Kereta Api Indonesia
|Locale||All of Indonesia by 2020; Java and Sumatra (Present)|
|Dates of operation||1945–present|
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Standard gauge)|
1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) (Cape gauge)
750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) (Narrow gauge)
|Length||5,042 kilometres (3,133 mi)|
Official website of Indonesian Railways Co|
The Indonesian Railways Co. (Indonesian: PT Kereta Api Indonesia [Persero]) is the major operator of public railways in Indonesia. It is completely owned by the government and pays track access charges to the government. One of its subsidiaries, PT KAI Commuter Jabodetabek (KCJ), is operating electrified commuter service in Jakarta metropolitan area from 14 August 2008.
Indonesian Railways Co. is the latest of a long line of successive state railway companies dating from Dutch colonial days.
Indonesia gained independence in 1945, the separate systems (except the Deli Railway) were combined into the Djawatan Kereta Api. Non-state railway systems in Java retained their paper existence until 1958, when all railway lines in Indonesia were nationalised, including the Deli Railway, thereby creating the Perusahaan Negara Kereta Api (PNKA: Indonesian State Railway Corporation).
On 15 September 1970 PNKA was reorganised into Perusahaan Jawatan Kereta Api (Indonesian Railways Corporation), then reorganised into Perumka (Perusahaan Umum Kereta Api: Public Railway Corporation) on 1 August 1990. Perumka was transformed into PT Kereta Api (Persero) on 24 July 1995. Since 2010 the name of PT Kereta Api was changed into PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) till now.
The headquarters of the state railway system, are located in Bandung, West Java.
The total number of trackage laid in Indonesia was 7,583 kilometres (4,712 mi), although not all lines were in operation at the same time. In 1939, the total operational trackage was 4,588 kilometres (2,851 mi) (It is unclear whether dual gauge tracks were counted once or twice). The present extent of the railways is now 5,042 kilometres (3,133 mi), with the Aceh system, most of the West Sumatra system and most former steam tram lines disused, but including new tracks built alongside old tracks (double tracking projects).
Much of the branch lines constructed in the colonial era has been lifted up or abandoned in the 1980s. No major railway construction has since taken place, however, many of the busiest lines have been double tracked. The northern coast area of Java would be double tracked in May 2014 after completion of 68 kilometers Babat-Kandangan-Pasar Turi double trackage from 727 kilometers of Jakarta-Surabaya double tracked, followed by the proposed completion of a 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) double tracking project on the south coast by 2015. On June 8, 2015 Duri-Tangerang double tracks is formally used for KA Commuter Jabodetabek, but it can be also used for airport trains.
Significant projects being considered include:
- Redoubling Manggarai-Cikarang line (adding two more tracks to the present two). The project will be divided into 2 segments: Manggarai-Bekasi, 15 kilometers long and scheduled to be finished in 2016 and Bekasi-Cikarang, 17 kilometers long scheduled to be finished in 2017
- Airport line to the Sukarno-Hatta International Airport. A 33 kilometers line from Manggarai, Dukuh Atas in Sudirman, Tanah Abang, Angke, Pluit and inline with airport toll road to the Airport. The cost will be $1.13 billion start at 2012 and complete at 2014,
- Rebuilding of the Aceh railway, with assistance from the French railway company
- Building new 15-kilometres-long track between Cibungur and Tanjungrasa station. This shortcut will make trains from Bandung to Semarang do not need to go through Cikampek station.
Future expansion plans of the railway will include linking of existing railway lines in Sumatra from Aceh to Lampung via both west and east coasts of the island. Railway lines are also planned to be built on the currently railway-free islands of Kalimantan and Sulawesi. A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed to build railway around Bali with length of 565 kilometers. Nowadays, the Sulawesi first trackage 143 kilometers from Makassar to Pare-pare has been initialized with 30 kilometers of land acquisitions and initial construction will be built in June 2015, then 70 kilometers in 2016 and the rest 43 kilometers in 2017. The train is predicted to run in 2018 with trackage wider than in Java to accommodate more weight and speed. The schedule for Pare-pare to Manado trackage will be completed in 5 years after it.
There are also plans to reactivate non-operational railway lines in West Java, such as Bandung-Ciwidey line, intended to ease road traffic congestion; and Rancaekek-Tanjung Sari line. 4 other non-operational lines are still in consideration.
Kedungjati-Tuntang trackage as a part of Semarang-Ambarawa reactivated trackage is the only track in Indonesia without road crossing. It has 8 fly overs or underpasses to make more safety in congested traffic roads, now still underconstruction.
As of 2015, Indonesian Railways operates:
- 409 locomotive units;
- 572 electric multiple units;
- 108 diesel multiple units;
- 1,507 passenger coaches; and
- 6,499 freight cars
Indonesian Railways is a major customer of the local railway equipment industry, PT Industri Kereta Api (INKA), by using passenger coaches, freight wagons and electric multiple units made by the Madiun-based company.
Indonesian Railways' diesel-electric locomotives are mostly made in United States or Canada, while the diesel-hydraulics are mostly German. Electric multiple units are mostly Japanese-built. Local industry is capable of building multiple units, both diesel and electric.
