Phyllis Schlafly

Phyllis Schlafly

Schlafly in 2011
Born Phyllis McAlpin Stewart
(1924-08-15)August 15, 1924
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.[1]
Died September 5, 2016(2016-09-05) (aged 92)
Ladue, Missouri, U.S.
Cause of death Cancer
Resting place Calvary Cemetery, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
Other names Phyllis Stewart Schlafly
Alma mater Washington University
Harvard University
Occupation Lawyer, activist
Political party Republican
Religion Roman Catholicism
Spouse(s) John Schlafly (deceased)
Children Six, including Andrew

Phyllis McAlpin Schlafly (/ˈfɪls ˈʃlæfli/; née Stewart; August 15, 1924 – September 5, 2016) was an American constitutional lawyer and conservative activist. She was known for her staunchly conservative social and political views, her opposition to feminism, and her successful campaign against the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Her 1964 book, A Choice Not an Echo, a push-back against Republican leader Nelson Rockefeller, sold more than three million copies. She co-authored books on national defense and was highly critical of arms control agreements with the former Soviet Union.[2] Schlafly founded the conservative interest group Eagle Forum in 1972 and remained its chairman and CEO until her death.


Schlafly's great-grandfather Stewart, a Presbyterian, emigrated from Scotland to New York in 1851 and moved westward through Canada before settling in Michigan.[3] Her grandfather, Andrew F. Stewart, was a master mechanic with the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway.[4] Schlafly's father, John Bruce Stewart, was a machinist and salesman of industrial equipment, principally for Westinghouse. He became unemployed in 1932 during the Great Depression and could not find permanent work until World War II.[5] He was granted a patent in 1944 for a rotary engine.[6]

Schlafly's mother, Odile Stewart (née Dodge),[7] was the daughter of attorney Ernest C. Dodge. Phyllis' sole sibling was her younger sister, Odile Stewart (later Mrs. Mecker; 1930-2015). Phyllis attended college and graduate school. Before her marriage, she worked as a teacher at a private girls' school in St. Louis.[8] During the Depression, Schlafly's mother went back to work as a librarian and a school teacher to support her family.

Schlafly was christened Phyllis McAlpin Stewart, and born and raised in St. Louis. During the Depression, Schlafly's father faced long-term unemployment, and her mother entered the labor market. Mrs. Stewart was able to keep the family afloat and maintained Phyllis in a Catholic girls' school.[9]


Schlafly started college early and worked as a model for a time. In 1944, she graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Washington University in St. Louis. In 1945, she received a Master of Arts degree in government from Radcliffe College (then a female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard University). In her 1966 book Strike From Space (1965), Schlafly notes that during World War II, she worked as "a ballistics gunner and technician at the largest ammunition plant in the world". She earned a Juris Doctor degree from the Washington University in St. Louis School of Law in 1978.[5]

Activism and political efforts

Among Schlafly's early experiences in politics was working in the successful 1946 campaign of Congressman Claude I. Bakewell.

In 1946, Schlafly became a researcher for the American Enterprise Institute and worked in the successful United States House of Representatives’ campaign of Republican Claude I. Bakewell.[10]

In 1952, Schlafly ran for Congress as a Republican in the majority Democratic 24th congressional district of Illinois and lost to Charles Melvin Price.[11] Schlafly's campaign was low-budget and promoted heavily through the local print media, and local entrepreneurs John M. and Spencer Olin as well as Texas oil billionaire H. L. Hunt.[12]

She attended her first Republican National Convention that year and continued to attend each following convention.[13] As part of the Illinois delegation of the 1952 Republican convention, Schlafly endorsed U.S. Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio to be the party nominee for the presidential election.[14] At the 1960 Republican National Convention, Schlafly helped lead a revolt of "moral conservatives" who opposed Richard Nixon's stance (as The New York Times puts it) "against segregation and discrimination."[15]

She came to national attention when millions of copies of her self-published book, A Choice Not an Echo, were distributed in support of Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign, especially in California's hotly fought winner-take-all-delegates GOP primary.[16] In it, Schlafly denounced the Rockefeller Republicans in the Northeast, accusing them of corruption and globalism. Critics called the book a conspiracy theory about "secret kingmakers" controlling the Republican Party.[17]

