|Capital One Orange Bowl|
|Stadium||Hard Rock Stadium (Dec. 1996–1998, 2000–present)|
|Location||Miami Gardens, Florida (Dec. 1996–1998, 2000–present)|
Miami Field (1935–1937)|
Miami Orange Bowl (1938–Jan. 1996, 1999)
|Previous locations||Miami, Florida (1935–Jan. 1996, 1999)|
SEC/Big Ten/Notre Dame (Dec. 2014–present)
CFP (Dec. 2014–present)
|Previous conference tie-ins||
Big Eight (1976–Jan. 1996)|
Big East (1999–2006)
BCS (1999-Jan. 2014)
|Payout||US$35 million/conference (As of 2009)|
Orange Bowl (1935–1988)
FedEx Orange Bowl (1989–2010)
Discover Orange Bowl (2011–Jan. 2014)
|Mississippi State vs. Georgia Tech (Georgia Tech 49–34)|
|Oklahoma vs. Clemson (Clemson 37–17)|
The Orange Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game played at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida. This bowl game is sponsored by Capital One and part of the College Football Playoff. It has been played annually since January 1, 1935. The Orange Bowl, along with the Sugar Bowl and the Sun Bowl, are the second-oldest bowl games in the country, behind the Rose Bowl (first played 1902, played annually since 1916).
In its early years, the Orange Bowl had no defined conference tie-ins; it often pitted a team from the southeastern part of the country against a team from the central or northeastern states. From the 1950s until the mid-1990s, the Orange Bowl had a strong relationship with the Big 8 Conference. The champion (or runner-up in years in the “no-repeat” rule was invoked) was invited to the bowl game in most years during this time; the 1979 Orange Bowl even had two representatives from the Big 8. Opponents of the Big 8 varied; but were often major independents, runners-up in the Southeastern Conference, or champions of the Atlantic Coast Conference.
In the 1990s, the Orange Bowl was a member of the Bowl Coalition, but kept its Big 8 tie-in. It was later a member of the Bowl Alliance. From 1998 to 2013, The Orange Bowl was a member of the now-defunct Bowl Championship Series (BCS). The Orange Bowl served as the BCS National Championship Game in 2001 and 2005. However, beginning with the 2006 season, the BCS National Championship Game became a stand-alone event, hosted by the local bowl organization about one week following the New Year's Day bowl games (including the Orange Bowl). Under that format the Orange Bowl Committee hosted two separate games in both 2009 (the 2009 Orange Bowl on January 1 and the 2009 BCS National Championship Game on January 8) and in 2013 (the 2013 Orange Bowl on January 1 and the 2013 BCS National Championship Game on January 7), all at Sun Life Stadium. The BCS ended after the 2013 season, being replaced by the current College Football Playoff.
Since 2007, the Orange Bowl has been host to the Atlantic Coast Conference champion unless they are involved in the national championship game (whereas the #2 ACC team would take their place) and has used the brand Home of the ACC Champion.
The 2013 match-up ended with the Florida State Seminoles, who won the ACC championship, defeating the MAC champion Northern Illinois Huskies. This was the first time a non-AQ team that had suffered a loss previously in the season made it to the Orange Bowl.
In 1890, Pasadena, California held its first Tournament of Roses Parade to showcase the city's mild weather compared to the harsh winters in northern cities. As one of the organizers said: "In New York, people are buried in snow. Here, our flowers are blooming and our oranges are about to bear. Let's hold a festival to tell the world about our paradise." In 1902, the annual festival was enhanced by adding an American football game.
In 1926, leaders in Miami, Florida, decided to do the same with a "Fiesta of the American Tropics" that was centered around a New Year's Day football game. Although a second "Fiesta" was never held, Miami leaders- Earnest E Seiler, later revived the idea with the "Palm Festival" (with the slogan "Have a Green Christmas in Miami").
Palm Festival Game
In 1932, George E. Hussey, official greeter of Miami, organized the first Festival of Palms Bowl, a predecessor of the Orange Bowl. With Miami suffering from both the Great Depression and the preceding Florida land bust, Hussey and other Miamians sought to help its economy by organizing a game similar to Pasadena's Rose Bowl.
