This article is about the automotive brand and manufacturer, Porsche AG. For the holding company that is the majority owner of Volkswagen Group, see Porsche Automobil Holding SE. For other uses of Porsche, see Porsche (disambiguation).

Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG
Industry Automotive
Founded Stuttgart, Germany
(1931 (1931))
Founder Ferdinand Porsche
Headquarters Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Area served
Key people
Wolfgang Porsche, Chairman
Oliver Blume, CEO[1]
Services Automotive financial services, engineering services, investment management
Revenue Increase €21.533 (2015 annual report) [2]
Increase €3.404 billion (2015 annual report)[2]
Profit Increase €2.335 billion (2015 annual report)[2]
Total assets Increase €29.143 billion (2015 annual report)[2]
Total equity Increase €10.700 billion (2015 annual report)[2]
Owner Volkswagen Group
Number of employees
24,481 (2015 annual report)[2]
Subsidiaries Mieschke Hofmann und Partner (81.8%)
Porsche Consulting group
Website www.Porsche.com

Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche AG (German pronunciation: [ˈpɔʁʃə]), is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, and is owned by Volkswagen AG, which is itself majority-owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE. Porsche's current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman, 911, Panamera, Macan and Cayenne.



Ferdinand Porsche founded the company called "Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH" in 1931,[3] with main offices at Kronenstraße 24 in the centre of Stuttgart.[4] Initially, the company offered motor vehicle development work and consulting,[3] but did not build any cars under its own name. One of the first assignments the new company received was from the German government to design a car for the people, that is a "Volkswagen".[3] This resulted in the Volkswagen Beetle, one of the most successful car designs of all time.[5] The Porsche 64 was developed in 1939 using many components from the Beetle.[3]

Porsche's tank prototype, the "Porsche Tiger", that lost to Henschel & Son's Tiger I.
Panzerjäger Elefant, after the loss of the contract to the Tiger I Porsche recycled his design into a tank destroyer.

During World War II,[6] Volkswagen production turned to the military version of the Volkswagen Beetle, the Kübelwagen,[6] 52,000 produced, and Schwimmwagen,[6] 15,584 produced.[7] Porsche produced several designs for heavy tanks during the war, losing out to Henschel & Son in both contracts that ultimately led to the Tiger I and the Tiger II. However, not all this work was wasted, as the chassis Porsche designed for the Tiger I was used as the base for the Elefant tank destroyer. Porsche also developed the Maus super-heavy tank in the closing stages of the war, producing two prototypes.[8]

At the end of World War II in 1945, the Volkswagen factory at KdF-Stadt fell to the British. Ferdinand lost his position as Chairman of the Board of Management of Volkswagen, and Ivan Hirst, a British Army Major, was put in charge of the factory. (In Wolfsburg, the Volkswagen company magazine dubbed him "The British Major who saved Volkswagen".)[9] On 15 December of that year, Ferdinand was arrested for war crimes, but not tried. During his 20-month imprisonment, Ferdinand Porsche's son, Ferry Porsche, decided to build his own car, because he could not find an existing one that he wanted to buy. He also had to steer the company through some of its most difficult days until his father's release in August 1947.[10] The first models of what was to become the 356 were built in a small sawmill in Gmünd, Austria.[10] The prototype car was shown to German auto dealers, and when pre-orders reached a set threshold, production (with aluminium body) was begun by Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH founded by Ferry and Louise. Many regard the 356 as the first Porsche simply because it was the first model sold by the fledgling company. After the production of 356 was taken over by the father's Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH in Stuttgart in 1950, Porsche commissioned a Zuffenhausen-based company, Reutter Karosserie, which had previously collaborated with the firm on Volkswagen Beetle prototypes, to produce the 356's steel body. In 1952, Porsche constructed an assembly plant (Werk 2) across the street from Reutter Karosserie; the main road in front of Werk 1, the oldest Porsche building, is now known as Porschestrasse.[11] The 356 was road certified in 1948.

