Politics of Saudi Arabia
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in the context of an absolute monarchy, where the King of Saudi Arabia is both the head of state and the head of government, and decisions are, to a large extent, made on the basis of consultation among the senior princes of the royal family and the religious establishment. The Qur'an is declared to be the constitution of the country, which is governed on the basis of Islamic law (Shari'a).
Government is dominated by the vast royal family, the Al Saud, which has often been divided by internal disputes and into factions. The members of the family are the principal political actors allowed by the government. Political participation outside of the royal family is limited, but there has been pressure for some time to broaden participation. In recent years, there has been a rise in Islamist activism, which has also resulted in Islamist terrorism. According to at least some observers, "traditionally" issues such as foreign policy, national defense, and international affairs have been "the purview of the state" in Saudi Arabia, while "justice, education, and family matters", being related to religion, had been handled by "the religious establishment". However, in recent years, "the Saudi state has been working to reclaim control of these areas."
Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy, although, according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by royal decree in 1992, the king must comply with Sharia (that is, Islamic law) and the Quran. The Quran and the Sunnah are declared to be the country's constitution. There is no legally binding written constitution and the Quran and the Sunna remain subject to interpretation. This is carried out by the ulema, the Saudi religious establishment.
The government of Saudi Arabia is led by the monarch, King Salman, who acceded to the throne on 23 January 2015. No political parties or national elections are permitted and according to The Economist's 2010 Democracy Index, the Saudi government was the seventh most authoritarian regime from among the 167 countries rated. Government is dominated by the royal family.
The Basic Law specifies that the king must be chosen from among the sons of the first king, Abdul Aziz Al Saud, and their male descendants subject to the subsequent approval of religious leaders (the ulema). In 2007, an "Allegiance Council" was created, comprising King Abdulaziz's surviving sons plus a son of each his deceased sons, to determine which member of the royal family will be the heir apparent (the Crown Prince) after Prince Muhammad, who is the current Crown Prince, either dies or accedes to the throne.
The king combines legislative, executive, and judicial functions and royal decrees form the basis of the country's legislation. The king is also the prime minister, and presides over the Council of Ministers (Majlis al-Wuzarāʾ), which comprises the first and second deputy prime ministers (usually the first and second in line to the throne respectively) and 23 ministers with portfolio and five ministers of state. The king makes appointments to and dismissals from the Council, which is responsible for such executive and administrative matters as foreign and domestic policy, defense, finance, health, and education, administered through numerous separate agencies. There is also a 150-member Consultative Assembly, appointed by the King, which can propose legislation to the King but has no legislative powers itself, including no role in budget formation. The government budget itself is not fully disclosed to the public. "Fully 40%" ... is labeled `Other sectors` (including defense, security, intelligence, direct investment of the kingdom's revenues outside the country, and how much goes to directly to the royal family).
Although, in theory, the country is an absolute monarchy, in practice major policy decisions are made outside these formal governmental structures and not solely by the king. Decisions are made by establishing a consensus within the royal family (comprising the numerous descendants of the kingdom's founder, King Abdulaziz). In addition, the views of important members of Saudi society, including the ulema (religious scholars), leading tribal sheikhs, and heads of prominent commercial families are considered.
As an absolute monarchy, the personality and capabilities of the reigning monarch influence the politics and national policies of the country. King Saud (1953–1964) was considered incompetent and extravagant and his reign led to an economic and political crisis that resulted in his forced abdication. King Faisal (1964–1975) was a "modernist" who favored economic, technological and governmental progress but was also politically and religiously conservative. He directed the country's rapid economic and bureaucratic development of the early 1970s, but also made concessions to the religious establishment, and abandoned plans to broaden political participation. King Khalid (1975–1982) left government largely to his Crown Prince, Fahd, who succeeded him as King (1982–2005). Prince Fahd was a talented administrator who initiated significant industrial development in the Kingdom. He was regarded by many as the "father of the country's modernization". However, during the last 10 years of his reign, ill-health prevented him from fully functioning. In the absence of a king who could provide strong central leadership, the state structure began to fragment and the country stagnated. King Abdullah, who came to the throne in 2005, was seen as a reformer and has introduced economic reforms (limited deregulation, encouragement of foreign investment, and privatization) and made modernizing changes to the judiciary and government ministries.