Two games were played in this series at Moore Park in Miami, both pitting an invited opponent against a local team, the University of Miami. In the first game, played on January 2, 1933, Miami defeated Manhattan College 7–0. In the second game, played on New Year's Day 1934, Duquesne defeated Miami 33–7. Duquesne was coached by Elmer Layden one of the Four Horseman of Notre Dame.
These games are not recognized as bowl games by the NCAA because one team was guaranteed a berth regardless of record. However, following the success of these games, backers organized another game for New Year's Day 1935 under the Orange Bowl name. This game, unlike the Palm Festival Games, did not automatically grant a berth to one team, although the University of Miami was again a participant. For this reason, the 1935 Orange Bowl was later recognized by the NCAA as an official bowl game.
The Orange Bowl was played at Miami Field (located where Miami Orange Bowl was later built) from 1935 to 1937, the Miami Orange Bowl from 1938 to 1996 and 1999, and was moved to its current site, Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida, in December 1996. The game was moved back to the namesake stadium in 1999 (which would be the final bowl game ever in the Miami Orange Bowl) because the game was played on the same day the Miami Dolphins hosted an NFL Wild Card Playoff game. Coincidentally, both of those games were aired on ABC.
From 1968, the game usually featured the champion of the former Big Eight Conference. When the Big Eight Conference absorbed four members of the defunct Southwest Conference in 1996, the newly formed Big 12 Conference moved its conference champion tie-in to the Fiesta Bowl. Since 1998, however, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series system, team selection for the Orange Bowl is now tied into the other three BCS Bowls.
From 1998 to 2005, the game hosted the champion of either the ACC or Big East conferences, unless they were invited to the National Championship game, or if the Orange Bowl itself was hosting the national championship matchup.
Starting with the 2006 season, the Orange Bowl has been exclusively tied with the ACC and has used the brand Home of the ACC Champion. As one of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) bowl games, the site of the Orange Bowl also hosted the national championship game one week after the Orange Bowl game; it did so on a four-year rotating basis with the other three BCS games (the others being the Sugar, Fiesta, and Rose Bowls).
King Orange Jamboree Parade
From 1936 to 2001, the Orange Bowl Committee also sponsored a parade. In its heyday, the parade was a nighttime New Year's Eve tradition, televised nationally with lighted floats and displays going down part of Biscayne Boulevard in downtown Miami, FL. However ratings dropped and the national television contract was lost in 1997, causing the parade to quickly become a shell of its former self since there were no sponsors for the elaborate floats. As a result, the committee chose to bring this tradition to an end in early 2002.
The very first King Orange Jamboree Parade was held the day before the 1936 game with 30 floats at an expense of $40,000 ($653,933 in 2012 dollars). Babs Beckwith was chosen as the first Orange Bowl queen.
|Date played||Winning team||Losing team||Attendance||Notes|
|January 1, 1935||Bucknell||26||Miami (FL)||0||5,134||notes|
|January 1, 1936||Catholic University||20||Mississippi||19||6,568||notes|
|January 1, 1937||#14 Duquesne||13||Mississippi State||12||9,210||notes|
|January 1, 1938||Auburn||6||Michigan State||0||18,972||notes|
