Phillip Allen Sharp
With Winthrop-Sears Medal, 2007
Phillip Allen Sharp|
June 6, 1944
|Meet Phillip Sharp: "What we were able to discover was that in human cells and in many other cells of higher-order organisms, the genes come in discontinuous segments", MIT|
Phillip Allen Sharp (born June 6, 1944) is an American geneticist and molecular biologist who co-discovered RNA splicing. He shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Richard J. Roberts for "the discovery that genes in eukaryotes are not contiguous strings but contain introns, and that the splicing of messenger RNA to delete those introns can occur in different ways, yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence". He has been selected to receive the 2015 Othmer Gold Medal.
Sharp's current research focuses on small RNAs and other types of non-coding RNAs. His laboratory works to identify the target mRNAs of microRNAs (miRNAs), and has discovered a class of miRNAs that are produced from sequences adjacent to transcription start sites. His laboratory also studies how miRNA gene regulation functions in angiogenesis and cellular stress.
Sharp was born in Falmouth, Kentucky, the son of Kathrin (Colvin) and Joseph Walter Sharp. Sharp married Ann Holcombe in 1964. They have three daughters.
Sharp studied at Union College and majored in chemistry and mathematics, afterwards completing his Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1969. Following his Ph.D., he did his postdoctoral training at the California Institute of Technology until 1971, where he studied plasmids. Later, he studied gene expression in human cells at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory as a senior scientist under James Dewey Watson.
In 1974, he was offered a position at MIT by biologist Salvador Luria. He was director of MIT's Center for Cancer Research (now the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research) from 1985 to 1991; head of the Biology department from 1991 to 1999; and director of the McGovern Institute for Brain Research from 2000 to 2004. He is currently a professor of Biology and member of the Koch Institute, and has been an Institute Professor since 1999. Sharp co-founded Biogen (formerly part of Biogen Idec), Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, and Magen Biosciences, and has served on the boards of all three companies.
Awards and honors
In addition to the Nobel Prize, Sharp has won several notable awards, including the 2004 National Medal of Science, the 1999 Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences of the American Philosophical Society, and the 1988 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Thomas R. Cech.
Sharp is an elected member of several academic societies, including the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 2011. In 2012, he was elected the president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Pendleton County, Kentucky — Sharp's birthplace — named its current middle school after him.
In Oct 2010 Sharp participated in the USA Science and Engineering Festival's Lunch with a Laureate program where middle and high school students got to engage in an informal conversation with a Nobel Prize-winning scientist over a brown-bag lunch. Sharp is also a member of the USA Science and Engineering Festival's Advisory Board. In 2011, he was listed at #5 on the MIT150 list of the top 150 innovators and ideas from MIT.
He is an editorial advisor to Xconomy, and is a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute. He has also served on the Faculty Advisory Board of the MIT-Harvard Research Journal and MIT Student Research Association.
- Petersen C.P.; Bordeleau M.E.; Pelletier J.; Sharp P.A. (17 February 2006). "Short RNAs Repress Translation after Initiation in Mammalian Cells". Mol Cell. 21 (4): 533–42. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.01.031. PMID 16483934.
- Cheng C.; Sharp P.A. (January 2006). "Regulation of CD44 Alternative Splicing by SRm160 and its Potential Role in Tumor Cell Invasion". Mol Cell Biol. 26 (1): 362–70. doi:10.1128/MCB.26.1.362-370.2006. PMC 1317625. PMID 16354706.
- Tantin D.; Schild-Poulter C.; Wang V.; Hache R.J.; Sharp P.A. (1 December 2005). "The Octamer Binding Transcription Factor Oct-1 is a Stress Sensor". Cancer Res. 65 (23): 10750–8. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2399. PMID 16322220.
- Grishok A.; Sharp P.A. (29 November 2005). "Negative Regulation of Nuclear Divisions in Caenorhabditis Elegans by Retinoblastoma and RNA Interference-related Genes". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102 (48): 17360–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0508989102. PMC 1297700. PMID 16287966.
- Sharp P.A. (7 October 2005). "1918 Flu and Responsible Science". Science. 310 (5745): 17. doi:10.1126/science.310.5745.17. PMID 16210500.
- Miskevich F.; Doench J.G.; Townsend M.T.; Sharp P.A.; Constantine-Paton M. (15 April 2006). "RNA Interference of Xenopus NMDAR NR1 in vitro and in vivo". J Neurosci Methods. 152 (1–2): 65–73. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2005.08.010. PMID 16182372.
- Hong J.H.; Hwang E.S.; McManus M.T.; Amsterdam A.; Tian Y.; Kalmukova R.; Mueller E.; Benjamin T.; Spiegelman B.M.; Sharp P.A.; Hopkins N.; Yaffe M.B. (12 August 2005). "TAZ, a Transcriptional Modulator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation". Science. 309 (5737): 1074–8. doi:10.1126/science.1110955. PMID 16099986.
- Houbaviy H.B.; Dennis L.; Jaenisch R.; Sharp P.A. (August 2005). "Characterization of a Highly Variable Eutherian microRNA Gene". RNA. 11 (8): 1245–57. doi:10.1261/rna.2890305. PMC 1370808. PMID 15987809.
- Sharp P.A. (June 2005). "The Discovery of Split Genes and RNA Splicing". Trends Biochem Sci. 30 (6): 279–81. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2005.04.002. PMID 15950867.