The royal family dominates the political system. The family's vast numbers allow it to hold most of the kingdom's important posts and to have an involvement and presence at all levels of government. The number of princes is estimated to be anything from 7,000 upwards, with the most power and influence being wielded by the 200 or so male descendants of King Abdulaziz. The key ministries have historically been reserved for the royal family, as are the thirteen regional governorships. With the large number of family members seeking well paying jobs, critics complain that even "middle management" jobs in the Kingdom out of reach for non-royal Saudis, limiting upward mobility and incentive for commoners to excel.
The one exception to this rule was Khaled al-Tuwaijri, Secretary General of the Court and King Adbullah's éminence grise. He was a commoner and immensely powerful, which meant he was despised by most royals, especially the Suderis, who sacked him as soon as the old king died.
Long term political and government appointments result in the creation of "power fiefdoms" for senior princes. Examples include: King Abdullah, who was the Commander of the National Guard from 1963 until 2010, when he then appointed his son to replace him; Crown Prince Sultan, was Minister of Defense and Aviation from 1962 to 2011; Prince Nayef was the Minister of Interior from 1975 until his death in 2012; Prince Saud had been Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1975 to just before his death in 2015; and King Salman, was the Governor of the Riyadh Region from 1962 to 2011.
In the absence of national elections and political parties, politics in Saudi Arabia takes place in two distinct arenas: within the royal family, the Al Saud, and between the royal family and the rest of Saudi society. The royal family is politically divided by factions based on clan loyalties, personal ambitions and ideological differences. The most powerful clan faction is known as the 'Sudairi Seven', comprising the late King Fahd and his full brothers and their descendants. Ideological divisions include issues over the speed and direction of reform, and whether the role of the ulema should be increased or reduced. There were also divisions within the family over who should succeed Crown Prince Sultan.
Leading figures in the royal family with differing ideological orientations included Prince Nayef, the late Interior Minister, and Prince Saud Al-Faisal, the Foreign Minister. Prince Nayef was personally committed to maintaining Saudi Arabia's conservative Wahhabi values. Of the senior princes, he was probably the least comfortable with King Abdullah's desire for reform. Following the 11 September 2001 attacks in the United States, perpetrated mostly by Saudi nationals, Prince Nayef was strongly criticized by the U.S. for his reaction. It also took pressure from within the royal family for him to launch a hunt for Islamist militants who had attacked Western targets in Saudi Arabia. By contrast, Prince Saud Al Faisal is one of the strongest supporters of political and social reform. For example, he (as well as King Abdullah) has spoken in favor of women having the right to vote, to follow the career path they wish and to be able to drive a car. Women would be able to vote in municipal elections beginning in 2012.BBC
The Ulema and the Al ash-Sheikh
The significance of the ulema (the body of Islamic religious leaders and jurists) is derived from the central role of religion in Saudi society. It has been said that Islam is more than a religion, it is a way of life in Saudi Arabia, and, as a result, the influence of the ulema is pervasive. Saudi Arabia is almost unique in giving the ulema a direct role in government, the only other example being Iran. Prior to 1971, a council of senior ulema advising the king was headed by the Grand Mufti and met informally. In that year, the council was formalized in a Council of Senior Scholars, appointed by the king and with salaries paid by the government.
Not only is royal succession subject to the approval of the ulema, so are all new laws (royal decrees). The ulema have also influenced major executive decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in 1973 and the invitation of foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990. It plays a major role in the judicial and education systems and has a monopoly of authority in the sphere of religious and social morals.
By the 1970s, as a result of oil wealth and the modernization of the country initiated by King Faisal, important changes to Saudi society were under way and the power of the ulema was in decline. However, this changed following the seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca in 1979 by Islamist radicals. The government's response to the crisis included strengthening the ulema's powers and increasing their financial support: in particular, they were given greater control over the education system and allowed to enforce stricter observance of Wahhabi rules of moral and social behaviour. Following his accession to the throne in 2005, King Abdullah took steps to rein back the powers of the ulema, for instance transferring their control over girls' education to the Ministry of Education.
