Politics of Equatorial Guinea

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Equatorial Guinea
Administrative divisions (provinces)

The politics of Equatorial Guinea take place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President is both the head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Chamber of People's Representatives [1][2]

Political conditions

A great deal of political party activity ensued when Equatorial Guinea attained autonomy from Spain in 1963. Bubi and Fernandino parties on the island preferred separation from Río Muni or a loose federation. Ethnically-based parties in Río Muni favored independence for a united country comprising Bioko and Río Muni, an approach that was adopted. The Movement for the Self-Determination of Bioko Island (MAIB), which advocates independence for the island under Bubi control, is one of the offshoots of the era immediately preceding independence.

Equatorial Guinea became independent from Spain on October 12, 1968. Since then, the country has had two presidents: Francisco Macías Nguema, who had been the mayor of Mongomo under the Spanish colonial government, and Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Macías's nephew, who has ruled since 1979, when he staged a military coup d'état and executed his uncle. When Macías came to power, political activity largely ceased. Opposition figures among the exile communities in Spain and elsewhere agitated for reforms; some of them had been employed in the Macías and Obiang governments. After political activities in Equatorial Guinea were legalized in the early 1990s, some opposition leaders returned to test the waters, but repressive actions have continued sporadically.

The 1982 Constitution gives Obiang extensive powers, including the right to name, and dismiss, members of the cabinet. The 1982 constitution also give him the power to make laws by decree, dissolve the Chamber of Representatives, negotiate and ratify international treaties, and calling legislative elections. Obiang retained his role as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and minister of defense when he became president and he maintains close supervision of military activity. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and operates under powers designated by the president. The prime minister coordinates government activities in areas other than foreign affairs, national defense and security.

With the prodding of the United Nations, the United States, Spain, and other donor countries, the government undertook an electoral census in 1995 and held freely contested municipal elections, the country's first, in September. Most observers agree that these elections were relatively free and transparent and also that the opposition parties garnered between 2/3 and 3/4 of the total vote. The government delayed announcing the results, then claimed a highly dubious overall 52% victory, and capture of 19 of the 27 municipal councils. The council of Malabo, the capital, went to the opposition however. In early January 1996 Obiang called presidential elections, to be held in six weeks. The campaign was marred by allegations of fraud, and most of the other candidates withdrew in the final week. Obiang claimed re-election with 98% of the vote. International observers agreed the election was neither free nor fair. In an attempt to molify his critics, Obiang announced a new cabinet, giving minor portfolios to some people identified by the government as opposition figures.

Since President Obiang has been constrained only by a need to maintain a consensus among his advisers and political supporters in the Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea, most of whom are drawn from the Nguema family in Mongomo,[3] part of the Esangu subclan of the Fang in the eastern part of Río Muni. Alleged coup attempts in 1981 and 1983 raised little sympathy among the populace.

Under Obiang, schools reopened and primary education expanded, public utilities and roads were restored, a favorable contast with Macías' tyranny and terror, but his administration has been criticized for not implementing genuine democratic reforms. Corruption and a dysfunctional judicial system disrupt development of Equatorial Guinea's economy and society. In March 2001 the President appointed a new Prime Minister, Cándido Muatetema Rivas, and replaced several ministers perceived to be especially corrupt. However, the government budget still does not include all revenues and expenditures. The United Nations Development Programme has proposed a broad governance reform program, but the Equatorial Guinean Government has not moved very rapidly to implement it.

Although Equatorial Guinea lacks a well-established democratic tradition comparable to the developed democracies of the West, it has progressed toward developing a participatory political system out of the anarchic, chaotic, and repressive conditions of the Macías years. In power since 1979, the Obiang government has made little progress in stimulating the economy. Extremely serious health and sanitary conditions persist, and the educational system remains in desperate condition. Although the abuses and atrocities that characterized the Macías years have been eliminated, effective rule of law does not exist. Religious freedom is tolerated.

On December 15, 2002,[4] Equatorial Guinea's four main opposition parties withdrew from the country's presidential election. Obiang won an election widely considered fraudulent by members of the western press.

According to a March 2004 BBC profile,[5] politics within the country are currently dominated by tensions between Obiang's son Teodoro (known by the nickname Teodorín, meaning Little Teodoro), and other close relatives with powerful positions in the security forces. The tension may be rooted in a power shift arising from the dramatic increase since 1997 in oil production.