- Johnson D.M.; Yamaji S.; Tennant J.; Srai S.K.; Sharp P.A. (28 March 2005). "Regulation of Divalent Metal Transporter Expression in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Following Exposure to Non-haem Iron". FEBS Lett. 579 (9): 1923–9. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2005.02.035. PMID 15792797.
- Neilson J.R.; Sharp P.A. (April 2005). "Herpesviruses Throw a Curve Ball: New Insights into microRNA Biogenesis and Evolution". Nat Methods. 2 (4): 252–4. doi:10.1038/nmeth0405-252. PMID 15782215.
- Grishok A.; Sinskey J.L.; Sharp P.A. (15 March 2005). "Transcriptional Silencing of a Transgene by RNAi in the Soma of C. elegans". Genes Dev. 19 (6): 683–96. doi:10.1101/gad.1247705. PMC 1065722. PMID 15741313.
- Sharp P.A.; Sharp, P (1 January 2005). "Phillip Sharp Discusses RNAi, Nobel Prizes and Entrepreneurial Science". Drug Discov Today. 10 (1): 7–10. doi:10.1016/S1359-6446(04)03329-X. PMID 15676292.
- Lee K.B.; Sharp P.A. (7 December 2004). "Transcription-dependent Polyubiquitination of RNA Polymerase II Requires Lysine 63 of Ubiquitin". Biochemistry. 43 (48): 15223–9. doi:10.1021/bi048719x. PMID 15568815.
- Mansfield J.H.; Harfe B.D.; Nissen R.; Obenauer J.; Srineel J.; Chaudhuri A.; Farzan-Kashani R.; Zuker M.; Pasquinelli A.E.; Ruvkun G.; Sharp P.A.; Tabin C.J.; McManus M.T. (October 2004). "MicroRNA-responsive 'Sensor' Transgenes Uncover Hox-like and Other Developmentally Regulated Patterns of Vertebrate MicroRNA Expression". Nat. Genet. 36 (10): 1079–83. doi:10.1038/ng1421. PMID 15361871.
- Fairbrother W.G.; Holste D.; Burge C.B.; Sharp P.A. (September 2004). "Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-based Validation of Exonic Splicing Enhancers". PLoS Biol. 2 (9): E268. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020268. PMC 514884. PMID 15340491.
- Novina C.D.; Sharp P.A. (July 8, 2004). "The RNAi Revolution". Nature. 430 (6996): 161–4. doi:10.1038/430161a. PMID 15241403.
- Ventura A.; Meissner A.; Dillon C.P.; McManus M.; Sharp P.A.; Van Parijs L.; Jaenisch R.; Jacks T. (July 13, 2004). "Cre-lox-regulated Conditional RNA Interference from Transgenes". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101 (28): 10380–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0403954101. PMC 478580. PMID 15240889.
- The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Sharp, P (2011). "Q&A: Phillip Sharp on biomedical convergence". Cancer Discovery. 1 (5): 370. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-ND11-08. PMID 22586619.
- Musgrave, E (2010). "Advancing science across the disciplines: An interview with Nobel Laureate Phillip A. Sharp, PhD". Clinical and Translational Science. 3 (3): 69–70. doi:10.1111/j.1752-8062.2010.00197.x. PMID 20590673.
- Sharp, P. A.; Sharp, P (2005). "Phillip Sharp discusses RNAi, Nobel Prizes and entrepreneurial science". Drug Discovery Today. 10 (1): 7–10. doi:10.1016/S1359-6446(04)03329-X. PMID 15676292.
- Shampo, M. A.; Kyle, R. A. (2004). "Phillip Sharp--Nobel Prize for discovery of "split genes"". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 79 (6): 727. doi:10.1016/s0025-6196(11)62621-9. PMID 15182083.
- Raju, T. N. (2000). "The Nobel chronicles. 1993: Richard John Roberts (b 1943) Phillip a Sharp (b 1944)". Lancet. 355 (9220): 2085. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(05)73547-9. PMID 10885388.
- "Othmer Gold Medal". Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- Autobiography at the Nobel site
- Sharp's Research at MIT Archived December 6, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- Traynham, James G. (October 28, 2002). "Interview with Phillip A. Sharp". Center for Oral History. Chemical Heritage Foundation. External link in
- "Phillip A. Sharp - Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Curriculum Vitae - Phillip A. Sharp, Ph.D.". Sharp Lab. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Short Bio - Phillip A. Sharp". Sharp Lab. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Biogen Idec, Inc. (2008). "Proxy statement for annual meeting of stockholders to be held on June 19, 2008 at 9:00 A.M., local time", 7.
- "The President's National Medal of Science Recipient Details - Phillip A. Sharp". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences Recipients". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- "The Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for Biology or Biochemistry". Columbia University Medical Center. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Alphabetical Index of Active Members" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Fellows". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Phillip A. Sharp". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Directory: IOM Member - Phillip A. Sharp, Ph.D.". Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Professor Philip Sharp ForMemRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-10-06.
- "Royal Society". Royal Society. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
- AAAS.org Staff Report (13 March 2012). "Phillip A. Sharp, Molecular Biologist and Nobel Laureate, Chosen to Serve as AAAS President-Elect". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Lunch with a Laureate at the Wayback Machine (archived April 21, 2010). usasciencefestival.org (2010)
- Furthermore, Sharp participates in the Distinguished Lecture Series of the annual Research Science Institute (RSI), a summer research program for high school students held at MIT. Advisors. usasciencefestival.org
- "MIT 150: The Top 50". boston.com. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "About". xconomy.com. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Board of Scientific Governors". The Scripps Research Institute. Retrieved 12 November 2014.