|Alternative names||Tel helva, çekme helva, tel tel, tepme helva, keten helva|
|Place of origin||Turkey|
|Region or state||Kocaeli, Turkey|
|Main ingredients||Flour, butter, pulled sugar|
|Cookbook: Pişmaniye Media: Pişmaniye|
Pişmaniye is a Turkish sweet in fine strands made by blending flour roasted in butter into pulled sugar. It is sometimes garnished with ground pistachio nuts. Although the texture is similar to cotton candy, both method and ingredients are different.
Until recently pişmaniye used to be made at home in most regions of Turkey, but this tradition is now rapidly disappearing. Today the manufacturing process is partially mechanised.
There are many different Turkish names, used in different provinces, the most common being tel helva, çekme helva, tel tel, tepme helva and keten helva.
Origin and etymology
The earliest Turkish reference to pişmaniye is a recipe by Şirvani, a physician writing during the 1430s. The Persian form pashmak, which is the origin of the Turkish name pişmaniye, occurs in the poetry of the Iranian poet Ebu Ishak, also known as Bushak (d. 1423 or 1427). "Pashm" in Persian means wool, and "Pashmak" means wool-like.
It may be of a Coptic origin from :'ⲡⲏⲥ: pis": which means :" to mix flour with fat" , and "ⲛⲏⲓⲛⲓ: nani or mani ": which means : "honey" , this candy found in Egypt, known as "halawa shaar حلاوة شعر" which means : "hair candy" , the word "pis-mani" ( flour mixed with fat -honey) could have transferred along with the "trained-labor transferring" from Egypt to Turkey during the Ottoman period.
- Sohan papdi - Indian cotton candy (gram flour, ghee)
- Pashmak - Persian Candy Floss
- Dragon's beard candy - Chinese Candy Floss
- Üçer, Müjgan (1992). Sivas Halk Mutfağı. Sivas, 71-72
- Yıldırım, Renan, "Ağızda Dağılan Lezzet Pişmaniye", Skylife, February 2003
- Şirvani, Muhammed bin Mahmud, 15. Yüzyıl Osmanlı Mutfağı, eds. Mustafa Argunşah and Müjgan Çakır, Istanbul:Gökkubbe Yayınları, 2005, 126-127; Priscilla Mary Işın, Gülbeşeker, Türk Tatlıları Tarihi, İstanbul:Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 2008, 191-192
- Ahmed Cavid, Tercüme-i Kenzü'l-İştiha, eds. Seyit Ali Kahraman, Priscilla Mary Işın, İstanbul:Kitap Yayınevi, 2006, 22, 98
- Moawad Dawood Coptic dictionary , P:293b
- Moawad Dawood Coptic dictionary , P:206a
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pişmaniye.|
- Video of traditional hand-made technique filmed in a bazaar
- Demonstration of modern mechanized equipment in the making of pişmaniye