Porsche's company logo was based on the coat of arms of the Free People's State of Württemberg of former Weimar Germany, which had Stuttgart as its capital. (The same arms were used by Württemberg-Hohenzollern from 1945-1952, while Stuttgart during these years was the capital of adjacent Württemberg-Baden.) The arms of Stuttgart was placed in the middle as an inescutcheon, since the cars were made in Stuttgart. The heraldic symbols were combined with the texts "Porsche" and "Stuttgart", which shows that it is not a coat of arms since heraldic achievements never spell out the name of the armiger nor the armigers home town in the shield.

Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern became part of the present land of Baden-Württemberg in 1952 after the political consolidation of West Germany in 1949, and the old design of the arms of Württemberg now only lives on in the Porsche logo. On 30 January 1951, not long before the creation of Baden-Württemberg, Ferdinand Porsche died from complications following a stroke.


1952 Porsche 356 K/9-1 Prototype

In post-war Germany, parts were generally in short supply, so the 356 automobile used components from the Volkswagen Beetle, including the engine case from its internal combustion engine, transmission, and several parts used in the suspension. The 356, however, had several evolutionary stages, A, B, and C, while in production, and most Volkswagen-sourced parts were replaced by Porsche-made parts. Beginning in 1954 the 356s engines started utilizing engine cases designed specifically for the 356. The sleek bodywork was designed by Erwin Komenda, who also had designed the body of the Beetle. Porsche's signature designs have, from the beginning, featured air-cooled rear-engine configurations (like the Beetle), rare for other car manufacturers, but producing automobiles that are very well balanced.

In 1964, after a fair amount of success in motor-racing with various models including the 550 Spyder, and with the 356 needing a major re-design, the company launched the Porsche 911: another air-cooled, rear-engined sports car, this time with a six-cylinder "boxer" engine. The team to lay out the body shell design was led by Ferry Porsche's eldest son, Ferdinand Alexander Porsche (F. A.). The design phase for the 911 caused internal problems with Erwin Komenda, who led the body design department until then. F. A. Porsche complained Komenda made unauthorized changes to the design. Company leader Ferry Porsche took his son's drawings to neighbouring chassis manufacturer Reuter. Reuter's workshop was later acquired by Porsche (so-called Werk 2). Afterward Reuter became a seat manufacturer, today known as Keiper-Recaro.

The Porsche 912, from the 1960s

The design office gave sequential numbers to every project (See Porsche type numbers), but the designated 901 nomenclature contravened Peugeot's trademarks on all 'x0x' names, so it was adjusted to 911. Racing models adhered to the "correct" numbering sequence: 904, 906, 908. The 911 has become Porsche's most well-known and iconic model – successful on the race-track, in rallies, and in terms of road car sales. Far more than any other model, the Porsche brand is defined by the 911. It remains in production; however, after several generations of revision, current-model 911s share only the basic mechanical configuration of a rear-engined, six-cylinder coupé, and basic styling cues with the original car. A cost-reduced model with the same body, but with 356-derived four-cylinder engine, was sold as the 912.

In 1972, the company's legal form was changed from Kommanditgesellschaft (KG), or limited partnership, to Aktiengesellschaft (AG), or public limited company, because Ferry Porsche came to believe the scale of the company outgrew a "family operation", after learning about Soichiro Honda's "no family members in the company" policy at Honda. This led to the establishment of an Executive Board with members from outside the Porsche family, and a Supervisory Board consisting largely of family members. With this change, most family members in the operation of the company, including F. A. Porsche and Ferdinand Piëch, departed from the company.

F. A. Porsche founded his own design company, Porsche Design, which is renowned for exclusive sunglasses, watches, furniture, and many other luxury articles. Louise's son and Ferry's nephew Ferdinand Piëch, who was responsible for mechanical development of Porsche's production and racing cars (including the very successful 911, 908 and 917 models), formed his own engineering bureau, and developed a five-cylinder-inline diesel engine for Mercedes-Benz. A short time later he moved to Audi (used to be a division, then a subsidiary, of Volkswagen), and pursued his career through the entire company, ultimately becoming the Chairman of Volkswagen Group.

