (alongside Georgia and Azerbaijan) withdrew from the CST in 1999, joined GUAM. Then in 2005 it withdrew from GUAM and joined the CSTO in 2006. On 28 June 2012, Uzbekistan suspended its membership in the CSTO.[42]

North Atlantic Treaty Organization


Three former Soviet states are members of NATO: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Georgia, where both public opinion and the ruling government favor NATO membership, is in the Intensified Dialogue program with NATO. In Ukraine after the 2010 electoral victory of Viktor Yanukovych, the government officially declared neutrality and no longer seeks NATO membership, as it did after the Orange revolution and the presidency of Viktor Yushchenko.


Four member states, namely Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova established the GUAM group that was largely seen as intending to counter Russian dominance in the region. Notably, these four nations do not participate in any of the other regional organizations that sprang up in the region since the dissolution of the Soviet Union (other than the CIS).

Union of Russia and Belarus

  Members of the Union
  CIS members who have shown interest in becoming members of the Union
  Other CIS members

The Union of Russia and Belarus was originally formed on 2 April 1996 under the name Commonwealth of Russia and Belarus, before being tightened further on 8 December 1999. It was initiated by the president of Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko. On paper, the Union of Russia and Belarus intends further integration, beyond the scope of mere cooperation, including the introduction of the ruble as a common currency.

Other regional organizations

Economic Cooperation Organization

  Community of Democratic Choice
  Economic Cooperation Organization

The Economic Cooperation Organization was originally formed in 1985 by Turkey, Iran and Pakistan but in 1992 the organization was expanded to include Afghanistan and the six primarily Muslim former Soviet republics: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Community of Democratic Choice

The Community of Democratic Choice (CDC) was formed in December 2005 at the primary instigation of Ukraine and Georgia, and composed of six post-Soviet states (Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, and the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) and three other countries of Eastern and Central Europe (Slovenia, Romania and the Republic of Macedonia). The Black Sea Forum (BSF) is a closely related organization.

Just like GUAM before it, this forum is largely seen as intending to counteract Russian influence in the area. This is the only international forum centered in the post-Soviet space in which the Baltic states also participate. In addition, the other three post-Soviet states in it are all members of GUAM.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation:
  Member state
  Observer state
  Dialogue partner
  Applicants for observer status

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), is composed of China and five post-Soviet states, namely Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The organization was founded in 2001, though its predecessor, the Shanghai Five grouping, has existed since 1996. Its aims revolve around security-related issues.

For economic cooperation

For political integration and security alliances

In other domains


Apart from above, the former Soviet republics also hold membership in a number of multinational organizations such as:


Regarding political freedom in the former Soviet republics, Freedom House's 2015 report listed the following:

Similarly, the Worldwide Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders in 2015, recorded the following as regards press freedom:

It has been remarked that several post-Soviet states have not changed leadership since their independence, such as Nursultan Nazarbayev in Kazakhstan and Islam Karimov in Uzbekistan, until his death in September 2016. All of these had originally more limited terms but through decrees or referendums prolonged their stay in office (a practice also followed by Presidents Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus, Emomalii Rahmon of Tajikistan and Dmitry Medvedev of Russia.[43]) Askar Akayev of Kyrgyzstan had likewise served as President since its independence until he was forced to resign as a result of the Kyrgyz revolution of 2005. Saparmurat Niyazov in Turkmenistan ruled from independence until his death in 2006, creating a personality cult around himself.

The issue of dynastical succession has been another element affecting the politics of some post-Soviet States. Heydar Aliyev, after constructing an extensive and ongoing cult of personality, handed the Presidency of Azerbaijan to his son, Ilham Aliyev. Theories about the children of other leaders in Central Asia being groomed for succession abound.[44] The participation of Akayev's son and daughter in the 2005 Kyrgyz parliamentary elections boosted fears of dynastic succession being used in Kyrgyzstan as well, and may have contributed to the anti-Akayev climate that led to his overthrow.

Separatist conflicts

Economic, political, national, military, and social problems have all been factors in separatism in the Post-Soviet space. In many cases, problems due to factors such as ethnic divisions existed before the fall of the Soviet Union, and upon the fall of the union were brought into the open.[45] Such territories and resulting military conflicts have so far been:

Current declared states

Former declared states

Civil wars

Civil wars unrelated to separatist movements have occurred twice in the region:

Colour revolutions

Since 2003, a number of (largely) peaceful "colour revolutions" have happened in some post-Soviet states after disputed elections, with popular protests bringing into power the former opposition.

