List of Nobel laureates

Nobel laureates receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2012) 8 million SEK (roughly US$1.2 million, €0.93 million).
Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robert J. Lefkowitz, David J. Wineland, and Serge Haroche during the ceremony

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly.[2]


Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[2] In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK.[4] The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize.[6] The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of World War II.[7]


Between 1901 and 2015, the Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 573 times to 900 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 870 individuals (including 822 men, 48 women) and 23 organizations. Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans, Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time.

Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the International Committee of the Red Cross has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other.[8] UNHCR has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize twice. Also the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to John Bardeen twice, and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Frederick Sanger. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field: Marie Curie (Physics and Chemistry) and Linus Pauling (Chemistry and Peace). Among the 870 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.[9] She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given in 1911.[8]

List of laureates

Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics
1901 Röntgen, WilhelmWilhelm Röntgen Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van 'tJacobus Henricus van 't Hoff von Behring, Emil AdolfEmil Adolf von Behring Prudhomme, SullySully Prudhomme Dunant, HenryHenry Dunant;
Passy, FrédéricFrédéric Passy
1902 Lorentz, HendrikHendrik Lorentz;
Zeeman, PieterPieter Zeeman
Fischer, Hermann EmilHermann Emil Fischer Ross, RonaldRonald Ross Mommsen, TheodorTheodor Mommsen Ducommun, ÉlieÉlie Ducommun;
Gobat, Charles AlbertCharles Albert Gobat
1903 Becquerel, HenriHenri Becquerel;
Curie, PierrePierre Curie;
Curie, MarieMarie Curie
Arrhenius, SvanteSvante Arrhenius Finsen, Niels RybergNiels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnson, BjørnstjerneBjørnstjerne Bjørnson Cremer, RandalRandal Cremer
1904 Rayleigh, LordLord Rayleigh Ramsay, WilliamWilliam Ramsay Pavlov, IvanIvan Pavlov Mistral, FrédéricFrédéric Mistral;
Echegaray, JoséJosé Echegaray
Institut de Droit International
1905 Lenard, PhilippPhilipp Lenard Baeyer, Adolf vonAdolf von Baeyer Koch, RobertRobert Koch Sienkiewicz, HenrykHenryk Sienkiewicz Suttner, Bertha vonBertha von Suttner
1906 Thomson, J. J.J. J. Thomson Moissan, HenriHenri Moissan Golgi, CamilloCamillo Golgi;
Ramón y Cajal, SantiagoSantiago Ramón y Cajal
Carducci, GiosuèGiosuè Carducci Roosevelt, TheodoreTheodore Roosevelt
1907 Michelson, Albert AbrahamAlbert Abraham Michelson Buchner, EduardEduard Buchner Laveran, Charles Louis AlphonseCharles Louis Alphonse Laveran Kipling, RudyardRudyard Kipling Moneta, Ernesto TeodoroErnesto Teodoro Moneta;
Renault, LouisLouis Renault
1908 Lippmann, GabrielGabriel Lippmann Rutherford, ErnestErnest Rutherford Metchnikoff, ÉlieÉlie Metchnikoff;
Ehrlich, PaulPaul Ehrlich
Eucken, Rudolf ChristophRudolf Christoph Eucken Arnoldson, Klas PontusKlas Pontus Arnoldson;
Bajer, FredrikFredrik Bajer
1909 Braun, Karl FerdinandKarl Ferdinand Braun;
Marconi, GuglielmoGuglielmo Marconi
Ostwald, WilhelmWilhelm Ostwald Kocher, Emil TheodorEmil Theodor Kocher Lagerlöf, SelmaSelma Lagerlöf Beernaert, Auguste Marie FrançoisAuguste Marie François Beernaert;
