Perna perna

Brown mussel
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Subclass: Pteriomorphia
Order: Mytiloida
Family: Mytilidae
Genus: Perna
Species: P. perna
Binomial name
Perna perna
Linnaeus, 1758
  • Chloromya perna
  • Melina perna (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Mya perna Linnaeus, 1758
  • Mytilus achatinus Lamarck, 1819
  • Mytilus afer Gmelin, 1791
  • Mytilus africanus Chemnitz, 1785
  • Mytilus elongatus Fischer von Waldheim, 1807
  • Mytilus elongatus Chemnitz in Schröter, 1788 (unavailable name)
  • Mytilus irisans Jousseaume, 1888
  • Mytilus magellanicus Röding, 1798
  • Mytilus perna (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Mytilus pictusBorn, 1778
  • Mytilus variegatus Röding, 1798
  • Mytilus venezolanusAndreu, 1965
  • Mytilus versicolor Gmelin, 1791
  • Perna africana (Chemnitz, 1785) (not available)
  • Perna africana var. mauretanica Pallary, 1900
  • Perna africana var. tingitana Pallary, 1900
  • Perna indica Kuriakose & Nair, 1976
  • Perna magellanica Philipsson, 1788
  • Perna perna f. picta (Born, 1778)
  • Perna picta (Born, 1778)

The brown mussel, Perna perna, is an economically important mussel, a bivalve mollusc belonging to the family Mytilidae. It is harvested as a food source but is also known to harbor toxins and cause damage to marine structures. It is native to the waters of Africa, Europe, and South America and was introduced in the waters of North America.[1]


Shells views (internal and external) of Perna perna

Perna perna is usually 90 mm long although it can reach sizes of up to 120 mm. The mussel is easily recognized by its brown color but its identifying characteristic is the "divided posterior retractor mussel scar". Its pitted resillal ridge also differentiates the mussel from other bivalves.

Similar species include the European mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis. The European mussel is similar in shape and color to the brown mussel and shares its native habitat on the south-western coast of Africa.[2] The European mussel is also more resistant to human disturbance such as use for baits and consumption.[3] It is out-competing the brown mussel as it is more resistant to certain parasites. The black mussel has similar shape and size although it lacks the distinguishable pitted resillal ridge. [2]

The brown mussel can also be mistaken for the more famous greenish-brown species Perna viridis, as their color and shell shape can change depending on environmental conditions.[4]

Habitat and distribution

The brown mussel is native to the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Atlantic Ocean. It is found in waters off the west coast of Africa and the coast of South America up to the Caribbean. It is accidentally introduced as an invasive species to the coast of Texas via the boat hulls and water ballasts of ships from Venezuela.[2] Its distribution include: Chile, Peru, South Africa.

The brown mussel naturally colonizes rocky shores but can also attach to submerged man-made objects such as navigation buoys, petroleum platforms and shipwrecks.[1] The adult brown mussel can tolerate a temperature range of 10 to 30 °C and a salinity range of about 15 to 50 ppt.[2] Its colonization of the hard strata improves that surface's marine ecology. The colonization increases surface area, encouraging other marine organisms such as limpets, polychaetes, barnacles, snails and algae to settle there as well.[1]

Ecology and life history

The mussel utilizes external fertilization during the spawning season between May and October although this is also reported to occur in December. The two sexes release eggs and sperm to the water during spawning to produce veliger larvae. Fifteen hours after fertilization the larvae have well-developed hinge teeth. Ten to twelve days after fertilization the larvae undergo metamorphosis where byssal threads are secreted. The larvae then settle on rocky surfaces.

The brown mussel is a filter feeder and feeds on phytoplankton, zooplankton and suspended organic materials. It is plagued by the parasite Proctoeces maculatus and an unidentified bucephalid sporocyst which castrates both sexes. On the African coastline it is preyed upon by the whelk Nucella cingulata, lobsters, octopuses, gulls and the African black oystercatcher. On the South American coastline, it provides food for Callinectes danae, Cymatium parthenopeun, Chicoreus brevifrons, Thais haemastoma, and Menippe nodifroms.[2]

Importance to humans

Perna perna is harvested as a food source in Africa and South America. The bivalve is considered for cultivation as it can grow quickly to the commercial size of 60 to 80 mm in just 6 or 7 months. It is also well-suited to tropical and subtropical regions. However, the mussel can harbor saxitoxin from consumed dinoflagellates. Its consumption has caused outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning in Venezuela.[2]

The brown mussel is known to aggregate in such large amounts that it is able to sink navigational buoys. It also coexists with the Asian green mussel in fouling water pipes and marine equipment. It is less resistant to chlorination than Perna viridis and thus easier to control. However, it is recommended that the concentration of chlorine used for chlorination be above the tolerance level of Perna viridis, the tougher of the two biofouling mussels.[1]


  1. 1 2 3 4 "Perna perna (mollusc)". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)". Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  3. Abada-Boudjema, Yamina-Madiha; Jean-Claude Dauvin (1995). "RECRUITMENT AND LIFE SPAN OF TWO NATURAL MUSSEL POPULATIONS PERNA PERNA(LINNAEUS) AND MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS (LAMARCK) FROM THE ALGERIAN COAST". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 61 (4): 467–481. doi:10.1093/mollus/61.4.467. Retrieved 2007-12-15.
  4. Holland, Brenden (December 1997). "Genetic aspects of a marine invasion". Quarterdeck. 5 (3). Retrieved 2007-12-15.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Perna perna.
Wikispecies has information related to: Perna perna
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 3/3/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.