All locomotives of the Indonesian Railways (with the exception of Steam locomotives for railway tours in Ambarawa) are diesel-engined. Most new locomotives use diesel-electric transmission, while older and lighter ones have hydraulic transmission. A more than 400 locomotives (see below) are in the books, but the actual number of operational locomotives is smaller. A current source mentioned that Indonesian Railways have had 409 units of diesel locomotives. The oldest diesel locomotive in the system dates from 1953.
Based on 2010 Minister of Transportation's Regulation No. 45, all of locomotives using a combination of letters and numbers. A letter or a combination of letters is used to denote the wheel arrangement (currently there are C, D, BB and CC types), and a three-digit number is used to denote the class (2xx for classes with electric transmission and 3xx for classes with hydraulic or mechanical transmission), starting from 0. A two-digit number shows the year of operations, and two- or three-digit after the year shows the running number. See also: Indonesian Railways locomotive and rolling stock numbering system
- CC 206 13 31: The 7th generation of diesel-electric Co'Co' locomotives, has operated since 2013, and have a running number 31.
- CC 201 77 01R: The 2nd generation of diesel-electric Co'Co' locomotives, has operated since 1977, and have a running number 01 and has been repowered.
- BB 304 84 07R: The 5th generation of diesel-hydraulic B'B' locomotives, has operated since 1984, and have a running number 07 and has been repowered.
The steam locomotive classification was directly derived from Japanese practice. Tank locomotives were numbered from the 10's, while tender locomotives from the 50's. Letter combinations were used for articulated locomotives (in the case of Indonesia these were Mallets).
Electric locomotives in Indonesia had always been a minority, and no new electric locomotives had been acquired in the last 70 years. However, electric multiple units have been imported from Japan and elsewhere since 1976. These are operated by the Jabotabek commuter transport division of the Indonesian Railways, which has been spun off in August 2008.
May 2011: After changing the rail between Purwosari station and Wonogiri station and also the bridges with R42 (37 kilometers), so line between Sangkrah station, Solo and Wonogiri will be served by heavy electric diesel locomotives.
Indonesian Railways diesel locomotive classes
Shops and facilities
In Java, PT Kereta Api Indonesia has its main diesel shop in Pengok, Jogjakarta for maintenance of both diesel electric and diesel hydraulic locomotives. The separate systems in Sumatra has their shops in Lahat (South Sumatra), Padang (West Sumatra) and Pulubrayan (North Sumatra).
Other maintenance facilities are present in Manggarai (Jakarta), Tegal and Gubeng (Surabaya). These are used to repair coaches and wagons.
Motive power depots are located in Medan, Tebing Tinggi, Padang, Padang Panjang, Kertapati, Tanjungkarang, Rangkasbitung, Tanahabang (Jakarta), Jatinegara (Jakarta), Bandung, Banjar, Cibatu, Cirebon, Purwokerto, Cilacap, Kutoarjo, Semarang, Jogjakarta, Solo, Cepu, Madiun, Sidotopo (Surabaya), and Jember.
Large area in front of Purwakarta station (formerly a motive power depot) has been used for scrapping area of the unused economy class Electric Multiple Units since 2013, where the non-air-conditioned electrical multiple units had not in service.
To know which assets belong to Indonesian Railways (not the government), internal revaluation of assets has been done by the Transportation Ministry. They own Rp.35 trillion ($4.1 billion) as land and Rp.22 trillion ($2.6 billion) as other assets (bridges, signals, etc.). The exact value was to be determined by the end of 2011 or 2012, based on an audit by the Finance Ministry.
Railway operations in Indonesia was formerly regulated by the 1992 Indonesian Law No. 13 concerning Railways. This legislation stated that the government operates railways (arts. 4 and 6), delegates operations to an operating body [then the Perumka, and later PT Kereta Api] (art. 6) and provides and maintains railway infrastructure (art. 8). Private companies are allowed to cooperate in operation of railways (art. 6).
From 25 April 2007, the new regulation, 2007 Indonesian Law No. 23 is in effect. There are some changes in railway operators. In this law, track maintenance is handed over to the government (via Directorate General of Railways, Ministry of Transportation).
The Indonesian government has recently created the Directorate General of Railways, directly answerable to the Minister of Transportation. This is expected to improve the railway's position vis-à-vis other transportation modes.
The parliament of Indonesia has finished an amendment to the current legislation, which is to allow greater role for private companies and regional governments in providing railway services. However, as yet there are no private operators of railway services.
Named passenger trains
Indonesian Railways runs to classes of named passenger trains on Java, Executive class (class 1) and Business class (class 2), and Economy class (class 3).
Exclusive wagon is luxury wagon which a whole wagon should be rented for a certain route, because the luxury wagon should be attached to the regular train. Exclusive wagon is called as kereta wisata (tourist wagon), Main users of this exclusive cars are the president, vice president, a group of a company for meeting, big extended family, and group of artists or tourists. The rent fee of a wagon is about Rp 15,000,000 for short trip as Jakarta-Bandung or Jakarta-Cirebon and up to Rp 27,000,000 for trip of Jakarta-Surabaya. All wagons can accommodate 22 passengers, and only 19 passengers for Nusantara wagon with a queen bed. Snacks, meals and drinks are provided for free. And advanced booking with payment should be done due to big animo of the exclusive wagons.