|January 2, 1939||#2 Tennessee||17||#4 Oklahoma||0||32,191||notes|
|January 1, 1940||#16 Georgia Tech||21||#6 Missouri||7||29,278||notes|
|January 1, 1941||#9 Mississippi State||14||#13 Georgetown||7||29,554||notes|
|January 1, 1942||#14 Georgia||40||TCU||26||35,786||notes|
|January 1, 1943||#10 Alabama||37||#8 Boston College||21||25,166||notes|
|January 1, 1944||LSU||19||Texas A&M||14||25,203||notes|
|January 1, 1945||Tulsa||26||#13 Georgia Tech||12||23,279||notes|
|January 1, 1946||Miami (FL)||13||#16 Holy Cross||6||35,709||notes|
|January 1, 1947||#10 Rice||8||#7 Tennessee||0||36,152||notes|
|January 1, 1948||#10 Georgia Tech||20||#12 Kansas||14||59,578||notes|
|January 1, 1949||Texas||41||#8 Georgia||28||60,523||notes|
|January 2, 1950||#15 Santa Clara||21||#11 Kentucky||13||64,816||notes|
|January 1, 1951||#10 Clemson||15||#15 Miami (FL)||14||65,181||notes|
|January 1, 1952||#6 Georgia Tech||17||#9 Baylor||14||65,839||notes|
|January 1, 1953||#9 Alabama||61||#14 Syracuse||6||66,280||notes|
|January 1, 1954||#4 Oklahoma||7||#1 Maryland||0||68,640||notes|
|January 1, 1955||#14 Duke||34||Nebraska||7||68,750||notes|
|January 2, 1956||#1 Oklahoma||20||#3 Maryland||6||76,561||notes|
|January 1, 1957||#20 Colorado||27||#19 Clemson||21||73,280||notes|
|January 1, 1958||#4 Oklahoma||48||#16 Duke||21||76,561||notes|
|January 1, 1959||#5 Oklahoma||21||#9 Syracuse||6||75,281||notes|
|January 1, 1960||#5 Georgia||14||#18 Missouri||0||72,186||notes|
|January 2, 1961||#5 Missouri||21||#4 Navy||14||72,212||notes|
|January 1, 1962||#4 LSU||25||#7 Colorado||7||68,150||notes|
|January 1, 1963||#5 Alabama||17||#8 Oklahoma||0||72,880||notes|
|January 1, 1964||#6 Nebraska||13||#5 Auburn||7||72,647||notes|
|January 1, 1965||#5 Texas||21||#1 Alabama||17||72,647||notes|
|January 1, 1966||#4 Alabama||39||#3 Nebraska||28||72,214||notes|
|January 2, 1967||Florida||27||#8 Georgia Tech||12||72,426||notes|
|January 1, 1968||#3 Oklahoma||26||#2 Tennessee||24||77,993||notes|
|January 1, 1969||#3 Penn State||15||#6 Kansas||14||77,719||notes|
|January 1, 1970||#2 Penn State||10||#6 Missouri||3||77,282||notes|
|January 1, 1971||#3 Nebraska||17||#5 LSU||12||80,699||notes|
|January 1, 1972||#1 Nebraska||38||#2 Alabama||6||78,151||notes|
|January 1, 1973||#9 Nebraska||40||#12 Notre Dame||6||80,010||notes|
|January 1, 1974||#6 Penn State||16||#13 LSU||9||60,477||notes|
|January 1, 1975||#9 Notre Dame||13||#2 Alabama||11||71,801||notes|
|January 1, 1976||#3 Oklahoma||14||#5 Michigan||6||76,799||notes|
|January 1, 1977||#11 Ohio State||27||#12 Colorado||10||65,537||notes|
|January 2, 1978||#6 Arkansas||31||#2 Oklahoma||6||60,987||notes|
|January 1, 1979||#4 Oklahoma||31||#6 Nebraska||24||66,365||notes|
|January 1, 1980||#5 Oklahoma||24||#4 Florida State||7||66,714||notes|
|January 1, 1981||#4 Oklahoma||18||#2 Florida State||17||71,043||notes|
|January 1, 1982||#1 Clemson||22||#4 Nebraska||15||72,748||notes|
|January 1, 1983||#3 Nebraska||21||#13 LSU||20||68,713||notes|
|January 2, 1984||#5 Miami (FL)||31||#1 Nebraska||30||72,549||notes|
|January 1, 1985||#4 Washington||28||#2 Oklahoma||17||56,294||notes|
|January 1, 1986||#3 Oklahoma||25||#1 Penn State||10||74,178||notes|
|January 1, 1987||#3 Oklahoma||42||#9 Arkansas||8||52,717||notes|
|January 1, 1988||#2 Miami (FL)||20||#1 Oklahoma||14||74,760||notes|
|January 2, 1989||#2 Miami (FL)||23||#6 Nebraska||3||79,480||notes|
|January 1, 1990||#4 Notre Dame||21||#1 Colorado||6||81,190||notes|
|January 1, 1991||#1 Colorado||10||#5 Notre Dame||9||77,062||notes|
|January 1, 1992||#1 Miami (FL)||22||#11 Nebraska||0||77,747||notes|