Russian population in post-Soviet states

There is a significant Russophone population in most of the post-Soviet states, whose political position as an ethnic minority varies from country to country.[59] While Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, in addition to Russia, have kept Russian as an official language, the language lost its status in other post-Soviet states after the end of the Soviet Union. It maintains semi-official status in all CIS member states, because it is the organisation's official working language, but in the three Baltic States, the Russian language is not recognized in any official capacity. Georgia, since its independence from the CIS in 2009, has begun operating its government almost exclusively in the Georgian language.


While the Soviet system placed severe restrictions on religious intellectual life, traditions continued to survive. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Islamic movements have emerged alongside ethnic and secular ones. Vitaly Naumkin gives the following assessment: "Throughout the time of change, Islam has served as a symbol of identity, a force for mobilization, and a pressure for democracy. This is one of the few social disasters that the church has survived, in which it was not the cause. But if successful politically, it faces economic challenges beyond its grasp."[60]

The Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) plus Azerbaijan from Southern caucasus are Muslim, except for their dwindling Russian and other European minorities. The Baltic States are historically Western Christian (Protestant and Roman Catholic), which adds another layer of pro-Western orientation to those countries, although the vast majority of what was the Protestant population (Estonia and northern Latvia) there is now irreligious. The dominant religion in the remaining former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine) is Orthodox Christianity. In most countries, religiosity has increased since the Soviet collapse.

Post-Soviet nostalgia

Victory Day in Donetsk, Ukraine, 9 May 2010

Ever since the dissolution of the Soviet Union a certain number of people have expressed a longing for the Soviet period and its values. The level of post-Soviet nostalgia varies across the former republics. For example, certain groups of people may blend the Soviet and post-Soviet experience in their daily lives..[61]

According to July 2012 polling in Ukraine by RATING, 42% of respondents supported the formation of a unified state of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus; earlier in 2012 this support had been 48%.[62]

A 2016 poll of Russian citizens conducted by Levada Center showed that the majority viewed the collapse of the USSR negatively and felt that it could have been avoided, and an even greater number would openly welcome a revival of the Soviet system.[63]

