General chemical structure of a phosphatidyl glycerol where R1 and R2 are fatty acid side chains

Phosphatidylglycerol is a glycerophospholipid found in pulmonary surfactant.[1]

The general structure of phosphatidylglycerol consists of a L-glycerol 3-phosphate backbone ester-bonded to either saturated or unsaturated fatty acids on carbons 1 and 2. The head group substituent glycerol is bonded through a phosphomonoester. It is the precursor of surfactant and its presence (>0.3) in the amniotic fluid of the newborn indicates fetal lung maturity.

Approximately 98% of alveolar wall surface area is due to the presence of type I cells, with type II cells producing pulmonary surfactant covering around 2% of the alveolar walls. Once surfactant is secreted by the type II cells, it must be spread over the remaining type I cellular surface area. Phosphatidylglycerol is thought to be important in spreading of surfactant over the Type I cellular surface area. The major surfactant deficiency in premature infants relates to the lack of phosphatidylglycerol, even though it comprises less than 5% of pulmonary surfactant phospholipids. It is synthesized by head group exchange of a phosphatidylcholine enriched phospholipid using the enzyme phospholipase D.


Biosynthesis of Phosphatidylglycerol

Phosphatidic acid reacts with CTP, producing CDP-diacylglycerol, with loss of pyrophosphate. Glycerol-3-phosphate reacts with CDP-diacylglycerol to form phosphatidylglycerol phosphate, while CMP is released. The phosphate group is hydrolysed forming phosphatidylglycerol.

Two phosphatidylglycerols form cardiolipin, the constituent molecule of the mitochondrial inner membrane.[2]

See also


  1. Richard J. King, Mary Catherine MacBeth (6 October 1981). "Interaction of the lipid and protein components of pulmonarysurfactant Role of phosphatidylglycerol and calcium". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. 647: 159–168. doi:10.1016/0005-2736(81)90242-X.
  2. Ying-Ying Chang and Eugene P. Kennedy (September 1967). "Biosynthesis of phosphatidyl glycerophosphate in Escherichia coli". The Journal of Lipid Research. 8 (5): 447–455. PMID 4860577.

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 6/29/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.