In 1967, Schlafly lost a bid for the presidency of the National Federation of Republican Women against the more moderate candidate Gladys O'Donnell of California. Outgoing NFRW president and future United States Treasurer Dorothy Elston of Delaware worked against Schlafly in the campaign.[18][19]

Schlafly joined the John Birch Society, but quit because she thought that the main communist threats to the nation were external rather than internal. In 1970, she ran unsuccessfully for a House of Representatives seat in Illinois against Democratic incumbent George E. Shipley. This was midway in Nixon's first term as president.

Opposition to Equal Rights Amendment

Symbol used on signs and buttons of ERA opponents

Schlafly became an outspoken opponent of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) during the 1970s as the organizer of the "STOP ERA" campaign. STOP was an acronym for "Stop Taking Our Privileges". She argued that the ERA would take away gender-specific privileges currently enjoyed by women, including "dependent wife" benefits under Social Security, separate restrooms for males and females, and exemption from the Selective Service (the Army draft).[20][21] She was opposed by groups such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) and the ERAmerica coalition. The Homemakers' Equal Rights Association was formed to counter Schlafly's campaign.

In 1972, when Schlafly began her campaign against the Equal Rights Amendment, it had already been ratified by 28 of the required 38 states. Seven more states ratified the amendment after Schlafly began organizing opposition, but another five states rescinded their ratifications. The last state to ratify the ERA was Indiana, where State Senator Wayne Townsend cast the tie-breaking vote in January 1977.

The Equal Rights Amendment was narrowly defeated, having only achieved ratification in 35 states, five of which had subsequently rescinded their ratification.[5] Experts agree Schlafly was a key player. Political scientist Jane J. Mansbridge concluded in her history of the ERA:

Many people who followed the struggle over the ERA believed—rightly in my view—that the Amendment would have been ratified by 1975 or 1976 had it not been for Phyllis Schlafly's early and effective effort to organize potential opponents.[22]

Joan Williams argues, "ERA was defeated when Schlafly turned it into a war among women over gender roles."[23] Historian Judith Glazer-Raymo argues:

As moderates, we thought we represented the forces of reason and goodwill but failed to take seriously the power of the family values argument and the single-mindedness of Schlafly and her followers. The ERA's defeat seriously damaged the women's movement, destroying its momentum and its potential to foment social change ... Eventually, this resulted in feminist dissatisfaction with the Republican Party, giving the Democrats a new source of strength that when combined with overwhelming minority support, helped elect Bill Clinton to the presidency in 1992 and again in 1996.[24]

Critics of Schlafly saw her advocacy against equal rights and her role as a working professional as a contradiction. Gloria Steinem and author Pia de Solenni, among others, considered it ironic that in Schlafly's role as an advocate for the full-time mother and wife, she herself was a lawyer, newsletter editor, touring speaker, and political activist.[18][25]

Broadcast media

In broadcast media, Schlafly provided commentaries on Chicago news radio station WBBM from 1973 to 1975, the CBS Morning News from 1974 to 1975, and then on CNN from 1980 to 1983. In 1983, she began creating syndicated daily 3-minute commentaries for radio. In 1989, she began hosting a weekly radio talk show, Eagle Forum Live.[26]


Equal Rights Amendment

Schlafly focused opposition to the ERA on traditional gender roles, such as that only men should do the fighting in wartime. She pointed out that the amendment would eliminate the men-only draft requirement and guarantee the possibility that women would be subject to conscription and be required to have military combat roles in future wars. Defense of traditional gender roles proved to be a useful tactic. In Illinois, her activists used traditional symbols of the American housewife. They took homemade bread, jams, and apple pies to the state legislators, with the slogans, "Preserve us from a congressional jam; Vote against the ERA sham" and "I am for Mom and apple pie."[27]

