Politics of Namibia
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politics and government of
Politics of Namibia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Namibia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by both the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the two chambers of Parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Additional to the government political structure Namibia has a network of traditional leadership with currently 51 recognised traditional authorities and their leaders. These authorities cover the entire Namibian territory. Traditional leaders are entrusted with the allocation of communal land and the formulation of the traditional group's customary laws. They also take over minor judicial work.
The Constituent Assembly of Namibia produced a constitution which established a multi-party system and a bill of rights. It also limited the executive president to two five-year terms and provided for the private ownership of property. The three branches of government are subject to checks and balances, and a provision is made for judicial review. The constitution also states that Namibia should have a mixed economy, and foreign investment should be encouraged.
The constitution is noted for being one of the first to incorporate protection of the environment into its text. Namibia is a democratic but one party dominant state with the South-West Africa People's Organisation in power. Opposition parties are allowed, but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power.
While the ethnic-based, three-tier, South African-imposed governing authorities have been dissolved, the current government pledged for the sake of national reconciliation to retain civil servants employed during the colonial period. The government is still organizing itself on both national and regional levels.
The Constituent Assembly converted itself into the National Assembly on February 16, 1990, retaining all the members elected on a straight party ticket.
The Namibian head of state is the president, elected by popular vote every five years. Namibia's founding president is Sam Nujoma, who was in office for three terms from 21 March 1990 (Namibia's Independence Day) until 21 March 2005. Hifikepunye Pohamba was Namibia's second president serving from 2005 to 2015. Since 2015 Hage Geingob has been President of Namibia.
Separation of powers
While the separation of powers is enshrined in the country's constitution, Namibia's civil society and the opposition repeatedly have criticised the overlap between executive and legislature. All cabinet members also sit in the National Assembly and dominate that body—not numerically but by being the superiors to ordinary members.
The government is headed by the prime minister, who, together with his cabinet, is appointed by the president. SWAPO, the primary force behind independence, is still the country's largest party. Hage Geingob was Namibia's first Prime Minister. He was appointed on 21 March 1990 and served until 28 August 2002. Theo-Ben Gurirab was Prime Minister from 28 August 2002 to 21 March 2005, and Nahas Angula occupied this position from 21 March 2005 to 4 December 2012. Since 21 March 2015, Hage Geingob is President of Namibia.
Parliament has two chambers. The National Assembly has 78 members, elected for a five-year term, 72 members elected by proportional representation and six members appointed by the president. The National Council has 26 representatives of the Regional Councils as members, elected for a six-year term. Every Regional Council in the 13 regions of Namibia elects two representatives to serve on this body. The Assembly is the primary legislative body, with the Council playing more of an advisory role.
The highest judicial body is the Supreme Court, whose judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission. The judicial structure in Namibia parallels that of South Africa. In 1919, Roman-Dutch law was declared the common law of the territory and remains so to the present.
Political parties and elections
|Katuutire Kaura||Democratic Turnhalle Alliance||24,186||2.98|
|Justus ǁGaroëb||United Democratic Front||19,258||2.37|
|Ignatius Shixwameni||All People's Party||9,981||1.23|
|Henry Mudge||Republican Party||9,425||1.16|
|Benjamin Ulenga||Congress of Democrats||5,812||0.72|
|David Isaacs||Democratic Party of Namibia||1,859||0.23|
|Frans Goagoseb||Namibian Democratic Movement for Change||1,760||0.22|
|Attie Beukes||Communist Party of Namibia||1,005||0.12|
|Total (turnout )||812,233||100.00|
|South West Africa People's Organization||602,580||74.29||54||1|
|Rally for Democracy and Progress||90,556||11.16||8||8|
|Democratic Turnhalle Alliance||25,393||3.13||2||2|
|National Unity Democratic Organization||24,422||3.01||2||1|
|United Democratic Front||19,489||2.40||2||1|
|All People’s Party||10,795||1.33||1||1|
|Congress of Democrats||5,375||0.66||1||4|
|South West Africa National Union||4,989||0.62||1||1|
|Monitor Action Group||4,718||0.58||0||1|
|Democratic Party of Namibia||1,942||0.24||0||—|
|Namibian Democratic Movement for Change||1,770||0.22||0||—|
|National Democratic Party||1,187||0.15||0||—|
|Communist Party of Namibia||810||0.10||0||—|
|Total (turnout %)||811,143||100.0||72||—|
|Source: Electoral Commission of Namibia|
Elections were held in 1992, to elect members of 13 newly established Regional Councils, as well as new municipal officials. Two members from each Regional Council serve simultaneously as members of the National Council, the country's second house of Parliament. Nineteen of its members are from the ruling SWAPO party, and seven are from the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA). In December 1994, elections were held for the President and the National Assembly.
Namibia has about 40 political groups, ranging from modern political parties to traditional groups based on tribal authority. Some represent single tribes or ethnic groups while others encompass several. Most participate in political alliances, some of which are multiracial, with frequently shifting membership.
SWAPO is the ruling party, and all but one of the new government's first cabinet posts went to SWAPO members. A marxist-oriented movement, SWAPO has become more right wing and now espouses the need for a mixed economy. SWAPO has been a legal political party since its formation and was cautiously active in Namibia, although before implementation of the UN Plan, it was forbidden to hold meetings of more than 20 people, and its leadership was subject to frequent detention. In December 1976, the UN General Assembly recognized SWAPO as "the sole and authentic representative of the Namibian people," a characterization other internal parties did not accept.
In the 1999 presidential and parliamentary elections, SWAPO continued its history of political dominance, taking 55 of the 72 Assembly seats, and returning President Sam Nujoma to the office for his third term. The principal opposition parties are the Congress of Democrats (CoD) and the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), with each possessing seven seats in the National Assembly.
Namibian government has so far recognised 51 traditional authorities, and a further 40 applications are pending. These institutions are based on ethnicity and headed by the traditional leader of that ethnic group or clan. These positions are not paid by the state. Instead the traditional group's members are expected to sustain their leadership. Government did, however, give one car each to the recognised authorities, and awards allowances for fuel and administrative work. The parallel existence of traditional authorities and the Namibian government in Namibia is controversial.
Namibia is divided into 14 regions: Zambezi, Erongo, Hardap, !Karas, Kavango East, Kavango West, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, and Otjozondjupa.
International organization participation
Namibia is member of ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
- Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
- Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan Journals. 3 (3): pp. 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
Of the contemporary cases, only four provide the assembly majority an unrestricted right to vote no confidence, and of these, only two allow the president unrestricted authority to appoint the prime minister. These two, Mozambique and Namibia, as well as the Weimar Republic, thus resemble most closely the structure of authority depicted in the right panel of Figure 3, whereby the dual accountability of the cabinet to both the president and the assembly is maximized. (...) Namibia allows the president to dissolve [the assembly] at any time but places a novel negative incentive on his exercise of the right: He must stand for a new election at the same time as the new assembly elections.
- Sasman, Catherine (22 March 2013). "Mbumba's presence in Cabinet under spotlight". The Namibian.
- "GRN Structure. The Legislature". Government of Namibia. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- 27 - 28 Nov 2009 Presidential Elections.pdf Electoral Commission of Namibia
- Tjitemisa, Kuzeeko (18 November 2016). "Chiefs cost govt millions". New Era. p. 6.
- Nakale, Albertina (9 August 2013). "President divides Kavango into two". New Era. via allafrica.com. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015.