d'Estournelles de Constant, Paul-Henri-BenjaminPaul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant
1910 Waals, Johannes Diderik van derJohannes Diderik van der Waals Wallach, OttoOtto Wallach Kossel, AlbrechtAlbrecht Kossel Heyse, PaulPaul Heyse International Peace Bureau
1911 Wien, WilhelmWilhelm Wien Curie, MarieMarie Curie Gullstrand, AllvarAllvar Gullstrand Maeterlinck, MauriceMaurice Maeterlinck Asser, TobiasTobias Asser;
Fried, Alfred HermannAlfred Hermann Fried
1912 Dalén, GustafGustaf Dalén Grignard, VictorVictor Grignard;
Sabatier, PaulPaul Sabatier
Carrel, AlexisAlexis Carrel Hauptmann, GerhartGerhart Hauptmann Root, ElihuElihu Root
1913 Kamerlingh Onnes, HeikeHeike Kamerlingh Onnes Werner, AlfredAlfred Werner Richet, CharlesCharles Richet Tagore, RabindranathRabindranath Tagore La Fontaine, HenriHenri La Fontaine
1914 von Laue, MaxMax von Laue Richards, Theodore WilliamTheodore William Richards Bárány, RobertRobert Bárány None None
1915 Bragg, William HenryWilliam Henry Bragg;
Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg
Willstätter, RichardRichard Willstätter None Rolland, RomainRomain Rolland None
1916 None None None Heidenstam, Verner vonVerner von Heidenstam None
1917 Barkla, Charles GloverCharles Glover Barkla None None Gjellerup, Karl AdolphKarl Adolph Gjellerup;
Pontoppidan, HenrikHenrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross
1918 Planck, MaxMax Planck Haber, FritzFritz Haber None None None
1919 Stark, JohannesJohannes Stark None Bordet, JulesJules Bordet Spitteler, CarlCarl Spitteler Wilson, WoodrowWoodrow Wilson
1920 Guillaume, Charles ÉdouardCharles Édouard Guillaume Nernst, WaltherWalther Nernst Krogh, AugustAugust Krogh Hamsun, KnutKnut Hamsun Bourgeois, LéonLéon Bourgeois
1921 Einstein, AlbertAlbert Einstein Soddy, FrederickFrederick Soddy None France, AnatoleAnatole France Branting, HjalmarHjalmar Branting;
Lange, Christian LousChristian Lous Lange
1922 Bohr, NielsNiels Bohr Aston, Francis WilliamFrancis William Aston Hill, ArchibaldArchibald Hill;
Meyerhof, Otto FritzOtto Fritz Meyerhof
Benavente, JacintoJacinto Benavente Nansen, FridtjofFridtjof Nansen
1923 Millikan, Robert AndrewsRobert Andrews Millikan Pregl, FritzFritz Pregl Banting, FrederickFrederick Banting;
Macleod, John James RickardJohn James Rickard Macleod
Yeats, W. B.W. B. Yeats None
1924 Siegbahn, ManneManne Siegbahn None Einthoven, WillemWillem Einthoven Reymont, WładysławWładysław Reymont None
1925 Franck, JamesJames Franck;
Hertz, Gustav LudwigGustav Ludwig Hertz
Zsigmondy, Richard AdolfRichard Adolf Zsigmondy None Shaw, George BernardGeorge Bernard Shaw Chamberlain, AustenAusten Chamberlain;
Dawes, Charles G.Charles G. Dawes
1926 Perrin, Jean BaptisteJean Baptiste Perrin Svedberg, TheodorTheodor Svedberg Fibiger, JohannesJohannes Fibiger Deledda, GraziaGrazia Deledda Briand, AristideAristide Briand;
Stresemann, GustavGustav Stresemann
1927 Compton, ArthurArthur Compton;
Wilson, Charles Thomson ReesCharles Thomson Rees Wilson
Wieland, Heinrich OttoHeinrich Otto Wieland Wagner-Jauregg, JuliusJulius Wagner-Jauregg Bergson, HenriHenri Bergson Buisson, FerdinandFerdinand Buisson;
Quidde, LudwigLudwig Quidde
1928 Richardson, Owen WillansOwen Willans Richardson Windaus, Adolf Otto ReinholdAdolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Nicolle, CharlesCharles Nicolle Undset, SigridSigrid Undset None
1929 Broglie, Louis deLouis de Broglie Harden, ArthurArthur Harden;
von Euler-Chelpin, HansHans von Euler-Chelpin
Eijkman, ChristiaanChristiaan Eijkman;
Hopkins, Frederick GowlandFrederick Gowland Hopkins
Mann, ThomasThomas Mann Kellogg, Frank B.Frank B. Kellogg
1930 Raman, C. V.C. V. Raman Fischer, HansHans Fischer Landsteiner, KarlKarl Landsteiner Lewis, SinclairSinclair Lewis Söderblom, NathanNathan Söderblom