|January 1, 1993||#3 Florida State||27||#11 Nebraska||14||57,324||notes|
|January 1, 1994+||#1 Florida State||18||#2 Nebraska||16||81,536||notes|
|January 1, 1995+||#1 Nebraska||24||#3 Miami (FL)||17||81,753||notes|
|January 1, 1996||#6 Florida State||31||#8 Notre Dame||26||72,198||notes|
|December 31, 1996||#6 Nebraska||41||#10 Virginia Tech||21||63,297||notes|
|January 2, 1998^||#2 Nebraska||42||#3 Tennessee||17||74,002||notes|
|January 2, 1999†||#7 Florida||31||#18 Syracuse||10||67,919||notes|
|January 1, 2000||#8 Michigan||35||#5 Alabama||34||70,461||notes|
|January 3, 2001*||#1 Oklahoma||13||#3 Florida State||2||76,835||notes|
|January 2, 2002||#5 Florida||56||#6 Maryland||23||73,640||notes|
|January 2, 2003||#5 USC||38||#3 Iowa||17||75,971||notes|
|January 1, 2004||#10 Miami (FL)||16||#9 Florida State||14||76,739||notes|
|January 4, 2005*||#1 USC||55‡||#2 Oklahoma||19||77,912||notes|
|January 3, 2006||#3 Penn State||26||#22 Florida State||23||77,773||notes|
|January 2, 2007||#5 Louisville||24||#15 Wake Forest||13||74,470||notes|
|January 3, 2008||#8 Kansas||24||#5 Virginia Tech||21||74,111||notes|
|January 1, 2009||#21 Virginia Tech||20||#12 Cincinnati||7||73,602||notes|
|January 5, 2010||#10 Iowa||24||#9 Georgia Tech||14||66,131||notes|
|January 3, 2011||#5 Stanford||40||#12 Virginia Tech||12||65,453||notes|
|January 4, 2012||#23 West Virginia||70||#14 Clemson||33||67,563||notes|
|January 1, 2013||#13 Florida State||31||#16 Northern Illinois||10||72,073||notes|
|January 3, 2014||#12 Clemson||40||#7 Ohio State||35||72,080||notes|
|December 31, 2014||#10 Georgia Tech||49||#8 Mississippi State||34||58,211||notes|
|December 31, 2015±||#1 Clemson||37||#4 Oklahoma||17||67,615||notes|
|December 30, 2016||#6 Michigan||--||#11 Florida State||--||__,___|
+ Denotes Bowl Coalition Championship game
^ Denotes Bowl Alliance Championship game
* Denotes BCS National Championship Game
† Due to NFL scheduling conflict, game was played at the Miami Orange Bowl in Miami, FL
‡ USC vacated their Orange Bowl victory due to NCAA sanctions
± Denotes College Football Playoff semifinal game
|Schedule Date||Time||Network||Primary Tie-In||Secondary Tie-In|
|December 30, 2016||8 PM EST||ESPN||Florida State Seminoles/Michigan Wolverines|
The Atlantic Coast Conference is locked into a 12-year deal with the Orange Bowl, so if the ACC champion qualifies for the playoffs in a year when the Orange is not a semifinal host, the next-highest ranked ACC team will play in the Orange. For the secondary tie-ins: The Southeastern Conference and the Big Ten Conference are guaranteed three appearances each, and the University of Notre Dame can play in a maximum of two games, but is not guaranteed any appearances. The ACC team's opponent in a given year will be the highest-ranked available team from the SEC, B1G (this always excludes the SEC and Big Ten champions. If an SEC or Big Ten team—or teams—qualify for the College Football Playoff, the next available team would also be excluded from participating in the Orange Bowl due to contractual obligations with the Sugar and Rose Bowls, respectively), and Notre Dame, subject to these constraints. Also, should this highest-ranked team create a rematch with the ACC team, the Orange Bowl has the option of passing over that team for the next-highest ranked team among the B1G, SEC, and Notre Dame, again subject to the above contractual constraints. The College Football Playoff committee's rankings will be used to select the ACC's opponent. The other four will be College Football Playoff berths. Also ESPN holds the television rights for the next 12 years as well.
