Parke Davis Administration Building in 1943
|Founders||Samuel P. Duffield|
|Headquarters||Detroit, Michigan, United States|
Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. Although no longer an independent corporation, it was once America's oldest and largest drug maker, and played an important role in medical history.
Parke-Davis and Company was founded in Detroit, Michigan by Dr. Samuel P. Duffield, a physician and pharmacist. In 1860 Dr. Duffield owned a small drugstore at the corner of Gratiot and Woodward Avenues. Dr. Duffield made a variety of pharmaceutical preparations, including Hoffman’s anodyne and mercurial ointment, but was overwhelmed by the operations of the business.
A partnership of Dr. Duffield and Hervey Coke Parke was formed in October 1866, with George S. Davis becoming a third partner in 1867. Parke was a businessman looking for business opportunities and Davis an ambitious man with skills in sales. Duffield withdrew in 1869 because of poor health and an interest in practicing medicine. The name Parke, Davis & Company was formally adopted in 1871, being incorporated in 1875.
In 1871 the company sent expeditions to Central and South America and the West Indies in search of medicinal plants. The company produced an herbal laxative drug Cascara found from Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest.
It was once the world's largest pharmaceutical company, and is credited with building the first modern pharmaceutical laboratory and developing the first systematic methods of performing clinical trials of new medications. The Parke-Davis Research Laboratory is a National Historic Landmark; the surrounding Parke-Davis and Company Pharmaceutical Company Plant is on the National Register of Historic Places.
The production facility on Parkdale Road in what was then Avon Township MI (site now in Rochester MI) was also a landmark in that vicinity, and is now used by PAR Pharmaceuticals.
In the case of Franklin v. Parke-Davis (2002) the company was accused of illegal marketing practices, including the promotion of off-label uses of its anticonvulsant medication Neurontin. The drug had only been approved for use in patients with epilepsy, but in 2001 over 80% of its $1.8 billion in sales were for indications unapproved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. In 2004, Pfizer "admitted that Parke-Davis aggressively marketed Neurontin by illicit means for unrelated conditions including bipolar disorder, pain, migraine headaches, and drug and alcohol withdrawal", and consented to $430 million in penalties although it claimed the violations originated in 1996, well before Pfizer's acquisition of Warner-Lambert.
One of Parke-Davis' early products was an amylase isolated from Aspergillus oryzae by Dr. Jokichi Takamine. The enzyme was originally intended for use in distilleries, but was more successfully marketed as "Taka-diastase" for dyspepsia.
In addition, Parke-Davis distributed Coley's toxins, the first cancer vaccine, which was developed by William Coley to treat osteosarcoma. In addition, the company entered into a distribution agreement with the Inoculation Department of St Mary's (London) and distributed a number of vaccines for infectious diseases and even acne and cancer.
Another of the company's products developed by Takamine was a pure form of adrenaline. The compound was patented in 1900 and trademarked as "Adrenalin". Because of the similarity of this name to "Adrenaline", the use of the alternative name "epinephrine" for generics was mandated in the United States and is used to this day. Parke-Davis filed a lawsuit against H. K. Mulford Company alleging infringement of its Adrenalin patents. The ruling in favor of Parke-Davis by judge Learned Hand is considered crucial to modern patent law.
Like Bayer with heroin; before the criminalization of cocaine, the drug was sold by Parke-Davis in various forms, including cigarettes, powder, and even a cocaine mixture that could be injected directly into the user’s veins with the included needle. The company promised that its cocaine products would "supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and ... render the sufferer insensitive to pain." In October 1915, Aleister Crowley, author of Diary of a Drug Fiend and The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, stopped by Parke-Davis in Detroit, where, according to Crowley, the cooperation was complete. "[They] were kind enough to interest themselves in my researches in Anhalonium lewinii (peyote) and made me some special preparations on the lines indicated by my experience which proved greatly superior to previous preparations." Parke-Davis also was the original manufacturer and patent holder of phencyclidine (PCP) which is currently listed as a Schedule II drug in the United States. They also developed Ketalar (ketamine hydrochloride), a general anesthetic and dissociative drug, in 1962.
In partnership with the Japanese firm Daiichi Sankyo Co. and the British firm Glaxo Wellcome, Parke-Davis developed and marketed the anti-diabetic drug Rezulin (troglitazone) in the late 1990s. The drug was withdrawn in 2000 because of liver toxicity.
The first bacterial vaccine was developed by Parke-Davis, and the company was thus known as a pioneer in the field of Vaccinology. It was also among the five firms contracted to manufacture the original Salk killed-virus vaccine. A combination of the DPT and polio vaccines, called Quadrigen, was developed in 1954 and approved in 1959. Quadrigen was later removed from the market in 1968 after a series of lawsuits pertaining to adverse effects in vaccinated children. Parke-Davis also produced the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol, which was a blockbuster product before discovery of its association with aplastic anemia.
- Exploring Our History: 2000 - Pfizer acquires Warner-Lambert. from Pfizer corporate website. Accessed May 19, 2006.
- Hoefle, Milton L. (2000). "THE EARLY HISTORY OF PARKE-DAVIS AND COMPANY" (PDF). Bull. Hist. Chem. 25 (1).
- Suit: Neurontin Marketed Illegally for Bipolar Disorder. About.com. May 16, 2004.
- Huge penalty in drug fraud Pfizer settles felony case in Neurontin off-label promotion. San Francisco Chronicle. Friday, May 14, 2004.
- At Pfizer, Brutal Cuts And Big Changes
- Bennett, Joan and Yamomoto, Yutaka. Dr. Jokichi Takamine: Japanese father of American Biotechnology. Deerland Enzymes.
- Kevin Brown (December 2005). Penicillin Man: Alexander Fleming and the Antibiotic Revolution. The History Press. ISBN 978-0750931533.
- Sutin, Lawrence (2000). Do What Thou Wilt: a life of Aleister Crowley. Macmillan. p. 253. ISBN 978-0312252434.
- A Flaw in the System. remarkablemedicine.com Accessed May 16, 2006.
- Bayly, M. Beddow. The Story of the Salk Anti-Poliomyelitis Vaccine. 1956.
- A picture of a Parke Davis & Co. Cocaine injection kit from 1885
- 2002 NPR broadcast of the Neurontin lawsuit story on the show All Things Considered