According to historian Lisa Levenstein, who works largely in fields pertaining to women's history,[28] the feminist movement in the late 1970s briefly attempted a program to help older divorced and widowed women. Many widows were ineligible for Social Security benefits, few divorcees actually received any alimony, and after a career as a housewife, few had skills to enter the labor force. The program, however, encountered sharp criticism from young activists who gave priority to poor minority women rather than the middle class. By 1980, NOW downplayed the program as it focused almost exclusively on the ERA. Schlafly moved into the vacuum. She denounced the feminists for abandoning older middle-class widows and divorcees in need and warned that ERA would equalize the laws for the benefit of man, stripping protections that older women urgently needed.[29]

She said the ERA was designed for the benefit of young career women and warned that if men and women had to be treated identically it would threaten the security of middle-aged housewives with no current job skills. The ERA would repeal protections such as alimony and eliminate the tendency for mothers to obtain custody over their children in divorce cases.[30] Her argument that protective laws would be lost resonated with working-class women.[31]

Women's issues

Schlafly with Ronald Reagan in 1987

Schlafly told Time magazine in 1978, "I have cancelled speeches whenever my husband thought that I had been away from home too much."[32]

In March 2007, Schlafly said in a speech at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, "By getting married, the woman has consented to sex, and I don't think you can call it rape."[33] In a March 30, 2006 interview, she attributed improvement in women's lives during the last decades of the 20th century to labor-saving devices such as the indoor clothes dryer and disposable diapers.[34]

She called Roe v. Wade "the worst decision in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court" and said that it "is responsible for the killing of millions of unborn babies".[35]

In 2007, while working to defeat a new version of the Equal Rights Amendment, she warned it would force courts to approve same-sex marriages and deny Social Security benefits for housewives and widows.[21]

United Nations and international relations

Over the years, Schlafly disdained the United Nations. On the 50th anniversary of the UN in 1995, she referred to it as "a cause for mourning, not celebration. It is a monument to foolish hopes, embarrassing compromises, betrayal of our servicemen, and a steady stream of insults to our nation. It is a Trojan Horse that carries the enemy into our midst and lures Americans to ride under alien insignia to fight and die in faraway lands." She opposed President Bill Clinton's decision in 1996 to send 20,000 American troops to Bosnia. Schlafly noted that Balkan nations have fought one another for 500 years and that the U.S. military should not be "policemen" of world trouble spots.[36]

Prior to the 1994 Congressional elections, Schlafly condemned globalization through the World Trade Organization as a "direct attack on American sovereignty, independence, jobs, and economy ... any country that must change its laws to obey rulings of a world organization has sacrificed its sovereignty."[37]

In late 2006, Schlafly collaborated with Jerome Corsi and Howard Phillips to create a website in opposition to the idea of a "North American Union", under which the United States, Mexico, and Canada would share a currency and be integrated in a structure similar to the European Union.[38]

During the Cold War, Schlafly opposed arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. In 1961, she wrote that "[arms control] will not stop Red aggression any more than disarming our local police will stop murder, theft, and rape."[39]

Judicial system

Schlafly was an outspoken critic of what she termed "activist judges", particularly on the Supreme Court. In 2005, Schlafly made headlines at a conference for the Judeo-Christian Council for Constitutional Restoration by suggesting that "Congress ought to talk about impeachment" of Justice Anthony Kennedy, citing as specific grounds Justice Kennedy's deciding vote to abolish the death penalty for minors.[40]

In April 2010, shortly after John Paul Stevens announced his retirement as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Schlafly called for the appointment of a military veteran to the Court. Stevens had been a veteran and, with his retirement, the court was "at risk of being left without a single military veteran."[41]

Presidential elections

Schlafly did not endorse a candidate for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination, but she spoke out against Mike Huckabee, who, she says, as governor left the Republican Party in Arkansas "in shambles". At the Eagle Forum, she has hosted U.S. Representative Tom Tancredo of Colorado, known for his opposition to illegal immigration. Before his election, she criticized Barack Obama as "an elitist who worked with words".[42]

During the election, she endorsed John McCain in an interview by saying: "Well, I'm a Republican, I'm supporting McCain". When asked about criticism of John McCain from Rush Limbaugh, she said: "Well, there are problems, we are trying to teach him".[43]