The first Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Porsche AG was Dr. Ernst Fuhrmann, who had been working in the company's engine development division. Fuhrmann was responsible for the so-called Fuhrmann-engine, used in the 356 Carrera models as well as the 550 Spyder, having four overhead camshafts instead of a central camshaft with pushrods, as in the Volkswagen-derived serial engines. He planned to cease the 911 during the 1970s and replace it with the V8-front engined grand sportswagon 928. As we know today, the 911 outlived the 928 by far. Fuhrmann was replaced in the early 1980s by Peter W. Schutz, an American manager and self-proclaimed 911 aficionado. He was then replaced in 1988 by the former manager of German computer company Nixdorf Computer AG, Arno Bohn, who made some costly miscalculations that led to his dismissal soon after, along with that of the development director, Dr. Ulrich Bez, who was formerly responsible for BMW's Z1 model, and is today the CEO of Aston Martin.

Porsche 911 (964), introduced in 1989, was the first to be offered with Porsche's Tiptronic transmission and four-wheel drive.

In 1990, Porsche drew up a memorandum of understanding with Toyota to learn and benefit from Japanese lean manufacturing methods. In 2004 it was reported that Toyota was assisting Porsche with hybrid technology.[12]

Following the dismissal of Bohn, Heinz Branitzki, a longtime Porsche employee, was appointed as interim CEO. Branitzki served in that position until Wendelin Wiedeking became CEO in 1993. Wiedeking took over the chairmanship of the board at a time when Porsche appeared vulnerable to a takeover by a larger company. During his long tenure, Wiedeking transformed Porsche into a very efficient and profitable company.

Ferdinand Porsche's nephew, Ferdinand Piëch, was chairman and CEO of the Volkswagen Group from 1993 to 2002, and is chairman of the Volkswagen AG Supervisory Board since. With 12.8 percent of the Porsche SE voting shares, he also remains the second largest individual shareholder of Porsche SE after his cousin, F. A. Porsche, (13.6 percent).

Porsche's 2002 introduction of the Cayenne also marked the unveiling of a new production facility in Leipzig, Saxony, which once accounted for nearly half of Porsche's annual output. In 2004, production of the 456 kilowatts (620 PS; 612 bhp) Carrera GT commenced in Leipzig, and at EUR 450,000 ($440,000 in the United States) it was the most expensive production model Porsche ever built.

Porsche 911 (991)

In mid-2006, after years of the Boxster (and later the Cayenne) as the best selling Porsche in North America, the 911 regained its position as Porsche's best-seller in the region. The Cayenne and 911 have cycled as the top-selling model since. In Germany, the 911 outsells the Boxster/Cayman and Cayenne.[13]

In May 2011, Porsche Cars North America announced plans to spend $80–$100 million, but will receive about $15 million in economic incentives to move their North American headquarters from Sandy Springs, a suburb of Atlanta, to Aerotropolis, Atlanta, a new mixed-use development on the site of the old Ford Hapeville plant adjacent to Atlanta's airport.[14] Designed by architectural firm HOK, the headquarters will include a new office building and test track.[15][16][17] The facility will be known by its new address, One Porsche Drive.

Relationship with Volkswagen

Combined badging of the European 914

The company has always had a close relationship with, initially, the Volkswagen (VW) marque, and later, the Volkswagen Group (which also owns Audi AG), because the first Volkswagen Beetle was designed by Ferdinand Porsche.

The two companies collaborated in 1969 to make the VW-Porsche 914 and 914-6, whereby the 914-6 had a Porsche engine, and the 914 had a Volkswagen engine. Further collaboration in 1976 resulted in the Porsche 912E (USA only) and the Porsche 924, which used many Audi components, and was built at Audi's Neckarsulm factory. Porsche 944s were also built there,[18] although they used far fewer Volkswagen components. The Cayenne, introduced in 2002, shares its chassis with the Volkswagen Touareg and the Audi Q7, which is built at the Volkswagen Group factory in Bratislava, Slovakia.

Corporate restructuring

A 911 (991) in front of the factory in which it was assembled, Porschewerk Stuttgart (right), and the manufacturer's central dealership, Porsche Zentrum Stuttgart (left).

Porsche SE was created in June 2007 by renaming the old Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, and became a holding company for the families' stake in Porsche Zwischenholding GmbH (50.1%) (which in turn held 100% of the old Porsche AG) and Volkswagen AG (50.7%).[19][20] At the same time, the new Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG (Porsche AG) was created for the car manufacturing business.