|1970||Chuck Burkhart||Penn State||QB|
|Mike Reid||Penn State||DT|
|1974||Tom Shuman||Penn State||QB|
|Randy Crowder||Penn State||DT|
|1975||Wayne Bullock||Notre Dame||FB|
|Lee Roy Selmon||Oklahoma||DT|
|1977||Rod Gerald||Ohio State||QB|
|Tom Cousineau||Ohio State||LB|
|1980||J. C. Watts||Oklahoma||QB|
|1981||J. C. Watts||Oklahoma||QB|
|Jarvis Coursey||Florida State||DE|
|1984||Bernie Kosar||Miami (Fla.)||QB|
|Jack Fernandez||Miami (Fla.)||LB|
|1988||Bernard Clark||Miami (Fla.)||LB|
|1989||Steve Walsh||Miami (Fla.)||QB|
|1990||Raghib Ismail||Notre Dame||WR|
|Chris Zorich||Notre Dame||NG|
|1992||Larry Jones||Miami (Fla.)||RB|
|1993||Charlie Ward||Florida State||QB|
|1994||Charlie Ward||Florida State||QB|
|Chris T. Jones||Miami (Fla.)||WR|
|1996 (Jan)||Andre Cooper||Florida State||WR|
|Derrick Mayes||Notre Dame||WR|
|1996 (Dec)||Damon Benning||Nebraska||RB|
|Ken Oxendine||Virginia Tech||RB|
|2004||Jarrett Payton||Miami (Fla.)||RB|
|2009||Darren Evans||Virginia Tech||RB|
|2012||Geno Smith||West Virginia||QB|
|2013||Lonnie Pryor||Florida State||FB|
|2014 (Jan)||Sammy Watkins||Clemson||WR|
|2014 (Dec)||Justin Thomas||Georgia Tech||QB|
Appearances by team
Appearances by conference
|Rank||Conference||Appearances||Record||Win %||# of
|1||Big Eight||42||20–22||.476||5|| Oklahoma (11–5)|
|2||SEC||34||17–16||.515||10|| Alabama (4–4)|
Georgia Tech (3–1)
Mississippi State (1–1)
Ole Miss (0–1)
|3||Independent||28||13–15||.464||15|| Miami (FL) (4–1)|
Notre Dame (2–3)
Penn State (3–1)
Florida State (0–2)
Santa Clara (1–0)
Boston College (0–1)
Georgia Tech (0–1)
Holy Cross (0–1)
Michigan State (0–1)
|4||ACC||24||10–13||.435||8|| Florida State (4–3)*|
Georgia Tech (1–1)
Virginia Tech (1–2)
Wake Forest (0–1)
|T5||Big East||8||4–4||.500||6|| Miami (FL) (2–1)|
West Virginia (1–0)
Virginia Tech (0–1)
|T5||Big Ten||8||4–3||.571||4|| Iowa (1–1)|
Ohio State (1–1)
Penn State (1–0)
|T5||SWC||8||4–4||.500||6|| Texas (2–0)|
Texas A&M (0–1)
|8||Big 12||6||4–2||.667||3|| Nebraska (2–0)|
|9||Pac-12||4||4–0||1.000||3|| USC (2–0)|
|10||MAC||1||0–1||.000||1||Northern Illinois (0–1)*|
|10||SIAA||1||0–1||.000||1||Miami (FL) (0–1)|
- As members of the Big Eight, Oklahoma played in 16 Orange Bowls, Nebraska played in 15 Orange Bowls, and Kansas played in 2 Orange Bowls. As members of the Big 12 (after the Big Eight merged with 4 schools in the SWC to form the Big 12), Oklahoma and Nebraska each played in 2 more Orange Bowls and Kansas played in 1 more Orange Bowl.
- Georgia Tech was a member of the SEC during the 1940, 1945, 1948, and 1952 Orange Bowls. It was an independent team during the 1967 Orange Bowl and a member of the ACC during the 2010 and 2014 Orange Bowls.
- Miami was a member of the SIAA during the 1935 Orange Bowl. It was an independent team during the 1946, 1951, 1984, 1988, and 1989 Orange Bowls. It was a member of the Big East during the 1992, 1995, and 2004 Orange Bowls.