Schlafly endorsed Michele Bachmann in December 2011 for the Iowa caucus of the 2012 Republican presidential primaries, citing Bachmann's work against "ObamaCare" and deficit spending and her (Bachmann's) support of "traditional values."[44]

On February 3, 2012, Schlafly announced that she would be voting for Rick Santorum in that year's Missouri Republican primary. In 2016, she endorsed Donald Trump's candidacy for president.[45] The endorsement soon led to a breach in the Eagle Forum board. Schlafly broke with six dissident members, including her own daughter, Anne Corie,[46] and Cathie Adams, the former short-term state chairman of the Texas Republican Party.

Adams instead supported U.S. Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, Trump's principal challenger whom Adams considered a more conservative choice. Schlafly claimed that Adams attended a rogue board meeting with the intention of taking control of Eagle Forum. Schlafly hence called upon Corie, Adams, and the four other dissidents, all but one of whom support Cruz, to resign from the board. Schlafly further withdrew her support for Adams' current bid for vice chairman of the Republican Party of Texas at the pending state convention. Schlafly called Adams "disloyal" and claimed that Adams declined to return Schlafly's telephone call regarding the dispute.[47]

Schlafly's last book, The Conservative Case for Trump, was published September 6, 2016, one day after her death.[48]

Same-sex marriage

Schlafly opposed same-sex marriage and civil unions: "[a]ttacks on the definition of marriage as the union of one man and one woman come from the gay lobby seeking social recognition of their lifestyle."[49] Linking the Equal Rights Amendment to LGBT rights and same-sex marriage played a role in Schlafly's opposition to the ERA.[50][51]

Immigration proposals

Schlafly believed the Republican Party should reject immigration reform proposals; she told Focus Today that it is a "great myth" that the GOP needs to reach out to Latinos in the United States. "The people the Republicans should reach out to are the white votes, the white voters who didn’t vote in the last election. The propagandists are leading us down the wrong path ... [T]here's not any evidence at all that these Hispanics coming in from Mexico will vote Republican."[52][53]

Honorary degree and protests

On May 1, 2008, the trustees of Washington University in St. Louis announced that Schlafly would receive an honorary degree at the school's 2008 commencement ceremony. This was immediately met with objections from some students and faculty at the university who complained that she was anti-feminist and criticized her work on defeating the Equal Rights Amendment.[54] Fourteen university law professors wrote in a complaint letter that Schlafly's career demonstrated "anti-intellectualism in pursuit of a political agenda."[55]

While the trustees' honorary degree committee approved the honorees unanimously, five student members of the committee wrote to complain that they had to vote on the five honorees as a slate, in the final stage of the voting and felt the selection of Schlafly was a mistake although she may have well been the famous WU graduate.[56] In the days leading up to the commencement ceremony, Washington University Chancellor Mark S. Wrighton explained the trustees' decision to award Schlafly’s degree with the following statement:

In bestowing this degree, the University is not endorsing Mrs. Schlafly's views or opinions; rather, it is recognizing an alumna of the University whose life and work have had a broad impact on American life and have sparked widespread debate and controversies that in many cases have helped people better formulate and articulate their own views about the values they hold.[57]

At the May 16, 2008, commencement ceremony, Schlafly was awarded a Doctor of Humane Letters degree. A protest to rescind Schlafly's honorary degree received support from faculty and students. During the ceremony, hundreds of the 14,000 attendees, including one third of the graduating students and some faculty, silently stood and turned their backs to Schlafly in protest.[58] In the days leading up to the commencement there were several protests regarding her degree award; Schlafly described these protesters as "a bunch of losers".[54] In addition, she stated after the ceremony that the protesters were "juvenile" and that, "I'm not sure they're mature enough to graduate."[58] As planned, Schlafly did not give any speech during the commencement ceremony, nor did any other honoree except for commencement speaker, liberal commentator Chris Matthews of MSNBC.[59]