In August 2009, Porsche SE and Volkswagen AG reached an agreement that the car manufacturing operations of the two companies would merge in 2011, to form an "Integrated Automotive Group".[21][22] The management of Volkswagen AG agreed to 50.76% of Volkswagen AG being owned by Porsche SE in return for Volkswagen AG management taking Porsche SE management positions (in order for Volkswagen management to remain in control), and for Volkswagen AG acquiring ownership of Porsche AG.

As of the end of 2015, the 52.2% control interest in VW AG is the predominant investment by Porsche SE, and Volkswagen AG in turn controls brands and companies such as Volkswagen, Audi, SEAT, Škoda, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche AG, Ducati, VW Commercial Vehicles, Scania, MAN, as well as Volkswagen Financial Services.[23]

Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG (which stands for Doktor Ingenieur honoris causa Ferdinand Porsche Aktiengesellschaft), as a 100% subsidiary of VW AG, is responsible for the actual production and manufacture of the Porsche automobile line. The company currently produces Porsche 911, Boxster and Cayman sports cars, the Cayenne and Macan sport utility vehicles and the four-door Panamera.


Porsche AG has a 29% share in German engineering and design consultancy Bertrandt AG[24][25] and 81.8% of Mieschke Hofmann und Partner.[26]

Wholly owned subsidiaries of Porsche AG include Porsche Consulting GmbH.

Production and sales

The headquarters and main factory are located in Zuffenhausen, a district in Stuttgart, but the Cayenne and Panamera models are manufactured in Leipzig, Germany, and parts for the SUV are also assembled in the Volkswagen Touareg factory in Bratislava, Slovakia.[27] Boxster and Cayman production was outsourced to Valmet Automotive in Finland from 1997 to 2011, and in 2012 production moved to Germany.[28]

In 2015, Porsche reported selling a total of 218,983 cars, 28,953 (13.22%) as domestic German sales, and 190,030 (86.78%) internationally. [29]

The company has been highly successful in recent times, and indeed claims to have the highest profit per unit sold of any car company in the world.[30] Table of profits (in millions of euros) and number of cars produced. Figures from 2008/9 onwards were not reported as part of Porsche SE.[31]

Year endingRevenuePre-tax profitProductionSales
31 July 2002€4,857m€829m55,05054,234
31 July 2003€5,583m€933m73,28466,803
31 July 2004€6,148m€1,137m81,53176,827
31 July 2005€6,574m€1,238m90,95488,379
31 July 2006€7,273m€2,110m102,60296,794
31 July 2007€7,368m€5,857m101,84497,515
31 July 2008€7,466m€8,569m105,16298,652
31 July 2009€?m€-2,559m76,73975,238
31 July 2010€7.79bN/A89,12381,850
31 December 2010€9.23b€1.67b[32]N/A97,273
31 December 2011[32]€10.9b€2.05b127,793116,978
31 December 2012€13.9b€2.44b151,999143,096[33]
31 December 2013€14.3b€2.78b165,808162,145[34]
31 December 2014€17.2b€3.06b203,097187,208[35]
31 December 2015€21.5b[36]€3.382b234,497225,121[37]

Production composition

Of the 234,497 cars produced in the 2015 financial year, 31,373 (13.4%) were 911 models, 21,978 (9.4%) were Boxster and Cayman cars, 79,700 (34%) were Cayennes, 15,055 (6.4%) were Panameras and 86,016 (36,7%) were Macans. There were 375 918 Spyder models also reported.[37]

