Placental growth factor

Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases PGF, D12S1900, PGFL, PLGF, PlGF-2, SHGC-10760, Placental growth factor, PIGF
External IDs MGI: 105095 HomoloGene: 1978 GeneCards: PGF
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse









RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 14: 74.94 – 74.96 Mb Chr 12: 85.17 – 85.18 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Placental growth factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PGF gene.[3][4]

Placental growth factor (PGF) is a member of the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) sub-family - a key molecule in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, in particular during embryogenesis. The main source of PGF during pregnancy is the placental trophoblast. PGF is also expressed in many other tissues, including the villous trophoblast.[5]

Clinical significance

Placental growth factor-expression within human atherosclerotic lesions is associated with plaque inflammation and neovascular growth.[6][7]

Serum levels of PGF and sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, also known as soluble VEGF receptor-1) are altered in women with preeclampsia. Studies show that in both early and late onset preeclampsia, maternal serum levels of sFlt-1 are higher and PGF lower in women presenting with preeclampsia. In addition, placental sFlt-1 levels were significantly increased and PGF decreased in women with preeclampsia as compared to those with uncomplicated pregnancies. This suggests that placental concentrations of sFlt-1 and PGF mirror the maternal serum changes. This is consistent with the view that the placenta is the main source of sFlt-1 and PGF during pregnancy.1


  1. "Human PubMed Reference:".
  2. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  3. "Entrez Gene: PGF placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein".
  4. Maglione D, Guerriero V, Viglietto G, Ferraro MG, Aprelikova O, Alitalo K, Del Vecchio S, Lei KJ, Chou JY, Persico MG (April 1993). "Two alternative mRNAs coding for the angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF), are transcribed from a single gene of chromosome 14". Oncogene. 8 (4): 925–31. PMID 7681160.
  5. Khalil A, Muttukrishna S, Harrington K, Jauniaux E (2008). Lumbiganon, Pisake, ed. "Effect of antihypertensive therapy with alpha methyldopa on levels of angiogenic factors in pregnancies with hypertensive disorders". PLoS ONE. 3 (7): e2766. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002766. PMC 2447877Freely accessible. PMID 18648513.
  6. Khurana R, Moons L, Shafi S, Luttun A, Collen D, Martin JF, Carmeliet P, Zachary IC (May 2005). "Placental growth factor promotes atherosclerotic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation". Circulation. 111 (21): 2828–2836. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.495887. PMID 15911697.
  7. Shibuya M (April 2008). "Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent and -independent regulation of angiogenesis". BMB Rep. 41 (4): 278–86. doi:10.5483/BMBRep.2008.41.4.278. PMID 18452647.