See also


  1. "Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Russian and American Perspectives". 30 October 1997. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  2. 1 2 Van Elsuwege, Peter (2008). From Soviet Republics to Eu Member States: A Legal and Political Assessment of the Baltic States' Accession to the EU. Studies in EU External Relations. 1. BRILL. p. xxii. ISBN 9789004169456.
  3. Smith, David James (2001). Estonia. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 0-415-26728-5.
  4. The Russian Federation technically achieved de facto independence from the Soviet Union after ratifying the Belavezha Accords therefore, Russia became the internationally recognized successor state to the Soviet Union.
  5. Includes Crimea and Sevastopol.
  6. Transition: The First Ten Years – Analysis and Lessons for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, The World Bank, Washington, DC, 2002, p. 4.
  7. GDP decline: transition and Great Depression compared, Kalikova and Associates Law Firm, Kyrgyzstan. Retrieved 13 January 2009.
  8. Study Finds Poverty Deepening in Former Communist Countries, New York Times, October 12, 2000
  9. "Death surge linked with mass privatisation". University of Oxford. 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2015-06-28.
  10. Privatisation 'raised death rate'. BBC, 15 January 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  11. IMF online database
  12. "GDP growth (annual %)". Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  13. "The World Factbook". Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  14. (nominal) GDP (official exchange rate), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, accessed on 19 March 2014. Population data obtained from Total Midyear Population, U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, accessed on 19 March 2014. Note: Per capita values were obtained by dividing the GDP (official exchange rate) data by the population data. The figures were then rounded to the nearest hundred in typical Factbook fashion.
  15. "The World Factbook". Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  16. "The World Factbook". Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  17. 1 2 Ratification status of CIS documents as of 15 January 2008 Archived October 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (Russian).
  18. Turkmenistan reduces CIS ties to "Associate Member", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 29 August 2005.
  19. Georgian parliament votes to withdraw from CIS on BBC News, 14 August 2008.
  20. Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia on Georgia's withdrawal from CIS Archived September 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., 18 August 2008.
  21. CIS Charter, 22 January 1993 (unofficial English translation).
  22. Reuters (March 19, 2014). "Ukraine Says It Could Quit Russia-Led Bloc". Reuters. Retrieved Jan 14, 2015.
  23. RFE/RL (Oct 19, 2011). "Most CIS Countries Sign Up To Free-Trade Zone". RFE/RL. Retrieved Jan 14, 2015.
  24. Ian Carver (Jan 18, 2014). "Implications of CIS Free Trade Zone Expansion in Central Asia". New Eastern Outlook. Retrieved Jan 14, 2015.
  25. Sputnik (10 November 2005). "Working group discusses Uzbekistan's accession to EurAsEC". Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  26. Sputnik (12 November 2008). "Uzbekistan suspends Eurasec membership, Moscow unruffled". Archived from the original on June 25, 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  27. Eurasian Economic Community Leaders Sign Group Abolition Agreement, Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  28. RIA Novosti report, 6 July 2010, "Customs Union of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan to become fully operational" Archived September 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 22 December 2010
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  30. "Gagauzia Voters Reject Closer EU Ties For Moldova". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  31. 1 2 Ukraine cannot get observer status at Eurasian Econ Union due to Association Agreement with EU, Russia, Interfax-Ukraine (14 June 2013)
  32. Barron, Lisa (1 October 2013). "Belarus eases current account deficit with Customs Union, Common Economic Space". Cistran Finance. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  33. Евразийские комиссары получат статус федеральных министров. Tut.By (in Russian). 17 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  34. Договор о Евразийском экономическом союзе
  35. Дмитрий. "ДОГОВОР О ПРИСОЕДИНЕНИИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ АРМЕНИЯ К ДОГОВОРУ О ЕВРАЗИЙСКОМ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОМ СОЮЗЕ ОТ 29 МАЯ 2014 ГОДА (Минск, 10 октября 2014 года)". Retrieved 2 December 2015.
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  38. "Putin said the accession of Kyrgyzstan to the EAEC" (in Russian). Life News. 23 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014. Kyrgyzstan is among the member countries of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEC). Kyrgyzstan will participate in the governing bodies of the EAEC since the start of the Union - from 1 January 2015.
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  40. Farchy, Jack (23 December 2014). "Eurasian unity under strain even as bloc expands". The Financial Times. Retrieved 26 December 2014. Kyrgyzstan on Tuesday a signed a treaty to join the Eurasian Economic Union, expanding the membership of Moscow-led project to five even as its unity is strained by the market turmoil gripping Russia.
  41. "Eurasian Economic Union to Launch on January 1". The Trumpet. 24 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014. Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan agreed to a January 1 inauguration.
  42. "Uzbekistan Suspends Its Membership in CSTO". The Gazette of Central Asia. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  43. "Би-би-си - Россия - Медведев решил продлить президентские полномочия". Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  44. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-03-12. Retrieved 2005-04-05.
  46. "Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC News. 12 March 2012.
  47. "Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh". BBC News. 10 January 2012.
  48. "Regions and territories: South Ossetia". BBC News. 25 April 2012.
  49. "Trans-Dniester profile". BBC News. 26 December 2011.
  50. Chinn, Jeff; Roper, Steven (1998). "Territorial autonomy in Gagauzia". Nationalities Papers. 26 (1): 87–101. doi:10.1080/00905999808408552. But on 19 August 1990, the Gagauz elite, led by President Stepan Topal and Supreme Soviet Chairperson Mihail Kendighelean, quickly took the next step, declaring Gagauzia to be independent of Moldova and subject only to central Soviet authority
  51. Neukirch, Claus. "Autonomy And Conflict Transformation: The Case Of The Gagauz Territorial Autonomy In The Republic Of Moldova" (PDF). European Centre for Minority Issues. On 12 November 1989, a “Gagauz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic” was proclaimed by an assembly in Comrat ... In reaction to the Moldovan declaration of sovereignty, on 19 August 1990 the Gagauz leadership proclaimed a “Gagauz Soviet Socialist Republic”, which would be independent from Moldova, but part of the Soviet Union ... on 23 December 1994 the Moldovan Parliament passed the “Law on the Special Juridical Status of Gagauzia (Gagauz-Yeri)”
  52. Zabarah, Dareg (2012). "Opportunity structures and group building processes: An institutional analysis of the secession processes in Pridnestrovie and Gagauzia between 1989 and 1991". Soviet and Communist studies. 45 (1-2). According to the first point of its declaration, the Gagauz Republic “is a sovereign, socialist, soviet and multinational state
  53. "Regions and territories: Chechnya". BBC News. 22 November 2011.
  54. Herszenhorn, David; Kramer, Andrew (19 March 2014). "Ukraine Plans to Withdraw Troops From Russia-Occupied Crimea". New York Times. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
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  57. "Russian Special Forces Storm Crimea Base". Sky News. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
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  59. Robert Greenall, Russians left behind in Central Asia, BBC News, 23 November 2005.
  60. Naumkin, Vitaly (November 1992). "Islam in the States of the Former USSR". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 524: 131–142. doi:10.1177/0002716292524001011.
  61. See: Kaprans, M. (2009) Then and now: Comparing the Soviet and Post-Soviet experience in Latvian autobiographiesKeywords 2.
  62. The language question, the results of recent research in 2012, RATING (25 May 2012)
  63. Most Russians regret USSR collapse, dream of its return, poll shows. RT. 19 April 2016.

External links

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