North American sales

Annual sales 2003–2005
model 2003[38] 2004[39] 2005[40]
units% of totalunits% of totalunits% of total
911 (996) 9,935 (Decrease 18%)33%10,227 (Increase 3%)31%10,653 (Increase 4%)31%
Boxster 6,432 (Decrease 38%)21%3,728 (Decrease 42%)11%8,327 (Increase 123%)25%
Cayenne 13,661 45%19,134 (Increase 40%)57%14,524 (Decrease 24%)43%
total30,028 (Increase 33%)33,289 (Increase 11%)33,859 (Increase 2%)
Annual sales 2006–2008
model 2006[41] 2007[42] 2008[43]
units% of totalunits% of totalunits% of total
911 (997) 12,702 (Increase 19%)35%13,153 (Increase 4%)36%8,324 (Decrease 37%)30%
Boxster 4,850 (Decrease 42%)14%3,904 (Decrease 24%)11%2,982 (Decrease 24%)11%
Cayman 7,313 20%6,249 (Decrease 17%)17%3,513 (Decrease 44%)13%
Cayenne 11,141 (Decrease 23%)31%13,370 (Increase 20%)36%12,898 (Decrease 4%)46%
total36,095 (Increase 7%)36,680 (Increase 2%)27,717 (Decrease 24%)
Annual sales 2009–2011
model 2009[44] 2010[45] 2011[46]
units% of totalunits% of totalunits% of total
911 (997) 6,839 (Decrease 17.8%)35.00%5,735 (Decrease 16.1%)22.65%6,016 (Increase 5.0%)20.72%
Boxster&Cayman 3,875 (Decrease 39.4%)19.00%3,499 (Decrease 9.3%)13.84%3,150 (Decrease 9.02%)10.86%
Panamera 1,247 6.33%7,741 (Increase 520.8%)30.57%6,879 (Decrease 11.13%)23.70%
Cayenne 7,735 (Decrease 31.0%)39.27%8,343 (Increase 7.9%)32.94%12,978 (Increase 55.55%)44.72%
total19,696 (Decrease 24.3%) 25,320 (Increase 28.6%)29,023 (Increase 15%)
Annual sales 2012–2014
model 2012[47] 2013[48] 2014[49]
units% of totalunits% of totalunits% of total
911 8,528 24.34% 10,442 24.67% 10,529 22.40%
Boxster & Cayman 3,356 9.58% 7,953 18.79% 7,292 15.51%
Panamera 7,614 21.73% 5,421 12.81% 5,740 12.21%
Cayenne 15,545 44.36% 18,507 43.73% 16,205 34,47%
Macan n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 7,241 15.40%
total 35,043 (Increase 21%) 42,323 (Increase 17%) 47,007 (Increase 11%)
Annual sales 2015–2017
model 2015[50] 2016 2017
units% of totalunits% of totalunits% of total
911 10,101 19.52%
Boxster & Cayman 6,663 12.87%
Panamera 4,986 9.63%
Cayenne 16,473 31.83%
Macan 13,533 26.15%
total 51,756 (Increase 10.1%)


See also: Category:Porsche vehicles and Porsche type numbers

The current Porsche model range includes sports cars from the Boxster roadster to their most famous product, the 911. The Cayman is a coupé otherwise similar to the Boxster. The Cayenne is Porsche's mid-size luxury sport utility vehicle (SUV). A high performance luxury saloon/sedan, the Panamera, was launched in 2009.

Note: models in bold are current models

Consumer models

Racing models

Prototypes and concept cars

Porsche Boxster concept


Porsche Diesel Super
  • Porsche Type 110
  • Porsche AP Series
  • Porsche Junior (14 hp)
  • Porsche Standard (25 hp)
  • Porsche Super (38 hp)
  • Porsche Master (50 hp)
  • Porsche 312
  • Porsche 108F
  • Porsche R22

Hybrid and electric vehicles

For details on a Porsche 911-based all-electric car, see ERuf Model A.

In 2010 Porsche launched the Cayenne S Hybrid and announced the Panamera S Hybrid, and launched the Porsche 918 hypercar in 2014, which also features a hybrid system. Also a plug-in hybrid model called the Panamera S E-Hybrid was released in October 2013 in the United States[55][56] and during the fourth quarter of 2013 in several European countries.

Porsche developed a prototype electric Porsche Boxster called the Boxster E in 2011[57] and a hybrid version of the 911 called the GT3 R Hybrid, developed with Williams Grand Prix Engineering in 2010.[58]

In July 2014 Porsche announced the launch by the end of 2014 of the Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid a plug-in hybrid, which will displace the Cayenne S Hybrid from the line up. The S E-Hybrid will be the first plug-in hybrid in the premium SUV segment and will allow Porsche to become the first automaker with three production plug-in hybrid models.[59]

Aircraft engines

See Porsche PFM 3200.