The ulema have historically been led by the Al ash-Sheikh, the country's leading religious family. The Al ash-Sheikh are the descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the 18th century founder of the Wahhabi form of Sunni Islam which is today dominant in Saudi Arabia. The family is second in prestige only to the Al Saud (the royal family) with whom they formed a "mutual support pact" and power-sharing arrangement nearly 300 years ago. The pact, which persists to this day, is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Wahhabi doctrine. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority thereby using its religious-moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule. Although the Al ash Sheikh's domination of the ulema has diminished in recent decades, they still hold the most important religious posts and are closely linked to the Al Saud by a high degree of intermarriage.
Corruption is widespread in Saudi Arabia, most prevalent in the form of nepotism, the use of middlemen, ‘wasta’, to do business as well as patronage systems. The Saudi government and the royal family have often, and over many years, been accused of corruption. In a country that is said to "belong" to the royal family and is named after it, the lines between state assets and the personal wealth of senior princes are blurred. The corruption has been described as systemic and endemic, and its existence was acknowledged and defended by Prince Bandar bin Sultan (a senior member of the royal family) in an interview in 2001.
Although corruption allegations have often been limited to broad undocumented accusations, specific allegations were made in 2007, when it was claimed that the British defence contractor BAE Systems had paid Prince Bandar US$2 billion in bribes relating to the Al-Yamamah arms deal. Prince Bandar denied the allegations. Investigations by both US and UK authorities resulted, in 2010, in plea bargain agreements with the company, by which it paid $447 million in fines but did not admit to bribery. Transparency International in its annual Corruption Perceptions Index for 2012 gave Saudi Arabia a score of 4.4 (on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 is "highly corrupt" and 10 is "highly clean").
Since the 9/11 attacks in 2001, there has been mounting pressure to reform and modernize the royal family's rule, an agenda championed by King Abdullah both before and after his accession in 2005. The creation of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s did not satisfy demands for political participation, and, in 2003, an annual National Dialogue Forum was announced that would allow selected professionals and intellectuals to publicly debate current national issues, within certain prescribed parameters. In 2005, the first municipal elections were held. In 2007, the Allegiance Council was created to regulate the succession. In 2009, the king made significant personnel changes to the government by appointing reformers to key positions and the first woman to a ministerial post. However, the changes have been criticized as being too slow or merely cosmetic, and the royal family is reportedly divided on the speed and direction of reform.
In 2011, Abdullah announced that women will be able to be nominated to the Shura Council.
Politics outside of the royal family
Politics in Saudi Arabia, outside of the royal family, can be examined in three contexts: the extent to which the royal family allows political participation by the wider Saudi society, opposition to the regime, and Islamist terrorism.
Outside of the House of Al Saud, participation in the political process is limited to a relatively small segment of the population and takes the form of the royal family consulting with the ulema, tribal sheikhs and members of important commercial families on major decisions. This process is not reported by the Saudi media. In theory, all males of the age of majority have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis. In many ways, the approach to government differs little from the traditional system of tribal rule. Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation, with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events. In recent years there have been limited steps to widen political participation, such as the establishment of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s and the National Dialogue Forum in 2003.
Opposition to the royal family
The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism, liberal critics, including an underground green party, the Shia minority – particularly in the Eastern Province; and long-standing tribal and regional particularistic opponents (for example in the Hejaz). Of these, the Islamic activists have been the most prominent threat to the regime and have in recent years perpetrated a number of violent or terrorist acts in the country. However, open protest against the government, even if peaceful, is not tolerated. On 29 January 2011, hundreds of protesters gathered in the city of Jeddah in a rare display of protest against the city's poor infrastructure after deadly floods swept through the city, killing eleven people. Police stopped the demonstration after about 15 minutes and arrested 30 to 50 people.
Osama bin Laden and 15 out of the 19 9/11 hijackers were Saudi nationals and former CIA director James Woolsey described Saudi Arabian Wahhabism as "the soil in which Al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing."
According to a 2009 U.S. State Department communication by Hillary Clinton, United States Secretary of State, (disclosed as part of the Wikileaks U.S. 'cables leaks' controversy in 2010) "donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide". Part of this funding arises through the zakat (or religious tax) required to be paid by all Saudis to charities, and amounting to at least 2.5 percent of their income. Although many charities are genuine, others, it is alleged, serve as fronts for money laundering and terrorist financing operations. While many Saudis contribute to those charities in good faith believing their money goes toward good causes, it has been alleged that others know full well the terrorist purposes for which their money will be used.