1931 None Bosch, CarlCarl Bosch;
Bergius, FriedrichFriedrich Bergius
Warburg, Otto HeinrichOtto Heinrich Warburg Karlfeldt, Erik AxelErik Axel Karlfeldt Addams, JaneJane Addams;
Butler, Nicholas MurrayNicholas Murray Butler
1932 Heisenberg, WernerWerner Heisenberg Langmuir, IrvingIrving Langmuir Sherrington, Charles ScottCharles Scott Sherrington;
Adrian, EdgarEdgar Adrian
Galsworthy, JohnJohn Galsworthy None
1933 Schrödinger, ErwinErwin Schrödinger;
Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac
None Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan Bunin, IvanIvan Bunin Angell, NormanNorman Angell
1934 None Urey, HaroldHarold Urey Whipple, GeorgeGeorge Whipple;
Minot, GeorgeGeorge Minot;
Murphy, William P.William P. Murphy
Pirandello, LuigiLuigi Pirandello Henderson, ArthurArthur Henderson
1935 Chadwick, JamesJames Chadwick Joliot-Curie, FrédéricFrédéric Joliot-Curie;
Joliot-Curie, IrèneIrène Joliot-Curie
Spemann, HansHans Spemann None von Ossietzky, CarlCarl von Ossietzky
1936 Hess, Victor FrancisVictor Francis Hess;
Anderson, Carl DavidCarl David Anderson
Debye, PeterPeter Debye Dale, Henry HallettHenry Hallett Dale;
Loewi, OttoOtto Loewi
O'Neill, EugeneEugene O'Neill Lamas, Carlos SaavedraCarlos Saavedra Lamas
1937 Davisson, ClintonClinton Davisson;
Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson
Haworth, NormanNorman Haworth;
Karrer, PaulPaul Karrer
Szent-Györgyi, AlbertAlbert Szent-Györgyi du Gard, Roger MartinRoger Martin du Gard Cecil of Chelwood, The ViscountThe Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938 Fermi, EnricoEnrico Fermi Kuhn, RichardRichard Kuhn[A] Heymans, CorneilleCorneille Heymans Buck, Pearl S.Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees
1939 Lawrence, ErnestErnest Lawrence Butenandt, AdolfAdolf Butenandt;[A]
Ružička, LeopoldLeopold Ružička
Domagk, GerhardGerhard Domagk[A] Sillanpää, Frans EemilFrans Eemil Sillanpää None
1940 None None None None None
1941 None None None None None
1942 None None None None None
1943 Stern, OttoOtto Stern Hevesy, George deGeorge de Hevesy Dam, HenrikHenrik Dam;
Doisy, Edward AdelbertEdward Adelbert Doisy
None None
1944 Rabi, Isidor IsaacIsidor Isaac Rabi Hahn, OttoOtto Hahn Erlanger, JosephJoseph Erlanger;
Gasser, Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer Gasser
Jensen, Johannes VilhelmJohannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross
1945 Pauli, WolfgangWolfgang Pauli Virtanen, Artturi IlmariArtturi Ilmari Virtanen Fleming, AlexanderAlexander Fleming;
Chain, Ernst BorisErnst Boris Chain;
Florey, HowardHoward Florey
Mistral, GabrielaGabriela Mistral Hull, CordellCordell Hull
1946 Bridgman, Percy WilliamsPercy Williams Bridgman Sumner, James B.James B. Sumner;
Northrop, John HowardJohn Howard Northrop;
Stanley, Wendell MeredithWendell Meredith Stanley
Muller, Hermann JosephHermann Joseph Muller Hesse, HermannHermann Hesse Balch, Emily GreeneEmily Greene Balch;
Mott, JohnJohn Mott
1947 Appleton, Edward VictorEdward Victor Appleton Robinson, RobertRobert Robinson Cori, Carl FerdinandCarl Ferdinand Cori;
Cori, GertyGerty Cori;
Houssay, BernardoBernardo Houssay
Gide, AndréAndré Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee
1948 Blackett, PatrickPatrick Blackett Tiselius, ArneArne Tiselius Müller, Paul HermannPaul Hermann Müller Eliot, T. S.T. S. Eliot None[B]
1949 Yukawa, HidekiHideki Yukawa Giauque, WilliamWilliam Giauque Hess, Walter RudolfWalter Rudolf Hess;
Moniz, António EgasAntónio Egas Moniz
Faulkner, WilliamWilliam Faulkner Boyd Orr, JohnJohn Boyd Orr
1950 Powell, C. F.C. F. Powell Diels, OttoOtto Diels;
Alder, KurtKurt Alder
Hench, Philip ShowalterPhilip Showalter Hench;
Kendall, Edward CalvinEdward Calvin Kendall;
Reichstein, TadeusTadeus Reichstein
