Pigeon toe

"In-toe" redirects here. For the process of pulling something, see in tow. For the surfing technique, see tow-in. For the automotive term, see toe-in.
Pigeon toe
Classification and external resources
Specialty medical genetics
ICD-10 M20.5, Q66.2
ICD-9-CM 754.53
MedlinePlus 001601

Pigeon toe (also known as metatarsus varus, metatarsus adductus, in-toe gait, intoeing or false clubfoot) is a condition which causes the toes to point inward when walking. It is most common in infants and children under two years of age[1] and, when not the result of simple muscle weakness,[2] normally arises from underlying conditions, such as a twisted shin bone or an excessive anteversion (femoral head is more than 15° from the angle of torsion) resulting in the twisting of the thigh bone when the front part of a person's foot is turned in.

Severe cases are considered a form of clubfoot.[3]


The cause of in-toeing can be differentiated based on the location of the disalignment. The variants are:[4][5]

Metatarsus Adductus

The most common form of being pigeon toed, when the feet bend inward from the middle part of the foot to the toes.

Tibial Torsion

The tibia or lower leg slightly or severely twists inward when walking or standing.

Femoral Anteversion

The femur or thigh bone turns inward when walking.


Most of these conditions are self-correcting during childhood. In the worst cases, surgery may be needed.[1] Most of the time, this involves lengthening the Achilles tendon. Less severe treatment options for pigeon toe include keeping a child from crossing his or her legs, use of corrective shoes, and casting of the foot and lower legs, which is normally done before the child reaches 12 months of age or older.

If the pigeon toe is mild and close to the center, treatment may not be necessary. Ballet has been used as a treatment for mild cases. Dance exercises can help to bend the legs outward.

See also


  1. 1 2 "Pigeon toe (in-toeing)". University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  2. Glenn Copeland; Stan Solomon; Mark Myerson (2005). The Good Foot Book. New York: Hunter House. pp. 96–97. ISBN 0-89793-448-2.
  3. "pigeon toe" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  4. "Intoeing". American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved 6 July 2013. Reviewed by members of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America
  5. Clifford R. Wheeless III (ed.). "Internal Tibial Torsion". Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 8/29/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.