Further reading

  • Luttun A, Tjwa M, Carmeliet P (2003). "Placental growth factor (PlGF) and its receptor Flt-1 (VEGFR-1): novel therapeutic targets for angiogenic disorders". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 979: 80–93. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04870.x. PMID 12543719. 
  • Maglione D, Guerriero V, Viglietto G, et al. (1991). "Isolation of a human placenta cDNA coding for a protein related to the vascular permeability factor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (20): 9267–9271. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.20.9267. PMC 52695Freely accessible. PMID 1924389. 
  • Maglione D, Guerriero V, Viglietto G, et al. (1993). "Two alternative mRNAs coding for the angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF), are transcribed from a single gene of chromosome 14". Oncogene. 8 (4): 925–31. PMID 7681160. 
  • Park JE, Chen HH, Winer J, et al. (1994). "Placenta growth factor. Potentiation of vascular endothelial growth factor bioactivity, in vitro and in vivo, and high affinity binding to Flt-1 but not to Flk-1/KDR". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (41): 25646–54. PMID 7929268. 
  • Hauser S, Weich HA (1994). "A heparin-binding form of placenta growth factor (PlGF-2) is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in placenta". Growth Factors. 9 (4): 259–268. doi:10.3109/08977199308991586. PMID 8148155. 
  • Mattei MG, Borg JP, Rosnet O, et al. (1996). "Assignment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PLGF) genes to human chromosome 6p12-p21 and 14q24-q31 regions, respectively". Genomics. 32 (1): 168–169. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0098. PMID 8786112. 
  • Ziche M, Maglione D, Ribatti D, et al. (1997). "Placenta growth factor-1 is chemotactic, mitogenic, and angiogenic". Lab. Invest. 76 (4): 517–31. PMID 9111514. 
  • Vuorela P, Hatva E, Lymboussaki A, et al. (1997). "Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and placenta growth factor in human placenta". Biol. Reprod. 56 (2): 489–494. doi:10.1095/biolreprod56.2.489. PMID 9116151. 
  • Cao Y, Ji WR, Qi P, et al. (1997). "Placenta growth factor: identification and characterization of a novel isoform generated by RNA alternative splicing". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 235 (3): 493–498. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6813. PMID 9207183. 
  • Davis-Smyth T, Presta LG, Ferrara N (1998). "Mapping the charged residues in the second immunoglobulin-like domain of the vascular endothelial growth factor/placenta growth factor receptor Flt-1 required for binding and structural stability". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (6): 3216–3222. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.6.3216. PMID 9452434. 
  • Landgren E, Schiller P, Cao Y, Claesson-Welsh L (1998). "Placenta growth factor stimulates MAP kinase and mitogenicity but not phospholipase C-gamma and migration of endothelial cells expressing Flt 1". Oncogene. 16 (3): 359–367. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201545. PMID 9467961. 
  • Gluzman-Poltorak Z, Cohen T, Herzog Y, Neufeld G (2000). "Neuropilin-2 is a receptor for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) forms VEGF-145 and VEGF-165 [corrected]". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (24): 18040–18045. doi:10.1074/jbc.M909259199. PMID 10748121. 
  • Renedo M, Arce I, Montgomery K, et al. (2000). "A sequence-ready physical map of the region containing the human natural killer gene complex on chromosome 12p12.3-p13.2". Genomics. 65 (2): 129–136. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6163. PMID 10783260. 
  • Maglione D, Battisti M, Tucci M (2000). "Recombinant production of PIGF-1 and its activity in animal models". Farmaco. 55 (3): 165–167. doi:10.1016/S0014-827X(00)00012-4. PMID 10919072. 
  • Roberts-Clark DJ, Smith AJ (2000). "Angiogenic growth factors in human dentine matrix". Arch. Oral Biol. 45 (11): 1013–1016. doi:10.1016/S0003-9969(00)00075-3. PMID 11000388. 
  • Iyer S, Leonidas DD, Swaminathan GJ, et al. (2001). "The crystal structure of human placenta growth factor-1 (PlGF-1), an angiogenic protein, at 2.0 A resolution". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (15): 12153–12161. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008055200. PMID 11069911. 
  • Li XF, Charnock-Jones DS, Zhang E, et al. (2001). "Angiogenic growth factor messenger ribonucleic acids in uterine natural killer cells". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86 (4): 1823–1834. doi:10.1210/jc.86.4.1823. PMID 11297624. 
  • Su YN, Hsu JJ, Lee CN, et al. (2002). "Raised maternal serum placenta growth factor concentration during the second trimester is associated with Down syndrome". Prenat. Diagn. 22 (1): 8–12. doi:10.1002/pd.218. PMID 11810642. 
  • Angelucci C, Lama G, Iacopino F, et al. (2002). "Effect of placenta growth factor-1 on proliferation and release of nitric oxide, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in human epithelial cells expressing the FLT-1 receptor". Growth Factors. 19 (3): 193–206. doi:10.3109/08977190109001086. PMID 11811792. 
  • Mamluk R, Gechtman Z, Kutcher ME, et al. (2002). "Neuropilin-1 binds vascular endothelial growth factor 165, placenta growth factor-2, and heparin via its b1b2 domain". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (27): 24818–24825. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200730200. PMID 11986311. 
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