On 18 October 2014, Indonesian Railways launched Jayabaya train with route Pasar Senen-Surabaya-Malang vice versa (north route on all double track) with 2 disability wagons include toilets for disability persons, wide doors and spacious area for wheel chairs. It will be implemented to other train gradually.
Indonesian Railways and Danone Indonesia has made an agreement to carry Danone's water in 2013 to Jakarta. Indonesian Railways will replace the track from R33 to R54 between Cicurug and Sukabumi with length 20 kilometers and spends Rp2 trillion ($222 million). One cargo train can replace 40 to 60 trucks. In addition, Indonesian Railways also serves trains of coal in South Sumatera.
Government has appointed Indonesian Railways to connect Cikarang Dry Port and Tanjung Priok Port to ease heavy traffic jam between two locations. The construction will be initialised in early 2015. Trucks and flatbeds can only run 1.5 trip per day, while a train can carry 40 TEUs (Twenty-foot Equivalent Units) per trip.
To popularise more about the business, Indonesian Railways will launch Library Wagon (Kereta Pustaka Indonesia) which will display documented company activities, small size assets and books. The library wagon will make exhibition for a week in one station and then move to other station.
In December 2011, a memorandum of understanding has been signed between Indonesian Railways and Bombardier Transportation AG related with final assembly of diesel-electric TRAXX Asia Locomotives in Surabaya, East Java begins in early 2012 for Southeast Asia market, including for Indonesian Railways itself.
In early March 2012, both parties GE Transportation and Indonesian Railways have announced the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding about services and cooperation. All services will be done in Indonesia by Indonesian workers and makes Traction Motor Remanufacturing Center to serve all ASEAN countries.
In 2012, Indonesian Railways allocated Rp20 billion ($2.2 million) to restore and renovate 20 heritage sites from at least 260 (680 in the future) heritage sites and historical railways on the islands of Java and Sumatra. One of them is Lawang Sewu (1,000 doors) in Semarang which attracted many tourists which got Rp.1.5 billion ($0.17 million) from tickets revenue per year.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to PT Kereta Api.|
- "PT KAI Targetkan 600 Juta Penumpang Tahun 2019". January 3, 2015.
- Asep Munazat Zatnika (April 25, 2014). "KA Jalur Ganda Pantura Beroperasi Penuh Akhir Mei".
- "Rp 6t railway project to boost train capacity, economic expansion". September 16, 2011.
- Ainur Rohmah (March 14, 2014). "Double track railway expected to be launched in April".
- Max Aging Pribadi (July 6, 2015). "Dirjen KA Resmikan Pengoperasian Jalur Ganda Duri-Tangerang".
- Willy Widianto (June 23, 2014). "Hore ! Stasiun Matraman akan Dibangun untuk Pengguna KRL Commuter Line".
- Airport railway ‘to operate in 2014’ | The Jakarta Post Archived February 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Kamis, 19 Mei 2011 - 14:17 WIB. "Pemotongan Jalur KA di Purwakarta Siap Dilakukan | Poskotanews.com". Poskota.co.id. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- PEMBANGUNAN KERETA API TRANS BORNEO
- http://www.pu.go.id/ditjen_ruang/Makalah/Paper-Sul-KA-150702.doc Archived May 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "2015, Bali punya kereta wisata - National Geographic Indonesia". Nationalgeographic.co.id. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- Andri Hajramurni (April 28, 2015). "Trans-Sulawesi railway project to begin soon, using Chinese tracks".
- "PT KA DAOP II Hidupkan lagi Perlintasan Mati". September 8, 2011.
- "Jalur KA Kedungjati-Tuntang Tanpa Perlintasan Sebidang Pertama di Indonesia". October 8, 2014.
- "Jalur Solo Wonogiri akan Dilayani Kereta Elektrik". Media Indonesia. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- Dewi Rachmat Kusuma. "Mau Rasakan Sensasi Kereta Mewah PT KAI? Ini Tarifnya". Retrieved December 6, 2013.
- Max Agung Pribadi (October 18, 2014). "Dua Gerbong KA Jayabaya Untuk Penyandang Cacat".
- Indonesian Railways Magazine. November 2014. 100th Edition.
- "Beban Jalan Raya Semakin Berat". December 12, 2011.
- Nadya Natahadibrata. "KAI agrees to overtake Priok railway". Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- PT KAI launches Library Wagon
- "PT KAI Gandeng Perusahaan Jerman". December 25, 2011.
- "Pusat Perawatan Lokomotif ASEAN Dibangun di Indonesia". March 3, 2012.
- "PT KAI to offer 260 heritage sites as tourist attractions". February 21, 2012.
- An official site of Heritage Unit of Indonesian Railways
|Look up train in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- (Indonesian) Official website of Indonesian Railways Co.
- (Indonesian) Industri Kereta Api, Indonesian railway industry
- (Indonesian) Majalah Kereta Api, the official website of Indonesian Railways Magazine