Russell, BertrandBertrand Russell Bunche, RalphRalph Bunche
1951 Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft;
Walton, ErnestErnest Walton
McMillan, EdwinEdwin McMillan;
Seaborg, Glenn T.Glenn T. Seaborg
Theiler, MaxMax Theiler Lagerkvist, PärPär Lagerkvist Jouhaux, LéonLéon Jouhaux
1952 Bloch, FelixFelix Bloch;
Purcell, Edward MillsEdward Mills Purcell
Martin, Archer John PorterArcher John Porter Martin;
Synge, Richard Laurence MillingtonRichard Laurence Millington Synge
Waksman, SelmanSelman Waksman Mauriac, FrançoisFrançois Mauriac Schweitzer, AlbertAlbert Schweitzer
1953 Zernike, FritsFrits Zernike Staudinger, HermannHermann Staudinger Krebs, Hans AdolfHans Adolf Krebs;
Lipmann, Fritz AlbertFritz Albert Lipmann
Churchill, WinstonWinston Churchill Marshall, GeorgeGeorge Marshall
1954 Born, MaxMax Born;
Bothe, WaltherWalther Bothe
Pauling, LinusLinus Pauling Enders, John FranklinJohn Franklin Enders;
Robbins, Frederick ChapmanFrederick Chapman Robbins;
Weller, Thomas HuckleThomas Huckle Weller
Hemingway, ErnestErnest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955 Lamb, WillisWillis Lamb;
Kusch, PolykarpPolykarp Kusch
du Vigneaud, VincentVincent du Vigneaud Theorell, HugoHugo Theorell Laxness, HalldórHalldór Laxness None
1956 Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen;
Brattain, Walter HouserWalter Houser Brattain;
Shockley, WilliamWilliam Shockley
Hinshelwood, Cyril NormanCyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Semyonov, NikolayNikolay Semyonov
Cournand, André FrédéricAndré Frédéric Cournand;
Forssmann, WernerWerner Forssmann;
Richards, Dickinson W.Dickinson W. Richards
Jiménez, Juan RamónJuan Ramón Jiménez None
1957 Yang, Chen NingChen Ning Yang;
Lee, Tsung-DaoTsung-Dao Lee
Todd, The LordThe Lord Todd Bovet, DanielDaniel Bovet Camus, AlbertAlbert Camus Pearson, Lester B.Lester B. Pearson
1958 Cherenkov, PavelPavel Cherenkov;
Frank, IlyaIlya Frank;
Tamm, IgorIgor Tamm
Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger Beadle, George WellsGeorge Wells Beadle;
Tatum, Edward LawrieEdward Lawrie Tatum;
Lederberg, JoshuaJoshua Lederberg
Pasternak, BorisBoris Pasternak[C] Pire, DominiqueDominique Pire
1959 Segrè, Emilio G.Emilio G. Segrè;
Chamberlain, OwenOwen Chamberlain
Heyrovský, JaroslavJaroslav Heyrovský Kornberg, ArthurArthur Kornberg;
Ochoa, SeveroSevero Ochoa
Quasimodo, SalvatoreSalvatore Quasimodo Noel-Baker, PhilipPhilip Noel-Baker
1960 Glaser, Donald A.Donald A. Glaser Libby, WillardWillard Libby Burnet, Frank MacfarlaneFrank Macfarlane Burnet;
Medawar, PeterPeter Medawar
Perse, Saint-JohnSaint-John Perse Lutuli, AlbertAlbert Lutuli
1961 Hofstadter, RobertRobert Hofstadter;
Mössbauer, RudolfRudolf Mössbauer
Calvin, MelvinMelvin Calvin von Békésy, GeorgGeorg von Békésy Andrić, IvoIvo Andrić Hammarskjöld, DagDag Hammarskjöld
1962 Landau, LevLev Landau Perutz, MaxMax Perutz;
Kendrew, JohnJohn Kendrew
Crick, FrancisFrancis Crick;
Watson, James D.James D. Watson;
Wilkins, MauriceMaurice Wilkins
Steinbeck, JohnJohn Steinbeck Pauling, LinusLinus Pauling
1963 Wigner, EugeneEugene Wigner;
Goeppert-Mayer, MariaMaria Goeppert-Mayer;
Jensen, J. Hans D.J. Hans D. Jensen
Ziegler, KarlKarl Ziegler;
Natta, GiulioGiulio Natta
Eccles, JohnJohn Eccles;
Hodgkin, Alan LloydAlan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Huxley, AndrewAndrew Huxley
Seferis, GiorgosGiorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies
1964 Townes, Charles HardCharles Hard Townes;
Basov, NikolayNikolay Basov;
Prokhorov, AlexanderAlexander Prokhorov
Hodgkin, DorothyDorothy Hodgkin Bloch, Konrad EmilKonrad Emil Bloch;
Lynen, Feodor Felix KonradFeodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Sartre, Jean-PaulJean-Paul Sartre[D] King, Jr., Martin LutherMartin Luther King, Jr.