- Penn State was an independent team during the 1969, 1970, 1974, and 1986 Orange Bowls. It was a member of the Big Ten during the 2006 Orange Bowl.
- Florida State was an independent team during the 1980 and 1981 Orange Bowls and was a member of the ACC during the 1993, 1994, 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2006 Orange Bowls.
- Syracuse was an independent team during the 1953 and 1959 Orange Bowls and was a member of the Big East during the 1999 Orange Bowl.
- Clemson was a member of the Southern Conference during the 1951 Orange Bowl and a member of the ACC during the 1957, 1982, 2012 and 2014 Orange Bowls (Clemson was one of seven SoCon schools to split off to form the ACC).
- Virginia Tech was a member of the Big East during the 1996 Orange Bowl and a member of the ACC during the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Orange Bowls.
The game was previously officially known as the Discover Orange Bowl, since Discover Financial was announced as title sponsor on August 26, 2010 as part of a new four-year agreement. The game had been called the FedEx Orange Bowl from 1989 to 2010, as FedEx sponsored the event during that period. Starting with the 2010–11 season, ESPN carried the Orange Bowl, replacing Fox after four seasons. ABC aired the game from 1999 to 2006, with CBS (1995–1998) and NBC (1964–1994) previously carrying the game.
Discover stated that they would not renew their sponsorship of the game further on June 9, 2014; the game will be a part of the College Football Playoff in the future, and CFP rightsholder ESPN has asked for higher sponsorship fees, in return. On September 22, 2014, Capital One was announced as the new title sponsor of the Orange Bowl, transferring their bowl game sponsorship from the Citrus Bowl. Subsequently, the company's "Capital One Mascot Challenge" winner naming ceremony also moved to the Orange Bowl.
ESPN are the current rights holders (as of 2011) as part of a four-year, US $500 million contract with the Bowl Championship Series and the Tournament of Roses, the owners of the Rose Bowl Game. Prior to that, Fox held the rights to the event (along with the other BCS bowls) since 2007, preceded by ABC (1999–2006 and 1962–64), CBS (1996–98 and 1953–61), and NBC (1965–95). This game, along with the Fiesta Bowl, is one of only two bowl games ever to air on all the "big 4" broadcast television networks in the USA. ESPN Deportes added a Spanish language telecast of the game in 2013.
In November 2012, ESPN announced that it had reached a deal with the game's organizers to maintain broadcast rights to the Orange Bowl through 2026. ESPN will pay $55 million yearly to broadcast the game beginning in the 2014–15 season under the new contract, which will take effect following the conclusion of ESPN's contract with, and subsequent discontinuation of the BCS (and its replacement with the College Football Playoff). ESPN made a similar deal to maintain broadcast rights to the Sugar Bowl for the same duration as well.
The game is also broadcast nationally by ESPN Radio.
- "Tournament of Roses History". Pasadena Tournament of Roses. Archived from the original on December 2, 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
- "History of the Orange Bowl". FedEx Orange Bowl. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
- Ours, Robert (2004). Bowl Games: College Football's Greatest Tradition, pg. 28
- History of the Orange Bowl
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- Archived March 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "The Inflation Calculator". WestEgg. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- "1936 Orange Bowl". The Catholic University of America. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- "She's Orange Bowl Queen". The Milwaukee Journal. 1935-12-31. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- NCAA National Championship College Football Playoff Committee December 6, 2015 12:30 PM EST
- Daily Press (15 November 2012). "Teel Time: ACC, Orange Bowl announce ties with SEC, Big Ten, Notre Dame, ESPN". dailypress.com. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- "Discover to sponsor Orange Bowl title slot". ESPN. 2010-08-26.
- Fox pulls out of bidding for next round of BCS games, ESPN.com
- Michael Smith; John Ourand; Terry Lefton (9 June 2014). "Discover, Tostitos to end bowl title deals". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- "CAPITAL ONE BECOMES TITLE SPONSOR OF THE ORANGE BOWL". Orange Bowl Committee. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Capital One Becomes Title Sponsor of the Orange Bowl". Atlantic Coast Conference. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "BCS National Championship and Bowl Games on ESPN Deportes". ESPN. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "ESPN Reaches 12-Year College Football Agreement With Orange Bowl". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
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