Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible
The non-canonical books in this article include Biblical apocrypha and Deuterocanonical books (which are accepted as part of the Biblical canon by most non-Protestant Christians), pseudepigrapha, writings from Hellenistic and other non-Biblical cultures, and lost works of known or unknown status. For the purposes of this article, referenced can mean direct quotations, paraphrases, or allusions, which in some cases are known only because they have been identified as such by ancient writers, or the citation of a work or author.
Hebrew Bible references
The Hebrew Bible, also known as the Tanakh by Jews, and called the Old Testament by Christians, or the Protocanonical books.
- The Book of Jasher (whose title fully translated means the Book of the Upright or the Book of the Just) is mentioned in Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18 and also referenced in 2nd Timothy 3:8. From the context in the Book of Samuel it is implied that it was a collection of poetry. Several books have claimed to be this lost text, but are widely discounted as pseudepigrapha. Certain members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints secured the copyright to one of these and republished the work in 1887 in Salt Lake City.
- The Book of the Wars of the Lord. Referenced at Numbers 21:14 with possible association with War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness. Also cited The Book of the Wars of the LORD is cited in the medieval Book of Jasher (trans. Moses Samuel c. 1840, ed. J. H. Parry 1887) Chapter 90:48 as being a collaborative record written by Moses, Joshua and the children of Israel.
- A "Book of Songs" is referenced at 1 Kings 8:12–13 (Septuagint).
- The Chronicles of the Kings of Israel and Chronicles of the Kings of Judah are mentioned in the Books of Kings (1 Kings 14:19,29). They are said to tell of events during the reigns of Kings Jeroboam of Israel and Rehoboam of Judah, respectively. The Chronicles of the Kings of Israel is again mentioned in 1 Kings 16:20 regarding King Zimri, and many other times throughout 1 and 2 Kings.
- The "Book of Shemaiah, and of Iddo the Seer" (also called Story of the Prophet Iddo or The Annals of the Prophet Iddo) is mentioned in the 2nd Book of Chronicles. (2 Chronicles 9:29, 2 Chronicles 12:15, 2 Chronicles 13:22). Iddo was a seer who lived during the reigns of Solomon, Rehoboam, and Abijah. His deeds were recorded in this book, which has been completely lost to history, save for its title. However, it is interesting to note that Zechariah was the son of Iddo, but this was likely not the same Iddo. (Ezra 5:1, Zechariah 1:1)
- The Manner of the Kingdom.
Referenced at 1 Samuel 10:25.
- The Acts of Solomon.
Referenced at 1 Kings 11:41.
- The Annals of King David.
Referenced at 1 Chronicles 27:24.
- The Book of Samuel the Seer. Also called Samuel the Seer or The Acts of Samuel the Seer, which could be the same as 1 & 2 Samuel.
Referenced at 1 Chronicles 29:29.
- The Book of Nathan the Prophet. Also called Nathan the Prophet or The Acts of Nathan the Prophet or History of Nathan the Prophet.
Referenced at 1 Chronicles 29:29, and also 2 Chronicles 9:29.
- The Book of Gad the Seer.
Referenced at 1 Chronicles 29:29.
- The Prophecy of Ahijah, might be a reference to 1 Kings 14:2–18.
Referenced at 2 Chronicles 9:29.
- The Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel.
Referenced in 2 Chronicles 16:11, 2 Chronicles 27:7 and 2 Chronicles 32:32. Might be the same as 1 & 2 Kings.
- The Book of Jehu, could be a reference to 1 Kings 16:1–7.
Referenced at 2 Chronicles 20:34.
- The Story of the Book of Kings.
Referenced at 2 Chronicles 24:27.
- The Acts of Uziah. Also called The Book by the prophet Isaiah. Perhaps the same as the Book of Isaiah.
Referenced at 2 Chronicles 26:22.
- The Vision of Isaiah.
Referenced at 2 Chronicles 32:32.
- The Acts of the Kings of Israel. Also called The Acts and Prayers of Manasseh. May be identical to The Book of the Kings of Israel, above.
Referenced at 2 Chronicles 33:18.
- The Sayings of the Seers.
Referenced at 2 Chronicles 33:19.
- The Laments for Josiah. Also called Lamentations. This event is recorded in the existing Book of Lamentations.
Referenced at 2 Chronicles 35:25.
- The Chronicles of King Ahasuerus.
Referenced at Esther 2:23, Esther 6:1, Esther 10:2, and Nehemiah 12:23.
Book of Tobit
Sirach (verse numbers vary slightly between versions)
New Testament references
Nestle's Greek New Testament lists some 132 New Testament passages that appear to be verbal allusions to paracanonical books.
Pagan authors quoted or alluded to:
- Menander, Thais 218 (1 Cor. 15:33)
- Epimenides (and later Aratus, Phaenomena 5), (Acts 17:28). Paul introduced another quotation from Epimenides (de Oraculis) by calling him a prophet of the Cretans (Titus 1:12–13). see Epimenides paradox.
Non-canonical books quoted or alluded to:
- 1 2 oble lase (2014-12-01), Ancient Book of Jasher/Audio Version, retrieved 2016-06-18
- ↑ Sometimes called The Book of the Wars of Yahweh. One source says "The quotation is in lyrical form, so it is possibly a book of poetry or a hymnal...Moses quoted it, so the date of its composition must have been prior to the completion of the Pentateuch, perhaps during the wanderings in the wilderness. Nothing else is known about it, and it survives only in Moses’ quotation."
- ↑ Also called The Book of Statutes or 3 Samuel.
- ↑ Also called The Book of the Acts of Solomon
- ↑ Also called The Book of the Annals of King David or The Chronicles of King David, which could be a reference to the rest of 1 Chronicles.
- 1 2 "Are There Lost Books of the Bible?".
- ↑ "Are There Lost Books of the Bible?".
- ↑ Also called Gad the Seer or The Acts of Gad the Seer
- ↑ Also called The Prophesy of Ahijah the Shilonite .
- ↑ Also called The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah.
- ↑ Also called The Book of Jehu the son of Hanani
- ↑ Also called Midrash on the Book of Kings
- ↑ Also called The Vision of the Prophet Isaiah. May be identical to the pseudepigraphal Ascension of Isaiah. May also refer to the existing Book of Isaiah
- ↑ http://www.icwseminary.org/lostbooks.htm
- ↑ Also called The Acts of the Seers
- ↑ Also called The Book of Records of the Chronicles or The Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Media and Persia
- 1 2 3 4 5 6 See footnote to the Biblical passage in The Jerusalem Bible, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1966
- ↑ Other names include: Ecclesiasticus or Wisdom of Jesus Ben Sira
- ↑ Rollston, Chris A. (April 2001). "Ben Sira 38:24–39:11 and The Egyptian Satire of the Trades". Journal of Biblical Literature. 120 (Spring): 131–139. doi:10.2307/3268597.
- ↑ Ewert, David (1 July 1990). "A General Introduction to the Bible: From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations". Zondervan – via Google Books.
- 1 2 Holloway, Gary (1 January 1996). "James & Jude". College Press – via Google Books.
- ↑ Charlesworth, James H. (24 October 1985). "The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament". CUP Archive – via Google Books.
- 1 2 Witherington, Ben (9 January 2008). "Letters and Homilies for Hellenized Christians: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary on 1-2 Peter". InterVarsity Press – via Google Books.
- ↑ Porter, Stanley E.; Pearson, Brook W. (19 December 2004). "Christian-Jewish Relations Through the Centuries". A&C Black – via Google Books.
- ↑ Martin, Ralph P. 2 Corinthians Word Biblical Commentary 40,