1965 Tomonaga, Sin-ItiroSin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Schwinger, JulianJulian Schwinger;
Feynman, RichardRichard Feynman
Woodward, Robert BurnsRobert Burns Woodward Jacob, FrançoisFrançois Jacob;
Lwoff, André MichelAndré Michel Lwoff;
Monod, JacquesJacques Monod
Sholokhov, MikhailMikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Kastler, AlfredAlfred Kastler Mulliken, Robert S.Robert S. Mulliken Rous, Francis PeytonFrancis Peyton Rous;
Huggins, Charles BrentonCharles Brenton Huggins
Agnon, Shmuel YosefShmuel Yosef Agnon;
Sachs, NellyNelly Sachs
1967 Bethe, HansHans Bethe Eigen, ManfredManfred Eigen;
Norrish, Ronald George WreyfordRonald George Wreyford Norrish;
Porter, GeorgeGeorge Porter
Granit, RagnarRagnar Granit;
Hartline, Haldan KefferHaldan Keffer Hartline;
Wald, GeorgeGeorge Wald
Asturias, Miguel ÁngelMiguel Ángel Asturias None
1968 Alvarez, Luis WalterLuis Walter Alvarez Onsager, LarsLars Onsager Holley, Robert W.Robert W. Holley;
Khorana, Har GobindHar Gobind Khorana;
Nirenberg, Marshall WarrenMarshall Warren Nirenberg
Kawabata, YasunariYasunari Kawabata Cassin, RenéRené Cassin
1969 Gell-Mann, MurrayMurray Gell-Mann Barton, DerekDerek Barton;
Hassel, OddOdd Hassel
Delbrück, MaxMax Delbrück;
Hershey, AlfredAlfred Hershey;
Luria, SalvadorSalvador Luria
Beckett, SamuelSamuel Beckett International Labour Organization Frisch, RagnarRagnar Frisch;
Tinbergen, JanJan Tinbergen
1970 Alfvén, HannesHannes Alfvén;
Néel, LouisLouis Néel
Leloir, Luis FedericoLuis Federico Leloir Axelrod, JuliusJulius Axelrod;
von Euler, UlfUlf von Euler;
Katz, BernardBernard Katz
Solzhenitsyn, AleksandrAleksandr Solzhenitsyn Borlaug, NormanNorman Borlaug Samuelson, PaulPaul Samuelson
1971 Gabor, DennisDennis Gabor Herzberg, GerhardGerhard Herzberg Sutherland, Jr., Earl WilburEarl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Neruda, PabloPablo Neruda Brandt, WillyWilly Brandt Kuznets, SimonSimon Kuznets
1972 Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen;
Cooper, LeonLeon Cooper;
Schrieffer, John RobertJohn Robert Schrieffer
Anfinsen, Christian B.Christian B. Anfinsen;
Moore, StanfordStanford Moore;
Stein, William HowardWilliam Howard Stein
Edelman, GeraldGerald Edelman;
Porter, Rodney RobertRodney Robert Porter
Böll, HeinrichHeinrich Böll None Hicks, JohnJohn Hicks;
Arrow, KennethKenneth Arrow
1973 Esaki, LeoLeo Esaki;
Giaever, IvarIvar Giaever;
Josephson, Brian DavidBrian David Josephson
Fischer, Ernst OttoErnst Otto Fischer;
Wilkinson, GeoffreyGeoffrey Wilkinson
von Frisch, KarlKarl von Frisch;
Lorenz, KonradKonrad Lorenz;
Tinbergen, NikolaasNikolaas Tinbergen
White, PatrickPatrick White Kissinger, HenryHenry Kissinger;
Duc Tho, LeLe Duc Tho[E]
Leontief, WassilyWassily Leontief
1974 Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle;
Hewish, AntonyAntony Hewish
Flory, PaulPaul Flory Claude, AlbertAlbert Claude;
de Duve, ChristianChristian de Duve;
Palade, George EmilGeorge Emil Palade
Johnson, EyvindEyvind Johnson;
Martinson, HarryHarry Martinson
MacBride, SeánSeán MacBride;
Satō, EisakuEisaku Satō
Myrdal, GunnarGunnar Myrdal;
Hayek, FriedrichFriedrich Hayek
1975 Bohr, AageAage Bohr;
Mottelson, Ben RoyBen Roy Mottelson;
Rainwater, JamesJames Rainwater
Cornforth, JohnJohn Cornforth;
Prelog, VladimirVladimir Prelog
Baltimore, DavidDavid Baltimore;
Dulbecco, RenatoRenato Dulbecco;
Temin, Howard MartinHoward Martin Temin
Montale, EugenioEugenio Montale Sakharov, AndreiAndrei Sakharov Kantorovich, LeonidLeonid Kantorovich;
Koopmans, TjallingTjalling Koopmans