Arab Spring protests
Since 2011, Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own Arab Spring protests. In response, King Abdullah announced on 22 February 2011 a series of benefits for citizens amounting to $36 billion, of which $10.7 billion was earmarked for housing. No political reforms were announced as part of the package, though some prisoners indicted for financial crimes were pardoned. On 18 March the same year, King Abdullah announced a package of $93 billion, which included 500,000 new homes to a cost of $67 billion, in addition to creating 60,000 new security jobs.
The kingdom is divided into 13 regions (manāṭiq), which in turn are divided into numerous districts. Regional governors are appointed, usually from the royal family, and preside over one or more municipal councils, half of whose members are appointed and half elected. The governors are responsible for such functions as finance, health, education, agriculture, and municipalities. The consultative principle operates at all levels of government, including the government of villages and tribes. The governors act as regional "mini-kings", sitting in majlises, hearing grievances and settling disputes.
In February 2005, the first elections in Saudi Arabian history were held. The elections for "virtually powerless" municipal councils were for half the seats (the half of each council's seats were appointed). Women were not allowed to stand for office or to vote.
In Riyadh, the number of registered voters did not exceed 18% of those eligible to vote, representing only 2% of the city's population. There was evidence of much greater interest in the Shia community of the Eastern Province. Women will be allowed to vote beginning in 2012, as King Abdullah announced in the opening speech of the new term of the Shura Council.
In 2005, candidates tended to be local businessmen, activists and professionals. Although political parties were not permitted, it was possible to identify candidates as having an Islamist orientation, a liberal agenda or reliant on tribal status. The Islamist candidates tended to be backed by public figures and the religious establishment and won most of the seats in the Saudi cities such as Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Tabuk and Taif. Candidates with "Western sympathies or any suspicion of secularism" lost out heavily to "hardline conservatives who were endorsed by the local religious establishment." This demonstrated to some that rather than being a conservative force holding back the country, the royal family was more progressive than the Saudi population as a whole.
In March 1992, King Fahd issued several decrees outlining the basic statutes of government and codifying royal succession for the first time. The King's political reform program also provided for the establishment of a national Consultative Council, with appointed members having advisory powers to review and give advice on issues of public interest. It also outlined a framework for councils at the provincial or emirate level.
In September 1993, King Fahd issued additional reform decrees, appointing the members of the national Consultative Council and spelling out procedures for the new council's operations. He announced reforms to the Council of Ministers, including term limitations of 4 years and regulations to prohibit conflict of interest for ministers and other high-level officials. The members of 13 provincial councils and the councils' operating regulations were also announced.
The membership of the Consultative Council was expanded from 60 to 90 members in July 1997, to 120 in May 2001, and to 150 members in 2005. Membership has changed significantly during each expansion of the council, as many members have not been reappointed. The role of the council is gradually expanding as it gains experience.
Saudi Municipal elections took place in 2005 and some journalists saw this as a first tentative step towards the introduction of democratic processes in the Kingdom, including the legalization of political parties. Other analysts of the Saudi political scene were more skeptical. Islamist candidates, often businessmen, did well, but in practice had little real power. In 2009, promised new elections and hopes for female suffrage in them were postponed for at least two years.
On 15 February 2009, in a reshuffle King Abdullah removed Sheikh Ibrahim Bin Abdullah Al-Ghaith from his position as President of the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice. He also removed Sheikh Saleh al-Luhaidan as head of the Supreme Judicial Council and appointed the first female minister.
- Boucek, Christopher. "Saudi Fatwa Restrictions and the State-Clerical Relationship". October 27, 2010. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Cavendish, Marshall (2007). World and Its Peoples: the Arabian Peninsula. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2.
- Robbers, Gerhard (2007). Encyclopedia of world constitutions, Volume 1. p. 791. ISBN 0-8160-6078-9.
- Champion, Daryl (2003). The paradoxical kingdom: Saudi Arabia and the momentum of reform. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-85065-668-5.
- The Economist Intelligence Unit. "The Economist Democracy Index 2010" (PDF). The Economist. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- Library of Congress, Federal Research Division (2006). "Country Profile: Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Kechichian, Joseph A. (2001). Succession in Saudi Arabia. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-312-23880-3.
