The Phrygian mode (pronounced //) can refer to three different musical modes: the ancient Greek tonos or harmonia sometimes called Phrygian, formed on a particular set of octave species or scales; the Medieval Phrygian mode, and the modern conception of the Phrygian mode as a diatonic scale, based on the latter.
Ancient Greek Phrygian
The Phrygian tonos or harmonia is named after the ancient kingdom of Phrygia in Anatolia. The octave species (scale) underlying the ancient-Greek Phrygian tonos (in its diatonic genus) corresponds to the medieval and modern Dorian mode.
In Greek music theory, the harmonia given this name was based on a tonos, in turn based on a scale or octave species built from a tetrachord which, in its diatonic genus, consisted of a series of rising intervals of a whole tone, followed by a semitone, followed by a whole tone (in the chromatic genus, this was a minor third followed by two semitones, and in the enharmonic, a major third and two quarter tones). An octave species was then built upon two of these tetrachords separated by a whole tone. This is equivalent to playing all the white notes on a piano keyboard from D to D:
D E F G | A B C D
This scale, combined with a set of characteristic melodic behaviours and associated ethoi, constituted the harmonia which was given the ethnic name "Phrygian", after the "unbounded, ecstatic peoples of the wild, mountainous regions of the Anatolian highlands" (Solomon 1984, 249). This ethnic name was also confusingly applied by theorists such as Cleonides to one of thirteen chromatic transposition levels, regardless of the intervallic makeup of the scale (Solomon 1984, 244–46).
Medieval Phrygian mode
The early Catholic church developed a system of eight musical modes that medieval music scholars gave names drawn from the ones used to describe the ancient Greek harmoniai. The name "Phrygian" was applied to the third of these eight church modes, the authentic mode on E, described as the diatonic octave extending from E to the E an octave higher and divided at B, therefore beginning with a semitone-tone-tone-tone pentachord, followed by a semitone-tone-tone tetrachord (Powers 2001): E F G A B + B C D E
The ambitus of this mode extended one tone lower, to D. The sixth degree, C, which is the tenor of the corresponding third psalm tone, was regarded by most theorists as the most important note after the final, though the fifteenth-century theorist Johannes Tinctoris implied that the fourth degree, A, could be so regarded instead (Powers 2001).
Placing the two tetrachords together, and the single tone at bottom of the scale produces the Hypophrygian mode (below Phrygian):
G | A B C D | (D) E F G
Modern Phrygian mode
In modern western music (from the 18th century onward), the Phrygian mode is related to the modern natural minor musical mode, also known as the Aeolian mode, but with the second scale degree lowered by a semitone, making it a minor second above the tonic, rather than a major second.
The following is the Phrygian mode starting on E, or E Phrygian, with corresponding tonal scale degrees illustrating how the modern major mode and natural minor mode can be altered to produce the Phrygian mode:
Therefore, the Phrygian mode consists of: root, minor second, minor third, perfect fourth, perfect fifth, minor sixth, minor seventh, and octave. Alternatively written as a pattern of: Semitone, Tone, Tone, Tone, Semitone, Tone, Tone.
A Phrygian dominant scale is produced by raising the third scale degree of the mode:
The Phrygian dominant is also known as the Spanish gypsy scale, because it resembles the scales found in flamenco music (see Flamenco mode). Flamenco music uses the Phrygian scale, together with a modified scale resembling the Arab maqām Ḥijāzī (like the Phrygian dominant but with a major sixth scale degree), and a bimodal configuration using both major and minor second and third scale degrees (Katz 2001).
In contemporary jazz, the Phrygian mode is used over chords and sonorities built on the mode, such as the sus4(♭9) chord (see Suspended chord), which is sometimes called a Phrygian suspended chord. For example, a soloist might play an E Phrygian over an Esus4(♭9) chord (E-A-B-D-F).
- The First Delphic Hymn, written in 128 BC by the Athenian composer Limenius, is in the Phrygian and Hyperphrygian tonoi, with much variation (Pöhlmann and West 2001, 73).
- The Seikilos epitaph (1st century AD) is in the Phrygian species (diatonic genus), in the Iastian (or low Phrygian) transposition (Solomon 1985, 459, 461n14, 470).
Medieval and Renaissance
- The Roman chant variant of the Requiem introit "Rogamus te" is in the (authentic) Phrygian mode, or 3rd tone (Karp, Fitch, and Smallman 2001, §1).
- The following compositions of Josquin are written in the Phrygian mode:
- Orlando di Lasso's motet In me transierunt (Pesic 2005, passim).
- Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina's motet Congratulamini mihi (Carver 2005, 77).
- Cipriano de Rore's 7-part Missa Praeter Rerum Seriem
- Johann Sebastian Bach keeps in his cantatas the Phrygian mode of some original chorale melodies, such as Luther's Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir in Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir, BWV 38, and Es woll uns Gott genädig sein on a melody by Matthaeus Greiter (c. 1490–1552), twice in Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76 (Braatz 2006).
- Heinrich Schütz's St John Passion (1666) is in the Phrygian mode (Rifkin, Linfield, McCulloch, and Baron 2001, §10)
- Dieterich Buxtehude's Prelude in A minor, BuxWV 152 (Snyder 2001), (labeled Phrygisch in the BuxWV catalog) (Karstädt 1985, )
- Anton Bruckner:
- Ave Regina coelorum (1885–88) (Carver 2005, 76–77).
- Pange lingua (second setting, 1868), WAB 33 (Carver 2005, 79; Partsch 2007, 227).
- Symphony no. 3, passages in the third (scherzo) and fourth movements (Carver 2005, 89–90).
- Symphony no. 4 (third version, 1880), Finale (Carver 2005, 90–92).
- Symphony no. 6, first, third (scherzo), and fourth movements (Carver 2005, 91–98).
- Symphony no. 7, first movement (Carver 2005, 96–97).
- Symphony no. 8, first and fourth movements (Carver 2005, 98).
- Tota pulchra es Maria (1878) (Carver 2005, 79, 81–88).
- 'Vexilla regis' (1892) (Carver 2005, 79–80).
- Ralph Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis (Ottaway and Frogley 2001), based on Thomas Tallis's 1567 setting of Psalm 2, "Why fum'th in sight".
Modern classical music
- John Coolidge Adams, Phrygian Gates (J. Adams 2010)
- Samuel Barber:
- Philip Glass, the final aria from Satyagraha (Strickland 2001).
- Howard Shore, "Prologue" accompanying the opening sequence of the film The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (D. Adams 2010, 54).
- Phrygian dominant scale
- Bhairavi, the equivalent scale (thaat) in Hindustani music
- Hanumatodi, the equivalent scale (melakarta) in Carnatic Music
- Phrygian cadence
- Neapolitan chord
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