1976 Richter, BurtonBurton Richter;
Ting, Samuel C. C.Samuel C. C. Ting
Lipscomb, WilliamWilliam Lipscomb Blumberg, Baruch SamuelBaruch Samuel Blumberg;
Gajdusek, Daniel CarletonDaniel Carleton Gajdusek
Bellow, SaulSaul Bellow Williams, BettyBetty Williams;
Maguire, MaireadMairead Maguire
Friedman, MiltonMilton Friedman
1977 Anderson, Philip WarrenPhilip Warren Anderson;
Mott, Nevill FrancisNevill Francis Mott;
Van Vleck, John HasbrouckJohn Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Prigogine, IlyaIlya Prigogine Guillemin, RogerRoger Guillemin;
Schally, AndrewAndrew Schally;
Yalow, Rosalyn SussmanRosalyn Sussman Yalow
Aleixandre, VicenteVicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Ohlin, BertilBertil Ohlin;
Meade, JamesJames Meade
1978 Kapitsa, PyotrPyotr Kapitsa;
Penzias, Arno AllanArno Allan Penzias;
Wilson, Robert WoodrowRobert Woodrow Wilson
Mitchell, Peter D.Peter D. Mitchell Arber, WernerWerner Arber;
Nathans, DanielDaniel Nathans;
Smith, Hamilton O.Hamilton O. Smith
Singer, Isaac BashevisIsaac Bashevis Singer Sadat, AnwarAnwar Sadat;
Begin, MenachemMenachem Begin
Simon, Herbert A.Herbert A. Simon
1979 Glashow, Sheldon LeeSheldon Lee Glashow;
Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam;
Weinberg, StevenSteven Weinberg
Brown, Herbert C.Herbert C. Brown;
Wittig, GeorgGeorg Wittig
Cormack, Allan McLeodAllan McLeod Cormack;
Hounsfield, GodfreyGodfrey Hounsfield
Elytis, OdysseasOdysseas Elytis Teresa, MotherMother Teresa Schultz, TheodoreTheodore Schultz;
Lewis, ArthurArthur Lewis
1980 Cronin, JamesJames Cronin;
Fitch, Val LogsdonVal Logsdon Fitch
Berg, PaulPaul Berg;
Gilbert, WalterWalter Gilbert;
Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger
Benacerraf, BarujBaruj Benacerraf;
Dausset, JeanJean Dausset;
Snell, George DavisGeorge Davis Snell
Miłosz, CzesławCzesław Miłosz Esquivel, Adolfo PérezAdolfo Pérez Esquivel Klein, LawrenceLawrence Klein
1981 Bloembergen, NicolaasNicolaas Bloembergen;
Schawlow, Arthur LeonardArthur Leonard Schawlow;
Siegbahn, KaiKai Siegbahn
Fukui, KenichiKenichi Fukui;
Hoffmann, RoaldRoald Hoffmann
Sperry, Roger WolcottRoger Wolcott Sperry;
Hubel, David H.David H. Hubel;
Wiesel, TorstenTorsten Wiesel
Canetti, EliasElias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Tobin, JamesJames Tobin
1982 Wilson, Kenneth G.Kenneth G. Wilson Klug, AaronAaron Klug Bergström, SuneSune Bergström;
Samuelsson, Bengt I.Bengt I. Samuelsson;
Vane, JohnJohn Vane
Márquez, Gabriel GarcíaGabriel García Márquez Myrdal, AlvaAlva Myrdal;
Robles, Alfonso GarcíaAlfonso García Robles
Stigler, GeorgeGeorge Stigler
1983 Chandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;
Fowler, William AlfredWilliam Alfred Fowler
Taube, HenryHenry Taube McClintock, BarbaraBarbara McClintock Golding, WilliamWilliam Golding Wałęsa, LechLech Wałęsa Debreu, GérardGérard Debreu
1984 Rubbia, CarloCarlo Rubbia;
van der Meer, SimonSimon van der Meer
Merrifield, Robert BruceRobert Bruce Merrifield Jerne, Niels KajNiels Kaj Jerne;
Köhler, Georges J. F.Georges J. F. Köhler;
Milstein, CésarCésar Milstein
Seifert, JaroslavJaroslav Seifert Tutu, DesmondDesmond Tutu Stone, RichardRichard Stone
1985 von Klitzing, KlausKlaus von Klitzing Hauptman, Herbert A.Herbert A. Hauptman;
Karle, JeromeJerome Karle
Brown, Michael StuartMichael Stuart Brown;
Goldstein, Joseph L.Joseph L. Goldstein
Simon, ClaudeClaude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Modigliani, FrancoFranco Modigliani
1986 Ruska, ErnstErnst Ruska;
Binnig, GerdGerd Binnig;
Rohrer, HeinrichHeinrich Rohrer