Main article: Porsche in motorsport
The Martini Racing blue and green "psychedelic" livery on a 1970 917K. This car raced at Watkins Glen in 1970.

Porsche is the most successful brand in motorsport, scoring a total of more than 28,000 victories, including a record 16 outright wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Porsche is currently the world's largest race car manufacturer. In 2006, Porsche built 195 race cars for various international motor sports events. In 2007, Porsche is expected to construct no fewer than 275 dedicated race cars (7 RS Spyder LMP2 prototypes, 37 GT2 spec 911 GT3-RSRs, and 231 911 GT3 Cup vehicles).[60]

Pronunciation of "Porsche"

In keeping with the family name of founder Ferdinand Porsche, the company's name is pronounced [ˈpɔʁʃə] in German, which corresponds to /ˈpɔːrʃə/ PORSH in English,[61] homophonous with the feminine name Portia. However, in English it is often erroneously pronounced as a single syllable /ˈpɔːrʃ/ PORSH—without a final /ə/. In German orthography, word-final e is not silent but is instead an unstressed schwa.


In a survey conducted by the Luxury Institute in New York, Porsche was awarded the title of "the most prestigious automobile brand". Five hundred households with a gross annual income of at least $200,000 and a net worth of at least $720,000 participated.[62]

Porsche won the J.D. Power and Associates Initial Quality Study (IQS) in 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2014.[63]


A Canadian study in 2011 revealed that 97.4 percent of Porsches from the last 25 years are still on the road.[64]

In 2014, the Cayman and Boxster made the Consumer Reports list for most reliable vehicles on the road.[65]

Porsche's 911 has been officially named by the Technischer Überwachungsverein (Technical Inspection Association) as Germany's most reliable car.[66]

SUV reception

According to CNBC, even an at-the-time questionable foray into the SUV market with the Cayenne in 2003 could not damage Porsche credibility.[67] In 2009, The Times journalist Andrew Frankel says on one level, it is the world's best 4x4; on another, it is the cynical exploitation of a glorious brand that risks long-term damage to that brand's very identity in the pursuit of easy money[68] with his verdict being "Great car, if only it wasn't a Porsche".[68]

In 2015, US News ranked the Macan as the best luxury compact SUV in its class.[69]

See also


  1. "The Board of Management of Porsche AG - All BOM members".
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Porsche AG Annual Report 2015" (PDF). Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  3. 1 2 3 4 J. P. Vettraino (23 December 2008). "Porsche at 60: The little sports-car company that could". Autoweek. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
  4. "Historie - Porsche Engineering". Porsche Engineering. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  5. "Béla Barényi (1907–1997)". Automotive Hall of Fame. Retrieved 25 March 2009.
  6. 1 2 3 Burt, William (2002). Volkswagen Beetle. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7603-1078-6.
  7. See Volkswagen Schwimmwagen#Development.
  8. "Panzerkampfwagen VIII Maus Porsche Typ 205 / Tiger II(P)". Achtung Panzer. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
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  10. 1 2 Meredith, Laurence; Mark Hughes (1995). Original Porsche 356. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-870979-58-0.
  11. John Lamm (1998). Porsche Boxster. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7603-0519-5.
  12. Nexteer Automotive Poland president Rafal Wyszomirski. "Just auto 23 November 2004". Just-auto.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
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  14. Atlanta Business Chronicle - by Urvaksh Karkaria (12 May 2011). ""Porsche HQ relo draws $15M in incentives", Atlanta Business Chronicle, 2011-05-12". Bizjournals.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  15. Tobin, Rachel (11 May 2011). "Porsche North America HQ to leave Sandy Springs for ex-Ford plant". ajc.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
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  22. "Volkswagen Supervisory Board approves Comprehensive Agreement for an Integrated Automotive Group with Porsche" (Press release). Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft. 13 August 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
  23. "Porsche SE Annual Report 2015" (PDF). p. 3.
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  30. Elliott, Hannah. "Forbes Autos review of Cayman S". Forbesautos.com. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
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