Permanente Metals

Permanente Metals Corporation (PMC) among other things managed the Richmond Shipyards in Richmond, California, owned by one of industrialist Henry J. Kaiser's many corporations.[1] These four of the seven west coast Kaiser Shipyards were known for their construction of Liberty ships.[2]

The company was also a major producer of magnesium during World War II. To make use of its major product, powdered magnesium, PMC also developed and supplied an incendiary bomb mixture of magnesium powder, asphalt, gasoline and others components (known as goop, with similar characteristics to napalm); 17,000 short tons of goop-filled bombs were used in World War II (approximately eight percent of the total tonnage of incendiaries that were dropped during that conflict).[3] Permanente ranked 42nd among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.[4]



  1. Kaiser Industries Corporation, Oakland, California (1968). "The Postwar Gamble". The Kaiser Story (PDF). p. 38. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  2. Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 176-91, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  3. Wilson, p.2.
  4. Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619


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