Herschbach, Dudley R.Dudley R. Herschbach;
Lee, Yuan T.Yuan T. Lee;
Polanyi, JohnJohn Polanyi
Cohen, StanleyStanley Cohen;
Levi-Montalcini, RitaRita Levi-Montalcini
Soyinka, WoleWole Soyinka Wiesel, ElieElie Wiesel Buchanan, James M.James M. Buchanan
1987 Bednorz, Johannes GeorgJohannes Georg Bednorz;
Müller, Karl AlexanderKarl Alexander Müller
Cram, Donald J.Donald J. Cram;
Lehn, Jean-MarieJean-Marie Lehn;
Pedersen, Charles J.Charles J. Pedersen
Tonegawa, SusumuSusumu Tonegawa Brodsky, JosephJoseph Brodsky Arias, ÓscarÓscar Arias Solow, RobertRobert Solow
1988 Lederman, Leon M.Leon M. Lederman;
Schwartz, MelvinMelvin Schwartz;
Steinberger, JackJack Steinberger
Deisenhofer, JohannJohann Deisenhofer;
Huber, RobertRobert Huber;
Michel, HartmutHartmut Michel
Black, James W.James W. Black;
Elion, Gertrude B.Gertrude B. Elion;
Hitchings, George H.George H. Hitchings
Mahfouz, NaguibNaguib Mahfouz United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Allais, MauriceMaurice Allais
1989 Ramsey, Jr., Norman FosterNorman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;
Dehmelt, Hans GeorgHans Georg Dehmelt;
Paul, WolfgangWolfgang Paul
Altman, SidneySidney Altman;
Cech, ThomasThomas Cech
Bishop, J. MichaelJ. Michael Bishop;
Varmus, Harold E.Harold E. Varmus
Cela, Camilo JoséCamilo José Cela Gyatso (The Dalai Lama), TenzinTenzin Gyatso (The Dalai Lama) Haavelmo, TrygveTrygve Haavelmo
1990 Friedman, Jerome IsaacJerome Isaac Friedman;
Kendall, Henry WayHenry Way Kendall;
Taylor, Richard E.Richard E. Taylor
Corey, Elias JamesElias James Corey Murray, JosephJoseph Murray;
Thomas, E. DonnallE. Donnall Thomas
Paz, OctavioOctavio Paz Gorbachev, MikhailMikhail Gorbachev Markowitz, HarryHarry Markowitz;
Miller, MertonMerton Miller;
Sharpe, William F.William F. Sharpe
1991 Gennes, Pierre-Gilles dePierre-Gilles de Gennes Ernst, Richard R.Richard R. Ernst Neher, ErwinErwin Neher;
Sakmann, BertBert Sakmann
Gordimer, NadineNadine Gordimer Suu Kyi, Aung SanAung San Suu Kyi Coase, RonaldRonald Coase
1992 Charpak, GeorgesGeorges Charpak Marcus, Rudolph A.Rudolph A. Marcus Fischer, Edmond H.Edmond H. Fischer;
Krebs, Edwin G.Edwin G. Krebs
Walcott, DerekDerek Walcott Menchú, RigobertaRigoberta Menchú Becker, GaryGary Becker
1993 Hulse, Russell AlanRussell Alan Hulse;
Taylor, Jr., Joseph HootonJoseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Mullis, KaryKary Mullis;
Smith, MichaelMichael Smith
Roberts, Richard J.Richard J. Roberts;
Sharp, Phillip AllenPhillip Allen Sharp
Morrison, ToniToni Morrison Mandela, NelsonNelson Mandela;
de Klerk, F. W.F. W. de Klerk
Fogel, RobertRobert Fogel;
North, DouglassDouglass North
1994 Brockhouse, BertramBertram Brockhouse;
Shull, CliffordClifford Shull
Olah, George AndrewGeorge Andrew Olah Gilman, Alfred G.Alfred G. Gilman;
Rodbell, MartinMartin Rodbell
Ōe, KenzaburōKenzaburō Ōe Arafat, YasserYasser Arafat;
Peres, ShimonShimon Peres;
Rabin, YitzhakYitzhak Rabin
Harsanyi, JohnJohn Harsanyi;
Nash, Jr., John ForbesJohn Forbes Nash, Jr.;
Selten, ReinhardReinhard Selten
1995 Perl, Martin LewisMartin Lewis Perl;
Reines, FrederickFrederick Reines
Crutzen, Paul J.Paul J. Crutzen;
Molina, Mario J.Mario J. Molina;
Rowland, Frank SherwoodFrank Sherwood Rowland
Lewis, Edward B.Edward B. Lewis;
Nüsslein-Volhard, ChristianeChristiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Wieschaus, Eric F.Eric F. Wieschaus
Heaney, SeamusSeamus Heaney Rotblat, JosephJoseph Rotblat;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Lucas, Jr., RobertRobert Lucas, Jr.