Personal life

On October 20, 1949, when she was twenty-five years old, she married attorney John Fred Schlafly, Jr., a member of a wealthy St. Louis family; he died in 1993. His grandfather, August, immigrated in 1854 from Switzerland. In the late 1870s, the three brothers founded the firm of Schlafly Bros., which dealt in groceries, Queensware (dishes made by Wedgwood), hardware, and agricultural implements.[60] Fred and Phyllis Schlafly were both active Catholics. They linked Catholicism to Americanism and often exhorted Catholics to join the anti-communist crusade.[61]

Fred and Phyllis Schlafly moved across the Mississippi River to Alton, Illinois, and had six children: John, Bruce, Roger, Liza, Andrew, and Anne.[62] In 1992, their eldest son, John, was outed as homosexual by Queer Week magazine.[13] Schlafly acknowledged that John is gay, but stated that he embraces his mother's views.[13][63]

Schlafly was the aunt of conservative anti-feminist author Suzanne Venker; together they wrote The Flipside of Feminism: What Conservative Women Know — and Men Can't Say.[64]


Schafly died of cancer on September 5, 2016, at her home in Ladue, Missouri, at the age of 92.[65][66]

Published works

Schlafly was the author of twenty-six books on subjects ranging from child care to phonics education. She wrote a syndicated weekly newspaper column for Creators Syndicate.[67]

Schlafly's published works include:

