Open front rounded vowel
|Open front rounded vowel|
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The open front rounded vowel, or low front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, not confirmed to be phonemic in any spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɶ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is &. The letter ⟨ɶ⟩ is a small caps rendition of ⟨Œ⟩. Note that ⟨œ⟩, the lowercase version of the ligature, is used for the open-mid front rounded vowel.
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
Riad (2014) reports that [ɶː] in Stockholm Swedish is sometimes difficult to distinguish from [ɒː]. He states that it is "a sign that these vowels are phonetically very close".
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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- Its vowel height is open, also known as low, which means the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth – that is, as low as possible in the mouth.
- Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
- It is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.
It occurs allophonically in Danish, Weert Limburgish and some speakers of Swedish.
|Danish||Standard||grøn||[ˈɡ̊ʁ̞ɶ̽nˀ]||'green'||Near-open near-front; allophone of /œ/ (and /ø/ when before /v/) after /r/. Some speakers may realize it the same as [œ]. See Danish phonology|
|Limburgish||Weert dialect||bùj||[bɶj]||'shower'||Allophone of /œ/ before /j/.|
|Swedish||Stockholm||öra||[ˈɶ̂ːˈrâ̠]||'ear'||Pre-/r/ allophone of /œ/ and (more often) /øː/ for younger speakers. Open-mid [œ, œː] for other speakers. See Swedish phonology|
- Riad (2014:38)
- Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
- Grønnum (1998:100)
- Basbøll (2005:46): "Nina Grønnum uses two different symbols for the vowels in these and similar words: gøre she transcribes with (...) [œ] (narrow transcription), and grøn she transcribes with (...) [ɶ̝] (narrow transcription). Clearly, there is variation within Standard Danish on this point (...)."
- Grønnum (2005:288)
- Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:110)
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
- Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1–2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006290
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1
- Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, 2: 289–333