- "When kings and princes grow old". The Economist. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- "Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: Saudi Arabia (Government and Society)". Britannica. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Campbell, Christian (2007). Legal Aspects of Doing Business in the Middle East. p. 265. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- DeRouen, Karl R.; Bellamy, Paul (2008). International security and the United States: an encyclopedia, Volume 2. p. 672. ISBN 978-0-275-99255-2.
- Stokes, Jamie (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Volume 1. p. 611. ISBN 978-0-8160-7158-6.
- Naʻīm, Abd Allāh Aḥmad (2002). Islamic family law in a changing world: a global resource book. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-84277-093-1.
- House, Karen Elliott (2012). On Saudi Arabia : Its People, past, Religion, Fault Lines and Future. Knopf. p. 25.
All revenue, whether from oil, earnings on the country's $400 billion in foreign reserves, or even traffic fines, flows into the central government in Riyadh -- that is, to the royal family. No accounting is given to the public of either total revenues to the Al Saud coffers or total spending by the Al Saud -- on behalf of the people and on behalf of the ever-expanding royal family. ... The Majlis Ash Shura, appointed by the king to `represent` the people has no role in budget formation. Fully 40% of the budget that is disclosed publicly is labeled `Other sectors` (including defense, security, intelligence, and direct investment of the kingdom's revenues outside the country) and is opaque to the public.
- Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom : Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. Viking. p. 251.
When the Saudi budget is published every year, no less than 40 percent (166.9 billion riyals in the budget for 2008) is labeled `Other sectors`, which includes defense, national security, intelligence, direct investment outside the country, and most interesting of all, how much of the national pie is paid into the coffers of the royal family.
- Al Rasheed, Madawi (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. pp. 102–105, 110. ISBN 978-0-521-74754-7.
- Al Rasheed, Madawi (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. pp. 118–120. ISBN 978-0-521-74754-7.
- Al Rasheed, Madawi (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-521-74754-7.
- "Obituary: King Fahd - A forceful but flawed ruler". The Financial Times. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Al Rasheed, Madawi (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-521-74754-7.
- Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-09-953905-6.
- Cooper, Helene (29 November 2010). "Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- "Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: Saudi Arabia (History)". Britannica. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- "The House of Saud: rulers of modern Saudi Arabia". Financial Times. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Bowen, Wayne H. (2007). The history of Saudi Arabia. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-313-34012-3.
- House, Karen Elliott (2012). On Saudi Arabia : Its People, past, Religion, Fault Lines and Future. Knopf. p. 10,13.
Al Saud family members hold all the key jobs, not just at the top but right down through middle management, even to regional managers. (The governors of all 13 Saudi provinces are princes.) At the bottom of the company, ordinary employees are poorly paid and even more poorly trained because management doesn't want initiative that might threaten its control. ... Nor surprisingly, the Saudi employees of such a stultifying company are sullen, resentful and unmotivated.
- Owen, Roger (2000). State, power and politics in the making of the modern Middle East. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-415-19674-1.
- "Saudi King Abdullah to go to US for medical treatment". BBC News. 21 November 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Biographies of Ministers". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington, DC. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Prince Salman resumes duties at governorate". Arab News. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Noreng, Oystein (2005). Crude power: politics and the oil market. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-84511-023-9.
- Kostiner, Joseph (2009). Conflict and cooperation in the Gulf region. p. 236. ISBN 978-3-531-16205-8.
- David, Steven R. (2008). Catastrophic consequences: civil wars and American interests. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-8018-8989-9.
- "Who's who: Senior Saudis". BBC News. 30 October 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- "The Koran Doesn't Oppose Women Driving". Der Spiegel. 15 June 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- Korany, Bahgat; Dessouki, Ali E.Hillal (2010). The Foreign Policies of Arab States: The Challenge of Globalization. p. 358. ISBN 978-977-416-360-9.
- Goldstein, Natalie; Brown-Foster; Walton (2010). Religion and the State. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8160-8090-8.
- Federal Research Division (2004). Saudi Arabia A Country Study. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-4191-4621-3.
- "Saudi Arabia: The Coming Storm" By Peter W. Wilson p. 26-27
- Nawaf E. Obaid (1999). "The Power of Saudi Arabia's Islamic Leaders". Middle East Quarterly. VI (3): 51–58. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
- Farsy, Fouad (1992). Modernity and tradition: the Saudi equation. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-874132-03-5.
- Hassner, Ron Eduard (2009). War on sacred grounds. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-8014-4806-5.