See also


  1. "Phyllis Schlafly profile". UXL Newsmakers. 2005. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
  2. Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons. 2000. Right–Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort. New York: Guilford Press, p. 202.
  3. Profile of Andrew F. Stewart, in Men of West Virginia, Biographical Publishing Co., Chicago: 1903. pp. 157–158.
  4. 1902–03 City Directory, Huntington, WV and 1910 Federal Census (Virginia), Alleghany County, Clifton Forge, ED126, Sheet 9A and note 1.
  5. 1 2 3 Donald Critchlow, Founding Mother-Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade, p. 422
  6. Carol Felsenthal, The sweetheart of the silent majority: the biography of Phyllis Schlafly (Doubleday, 1981).
  7. "Phyllis Schlafly profile". National Women's History Museum. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  8. 1919 Gould's St. Louis City Directory
  9. Ehrenreich, pp. 152–153
  10. Critchlow 2005, pp. 25–29.
  11. Critchlow 2005, pp. 47–59.
  12. Critchlow 2005, p. 55.
  13. 1 2 3 Abraham, Yvonne (September 2, 2004). "At 80, Schlafly is still a conservative force". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009.
  14. Critchlow 2005, p. 46.
  15. Warner, Judith. She Changed America, New York Times, January 29, 2006.
  16. Critchlow, Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism (2005), p 109
  17. Berlet and Lyons. 2000. Right–Wing Populism in America, pp. 180, 202.
  18. 1 2 "Nation: Anti-ERA Evangelist Wins Again". Time. July 3, 1978. Archived from the original on January 21, 2011.
  19. Critchlow 2005, pp. 138-59.
  20. Kolbert, Elizabeth (November 7, 2005), "Firebrand: Phyllis Schlafly and the Conservative Revolution", The New Yorker, 81 (34), p. 134
  21. 1 2 Eilperin, Juliet. "New Drive Afoot to Pass Equal Rights Amendment". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  22. Jane J. Mansbridge, Why we lost the ERA (University of Chicago Press, 1986) p 110.
  23. Joan Williams (1999). Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What To Do About It. Oxford UP. p. 147.
  24. Judith Glazer-Raymo (2001). Shattering the Myths: Women in Academe. Johns Hopkins UP. p. 19.
  25. "Buzzflash Headlines". Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  26. "Phyllis Schlafly bio". Eagle Forum. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
  27. Rosalind Rosenberg (2008). Divided Lives: American Women in the Twentieth Century. p. 225.
  28. "Lisa Levenstein – HIS – UNCG".
  29. Lisa Levenstein, "'Don't Agonize, Organize!': The Displaced Homemakers Campaign and the Contested Goals of Postwar Feminism", 'Journal of American History (2014) 100#4: 1114–38,; accessed September 7, 2016.
  30. Deborah L. Rhode (2009). Justice and Gender: Sex Discrimination and the Law. Harvard UP. pp. 66–67.
  31. Rosalind Rosenberg (2008). Divided Lives: American Women in the Twentieth Century. pp. 225–26.
  32. "Anti-ERA Evangelist Wins Again". Time. July 3, 1978. Archived from the original on January 21, 2011.
  33. Leonard, J.T. (March 29, 2007). "Schlafly cranks up agitation at Bates". Sun Journal. Retrieved December 28, 2010. (subscription required (help)).
  34. Bellafante, Ginia (March 30, 2006). "A Feminine Mystique All Her Own". The New York Times. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  35. "Anniversary: Roe v. Wade". The Washington Post. January 18, 2002. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011.
  36. Critchlow 2005, pp. 298–99
  37. Critchlow 2005, p. 298
  38. Bennett, Drake (November 25, 2007). "The amero conspiracy". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
  39. Phyllis Schlafly, "Communist Master Plan for 1961", Cardinal Mindszenty Newsletter, February 15, 1961.
  40. Dana Milbank (April 9, 2005). "And the Verdict on Justice Kennedy Is: Guilty". Washington Post. p. A03.
  41. "Schlafly: Obama Would Be Foolish to Leave Supreme Court Without a Veteran". Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  42. Leith, Sam (January 17–18, 2009). "Obama's Oratory". Financial Times. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010.
  43. "Phyllis Schlafly Speaks Out". YouTube. May 15, 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  44. Jacobs, Jennifer (December 4, 2011). "Conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly endorses Michele Bachmann". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  45. Ward, Jon. "The Trump supporter who matters more to Iowa conservatives than Palin". Yahoo! Politics. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  46. "Phyllis Schlafly Pushes Own Daughter to Resign Amid Cruz-Trump Split". Daily Caller. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  47. "Cruz Supporters Turn On 91 Year-Old Phyllis Schlafly After Trump Endorsement". April 7, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  48. She passed away on September 5, 2016, the day before the release of this book The Conservative Case for Trump,; accessed September 7, 2016.
  49. Schlafly, Phyllis (November 2009). "Feminists Psychoanalyze Themselves Again". The Phyllis Schlafly Report. Eagle Forum. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
  50. Schlafly, Phyllis (September 1986). "A Short History of E.R.A.". The Phyllis Schlafly Report. Eagle Forum. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
  51. Sachs, Andrea (April 7, 2009). "Phyllis Schlafly at 84". Time. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
  52. Phyllis Schlafly Tells Republicans To Ignore Hispanic Voters, Focus On White People (VIDEO), Meredith Bennett-Smith, The Huffington Post, May 30, 2013.
  53. Phyllis Schlafly's White Voter Mirage, Jordan Fabian, ABC News/Univision, May 29, 2013
  54. 1 2 "Wash-U chancellor apologizes for controversy, but Schlafly will still get honorary degree". Associated Press. May 15, 2008. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008.
  55. "Phyllis Schlafly Hon. Degree Sparks Wash U Spat, Law Prof Protest". UPI. Retrieved July 25, 2008.
  56. "Brian Leiter's Law School Reports".
  57. "Statement on Phyllis Schlafly's honorary degree". Retrieved May 14, 2008.
  58. 1 2 "Schlafly Honor Protested". May 17, 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  59. "Students, faculty protest Schlafly honor". UPI. May 16, 2008.
  60. The 1881 History of Marion & Clinton Counties, Illinois
  61. Critchlow 2005, pp. 42–43.
  62. Critchlow 2005, pp. 31–33.
  63. Blumenfeld, Laura (September 19, 1992). "Schlafly's Son, Out of the Closet; Homosexual Backs Mother's Views, Attacks `Screechy Gay Activists'". The Washington Post.
  64. Daum, Meghan (March 31, 2011). "Phyllis Schlafly: back on the attack". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  65. Sullivan, Patricia (September 5, 2016). "Phyllis Schlafly, a conservative activist, has died at age 92". Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  66. "Conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly dies". Retrieved 2016-09-05.
  67. "Gang of Eight Increases Unemployment by Phyllis Schlafly on – A Syndicate of Talent". Retrieved June 2, 2013.


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