A November 2004 report [6] named Mark Thatcher as a financial backer of a March 2004 attempt to topple Obiang organized by Simon Mann. Various accounts also name the UK's MI6, the US Central Intelligence Agency, and Spain as having been tacit supporters of the coup attempt.[7] Nevertheless, an Amnesty International report on the ensuing trial highlights the government's failure to demonstrate in court that the alleged coup attempt had ever actually taken place.[8]

Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea 3 August 1979
Prime Minister Vicente Ehate Tomi Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea 21 May 2012

The 1982 constitution of Equatorial Guinea gives the President extensive powers, including naming and dismissing members of the cabinet, making laws by decree, dissolving the Chamber of Representatives, negotiating and ratifying treaties and calling legislative elections. The President retains his role as commander in chief of the armed forces and minister of defense, and he maintains close supervision of military activity. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and operates under powers designated by the President. The Prime Minister coordinates government activities in areas other than foreign affairs, national defense and security.

Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo seized power in a military coup. He is elected by popular vote to a seven-year term.

Another branch of the government is the State Council. The State Council's main function is to serve as caretaker in case of death or physical incapacity of the President. It comprises the following ex-officio members: the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defense, the President of the National Assembly and the Chairman of the Social and Economic Council.

Legislative branch

The Chamber of People's Representatives (Cámara de Representantes del Pueblo) has 100 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation in multi-member constituencies. Equatorial Guinea is a One party dominant state. This means that only one political party, the Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea, is in fact allowed to hold effective power. Although minor parties are allowed, they are required to accept the de facto leadership of the dominant party.

Political parties and elections

For other political parties, see List of political parties in Equatorial Guinea. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Equatorial Guinea.
 Summary of the 15 December 2002 President of Equatorial Guinea election results
Candidates Parties %
Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (Partido Democrático de Guinea Ecuatorial) 97.1
Celestino Bonifacio Bacalé Convergence for Social Democracy (Convergencia para la Democracia Social) 2.2
Jeremías Ondo Ngomo Popular Union 0.3
Buenaventura Monsuy Asumu Party of the Social Democratic Coalition 0.2
Secundino Oyono Agwong Ada Social Democratic and Popular Convergence 0.2
Total (turnout 98%) 100
Source: African Elections
 Summary of the 25 April 2004 Chamber of People's Representatives election results
Parties Votes % Seats
Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (Partido Democrático de Guinea Ecuatorial) 99,892 49.4 68
Democratic Opposition in alliance with PDGE 85,822 42.4 30
Convergence for Social Democracy (Convergencia para la Democracia Social) 12,202 6.0 2
Others 4,353 2.1 -
Total (turnout 96%) (boycotted by the majority of the opposition) 202,269   100
Source: African Elections

Judicial branch

The judicial system follows similar administrative levels. At the top are the President and his judicial advisors (the Supreme Court). In descending rank are the appeals courts, chief judges for the divisions, and local magistrates. Tribal laws and customs are honored in the formal court system when not in conflict with national law. The court system, which often uses customary law, is a combination of traditional, civil, and military justice, and it operates in an ad hoc manner for lack of established procedures and experienced judicial personnel.

Administrative divisions

A politician's image appears in the entrance to the Consulate-General of Equatorial Guinea in Houston, a diplomatic complex in an office building in Houston, Texas, United States

Equatorial Guinea is divided in seven provinces (provincias); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas.

The President appoints the governors of the seven provinces. Each province is divided administratively into districts and municipalities. The internal administrative system falls under the Ministry of Territorial Administration; several other ministries are represented at the provincial and district levels.

Membership in international organizations

Further viewing


  1. "CIA World Factbook: Equatorial Guinea - Government". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008-03-20. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
  2. Book of Rule. Dorling Kindersley. 2004. p. 282.
  3. Political Instability Task Force (2010). Polity IV Country Report 2010: Equatorial Guinea (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. p. 2.
  4. allAfrica.com: Equatorial Guinea: Obiang Sure to Win As Opposition Quits Poll (Page 1 of 1)
  5. Shaxson, Nicholas (2004-03-17). "Profile: Equatorial Guinea's great survivor". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  6. "Mark Thatcher". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  7. Evans, Martin (16 October 2011). "MI6 knew about Equatorial Guinea coup plot, leader claims". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  8. "Equatorial Guinea: New report shows trial of alleged 'mercenary coup plotters' unfair". Amnesty International. 7 June 2005. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
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