- Abir, Mordechai (1987). Saudi Arabia in the oil era: regime and elites: conflict and collaboration. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7099-5129-2.
- Abir, Mordechai (1993). Saudi Arabia: government, society, and the Gulf crisis. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-415-09325-5.
- Hegghammer, Thomas (2010). Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism Since 1979. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-521-73236-9.
- Cooper, Helene (29 November 2010). "Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- Abir, Mordechai (1987). Saudi Arabia in the oil era: regime and elites: conflict and collaboration. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7099-5129-2.
- Wilson, Peter W.; Graham, Douglas (1994). Saudi Arabia: the coming storm. p. 16. ISBN 1-56324-394-6.
- Long, David E. (2005). Culture and Customs of Saudi Arabia. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-313-32021-7.
- International Business Publications (2011). Saudi Arabia King Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Handbook. ISBN 0-7397-2740-0.
- Nyrop, Richard F. (2008). Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4344-6210-7.
- Bligh, Alexander (1985). "The Saudi religious elite (Ulama) as participant in the political system of the kingdom". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 17: 37–50. doi:10.1017/S0020743800028750.
- Mattar, Philip (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa: Vol.1 A-C. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-02-865770-7.
- "Saudi Arabia Corruption Profile". Business Anti-Corruption Profile. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Reed, Jennifer Bond; Brenda, Lange (2006). Saudi Royal Family. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7910-9218-7.;Cordesman, Anthony H. (2003). Saudi Arabia Enters the 21st Century. pp. 47,142. ISBN 978-0-275-98091-7.;Alianak, Sonia (2007). Middle Eastern leaders and Islam: A precarious equilibrium. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-8204-6924-9.;Bowen, Wayne H. (2007). The history of Saudi Arabia. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-313-34012-3.;"The corrupt, feudal world of the House of Saud". The Independent. London. 14 May 2003. Retrieved 21 June 2011.; from the 1990s:Abir, Mordechai (1993). Saudi Arabia: Government, society, and the Gulf crisis. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-415-09325-5.; Davis, M. Jane (1996). Security issues in the post-cold war world. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-85898-334-9.; from the 1980s:Holden, William (1982). Saudi Arabia and its royal family. pp. 154–156. ISBN 0-8184-0326-8.;Curtis, Michael (1986). The Middle East reader. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-88738-101-0.
- Kamrava, Mehran (2011). The Modern Middle East: A Political History Since the First World War. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-520-26774-9. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- Burbach, Roger; Clarke, Ben (2002). September 11 and the U.S. war: beyond the curtain of smoke. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-87286-404-7.
- Freedom House (2005). Freedom in the Middle East and North Africa: A Freedom in the World Special Edition. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-7425-3775-0.
- Bergman, Lowell (9 October 2001). "A Nation Challenged: The Plots; Saudi Arabia Also a Target of Attacks, U.S. Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Ottaway, David (2008). The King's Messenger. Prince Bandar bin Sultan and America's Tangled Relationship with Saudi Arabia. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-8027-1690-3.
- "Saudi bribe claims delay £20bn fighter deal". The Times. London. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Interview: Bandar bin Sultan". PBS. 2001. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Cordesman, Anthony H.; Corobaid; Nawaf (2005). National Security in Saudi Arabia: Threats, Responses, and Challenges. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-275-98811-1.
- Leigh, David; Evans, Rob (7 June 2007). "BAE accused of secretly paying £1bn to Saudi prince". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 June 2011.; "BAE Systems sued over alleged Saudi bribes". The Times. London. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Prince Bandar denies BAE bribery claims". The Times. London. 11 June 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- "Lord Goldsmith defends BAE Systems plea deal". BBC. 6 February 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2010". Transparency International. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Al Rasheed, Madawi (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. pp. 180, 242–243, 248, 257–258. ISBN 978-0-521-74754-7.
- "Saudi king speeds reforms". The Financial Times. 15 February 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2011.;"Prince Naif appointed deputy Saudi PM". The Financial Times. 27 March 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- "Reform in Saudi Arabia: At a snail's pace". The Economist. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- "Saudis vote in municipal elections, results on Sunday". Oman Observer. Agence France-Presse. 30 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-12-14. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- Long, David E. (2005). Culture and Customs of Saudi Arabia. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-313-32021-7.
