Nonanoic acid

Nonanoic acid
IUPAC name
Nonanoic acid
Other names
  • Pelargonic acid
  • 1-Octanecarboxylic acid
112-05-0 YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChEBI CHEBI:29019 YesY
ChemSpider 7866 N
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.574
EC Number 203-931-2
KEGG C01601 YesY
PubChem 8158
Molar mass 158.24 g·mol−1
Appearance Clear to yellowish oily liquid
Density 0.900 g/cm3
Melting point 12.5 °C (54.5 °F; 285.6 K)
Boiling point 254 °C (489 °F; 527 K)
0.3 g/L
Acidity (pKa) 4.96[1]
1.055 at 2.06 to 2.63 K (−271.09 to −270.52 °C; −455.96 to −454.94 °F)
1.53 at −191 °C (−311.8 °F; 82.1 K)
Main hazards Corrosive (C)
R-phrases R34
S-phrases (S1/2) S26 S28 S36/37/39 S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 114 °C (237 °F; 387 K)
405 °C (761 °F; 678 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Nonanoic acid, also called pelargonic acid, is an organic compound composed of a nine-carbon chain terminating in a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3(CH2)7COOH. The esters and salts of nonanoic acid are called nonanoates. Nonanoic acid is a clear, oily liquid with an unpleasant, rancid odor. It is nearly insoluble in water, but very soluble in chloroform, ether, and hexane. It is commonly used in conjunction with glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, for a quick burn-down effect in the control of weeds in turfgrass.

Its refractive index is 1.4322. Its critical point is at 712 K (439 °C) and 2.35 MPa.

Occurrence and uses

Nonanoic acid is a fatty acid which occurs naturally as esters in the oil of pelargonium. Synthetic esters, such as methyl nonanoate, are used as flavorings.

Nonanoic acid is also used in the preparation of plasticizers and lacquers.

The derivative 4-nonanoylmorpholine is an ingredient in some pepper sprays.

The ammonium salt of nonanoic acid, ammonium nonanoate, is an herbicide.

Potential pharmacological effects

Nonanoic acid may be more potent than valproic acid in treating seizures.[2] Moreover, in contrast to valproic acid, nonanoic acid exhibited no effect on HDAC inhibition, suggesting that it is unlikely to show HDAC inhibition-related teratogenicity.[2]


  1. Lide, D. R. (Ed.) (1990). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (70th Edn.). Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press.
  2. 1 2 "Seizure control by ketogenic diet-associated medium chain fatty acids". 2013. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
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