- Cavendish, Marshall (2007). World and Its Peoples: the Arabian Peninsula. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2.
- Barenek, Ondrej (2009). "Divided We Survive: A Landscape of Fragmentation in Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Middle East Brief. Brandeis University Crown Center for Middle East Studies (33). Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Cordesman, Anthony H. (2009). Saudi Arabia: national security in a troubled region. pp. 50–52. ISBN 978-0-313-38076-1.
- "Flood sparks rare action". Montreal Gazette. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Dozens detained in Saudi over flood protests". The Peninsula (Qatar)/Thomson-Reuters. 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
- Johnston, David (9 September 2003). "Two years later: 9/11 Tactics; Official Says Qaeda Recruited Saudi Hijackers to Strain Ties". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- 'Fueling Terror', Institute for the Analysis of Global Terror, http://www.iags.org/fuelingterror.html
- The Telegraph 6 December 2010 "Wikileaks: Saudis 'chief funders of al-Qaeda" http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/wikileaks/8182847/Wikileaks-Saudis-chief-funders-of-al-Qaeda.html
- 'Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism since 1979' by Thomas Hegghammer, 2010, Cambridge Middle East Studies ISBN 978-0-521-73236-9
- Fisk, Robert (5 May 2011). "Saudis mobilise thousands of troops to quell growing revolt". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose (24 February 2011). "Saudi ruler offers $36bn to stave off uprising amid warning oil price could double". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- "Saudi king gives billion-dollar cash boost to housing, jobs". Arabian Business. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "King Abdullah Returns to Kingdom, Enacts Measures to Boost the Economy". Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Saudi king announces new benefits". Al Jazeera English. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "Saudi Arabia's king announces huge jobs and housing package". the Guardian. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Saudi King to Spend $67 Billion on Housing, Jobs in Bid to Pacify Citizens". Bloomberg. 18 March 2011.
- "Critical thoughts on critical thinking in Saudi Arabia". openDemocracy. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-09-953905-6.
- Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom : Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. Viking. p. 267.
Abdullah was already the first Saudi ruler to have presided over elections. Admittedly the voting, held in the spring of 2005, was only for local, virtually powerless municipal councils -- and then for only half the seats on those; women were not allowed to stand for office or to vote. But the male electorate got the change to eat large quantities of mutton for three weeks, since Saudi electioneering proved to revolve around lamb and tents ... candidate held court, inviting voters inside [their tents] and plying them with mountains of rice and whole roasted sheep.
- Al-Rasheed, Madawi (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. pp. 248–250. ISBN 978-0-521-74754-7.
- 'Women in Saudi Arabia to vote and run in elections', BBC News, 25 September 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-15052030
- Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom : Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. Viking. p. 268.
The results of the voting proved the truth of what Fahd once prophesied about elections -- it was usually the religious who won. Candidates with Western sympathies or any suspicion of secularism lost out heavily to hardline conservatives who were endorsed by the local religious establishment. Imams and holy men made their opinions felt through `golden lists` of religiously approved candidates, sent out to voters on their cell phones .... The vote also provided statistical backing for the analysis that informed observers had long maintained -- that for all their faults, and quite contrary to their stereotypical reputation, the House of Saud provided a minority force pushing for Western secular change in a Kingdom of largely retrograde caution.
- al-Suhaimy, Abeed (23 March 2011). "Saudi Arabia announces municipal elections". Asharq al-Awsat. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- Abu-Nasr, Donna (28 March 2011). "Saudi Women Inspired by Fall of Mubarak Step Up Equality Demand". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- 'Islamist win' in key Saudi poll, BBC News, 11 February 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4252079.stm
- Aarts & Nonneman, op. cit., pp. 449-453.
- Carnegie Endowment, Arab Reform Bulletin, May 2009, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/arb/?fa=show&article=23151 Accessed 8 June 2009
- Saudi Gazette (2 January 2012). "Govt shake-up hailed as a bold step". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "RFI - Religious hard-liners take a hit in King's reshuffle". Rfi.fr. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "Major reshuffle in Saudi Arabia". BBC News. 14 February 2009.
- Saudi National e-Government Portal
- Saudi Arabia Government at DMOZ
- Carnegie Endowment, Arab Reform Bulletin: 'Saudi Arabia'
- Saudi Arabia Corruption Profile from the Business Anti-Corruption Portal