1996 Lee, DavidDavid Lee;
Osheroff, DouglasDouglas Osheroff;
Richardson, Robert ColemanRobert Coleman Richardson
Curl Jr., Robert F.Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Kroto, HarryHarry Kroto;
Smalley, RichardRichard Smalley
Doherty, Peter C.Peter C. Doherty;
Zinkernagel, Rolf M.Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Szymborska, WisławaWisława Szymborska Belo, Carlos Filipe XimenesCarlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
Ramos-Horta, JoséJosé Ramos-Horta
Mirrlees, JamesJames Mirrlees;
Vickrey, WilliamWilliam Vickrey
1997 Chu, StevenSteven Chu;
Cohen-Tannoudji, ClaudeClaude Cohen-Tannoudji;
Phillips, William DanielWilliam Daniel Phillips
Boyer, Paul D.Paul D. Boyer;
Walker, John E.John E. Walker;
Skou, Jens ChristianJens Christian Skou
Prusiner, Stanley B.Stanley B. Prusiner Fo, DarioDario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Williams, JodyJody Williams
Merton, Robert C.Robert C. Merton;
Scholes, MyronMyron Scholes
1998 Laughlin, Robert B.Robert B. Laughlin;
Störmer, Horst LudwigHorst Ludwig Störmer;
Tsui, Daniel C.Daniel C. Tsui
Kohn, WalterWalter Kohn;
Pople, JohnJohn Pople
Furchgott, Robert F.Robert F. Furchgott;
Ignarro, LouisLouis Ignarro;
Murad, FeridFerid Murad
Saramago, JoséJosé Saramago Hume, JohnJohn Hume;
Trimble, DavidDavid Trimble
Sen, AmartyaAmartya Sen
1999 Hooft, Gerard 'tGerard 't Hooft;
Veltman, Martinus J. G.Martinus J. G. Veltman
Zewail, AhmedAhmed Zewail Blobel, GünterGünter Blobel Grass, GünterGünter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Mundell, RobertRobert Mundell
2000 Alferov, ZhoresZhores Alferov;
Kroemer, HerbertHerbert Kroemer;
Kilby, JackJack Kilby
Heeger, Alan J.Alan J. Heeger;
MacDiarmid, AlanAlan MacDiarmid;
Shirakawa, HidekiHideki Shirakawa
Carlsson, ArvidArvid Carlsson;
Greengard, PaulPaul Greengard;
Kandel, EricEric Kandel
Xingjian, GaoGao Xingjian Dae-jung, KimKim Dae-jung Heckman, JamesJames Heckman;
McFadden, DanielDaniel McFadden
2001 Cornell, Eric AllinEric Allin Cornell;
Ketterle, WolfgangWolfgang Ketterle;
Wieman, CarlCarl Wieman
Knowles, William StandishWilliam Standish Knowles;
Noyori, RyōjiRyōji Noyori;
Sharpless, Karl BarryKarl Barry Sharpless
Hartwell, Leland H.Leland H. Hartwell;
Hunt, TimTim Hunt;
Nurse, PaulPaul Nurse
Naipaul, V. S.V. S. Naipaul United Nations;
Annan, KofiKofi Annan
Akerlof, GeorgeGeorge Akerlof;
Spence, MichaelMichael Spence;
Stiglitz, JosephJoseph Stiglitz
2002 Davis, Jr., RaymondRaymond Davis, Jr.;
Koshiba, MasatoshiMasatoshi Koshiba;
Giacconi, RiccardoRiccardo Giacconi
Fenn, JohnJohn Fenn;
Tanaka, KoichiKoichi Tanaka;
Wüthrich, KurtKurt Wüthrich
Brenner, SydneySydney Brenner;
Horvitz, H. RobertH. Robert Horvitz;
Sulston, JohnJohn Sulston
Kertész, ImreImre Kertész Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter Kahneman, DanielDaniel Kahneman;
Smith, Vernon L.Vernon L. Smith
2003 Abrikosov, Alexei AlexeyevichAlexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;
Ginzburg, VitalyVitaly Ginzburg;
Leggett, Anthony JamesAnthony James Leggett
Agre, PeterPeter Agre;
MacKinnon, RoderickRoderick MacKinnon
Lauterbur, PaulPaul Lauterbur;
Mansfield, PeterPeter Mansfield
Coetzee, J. M.J. M. Coetzee Ebadi, ShirinShirin Ebadi Engle, Robert F.Robert F. Engle;
Granger, CliveClive Granger
2004 Gross, DavidDavid Gross;
Politzer, Hugh DavidHugh David Politzer;
Wilczek, FrankFrank Wilczek
Ciechanover, AaronAaron Ciechanover;
Hershko, AvramAvram Hershko;
Rose, IrwinIrwin Rose
Axel, RichardRichard Axel;
Buck, Linda B.Linda B. Buck
Jelinek, ElfriedeElfriede Jelinek Maathai, WangariWangari Maathai Kydland, Finn E.Finn E. Kydland;
Prescott, Edward C.Edward C. Prescott
2005 Glauber, Roy J.Roy J. Glauber;
Hall, John L.John L. Hall;
Hänsch, Theodor W.Theodor W. Hänsch
Chauvin, YvesYves Chauvin;
Grubbs, Robert H.Robert H. Grubbs;
Schrock, Richard R.Richard R. Schrock
Marshall, BarryBarry Marshall;
Warren, RobinRobin Warren
Pinter, HaroldHarold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency;
ElBaradei, MohamedMohamed ElBaradei
Aumann, RobertRobert Aumann;
Schelling, ThomasThomas Schelling
2006 Mather, John C.John C. Mather;
Smoot, GeorgeGeorge Smoot
Kornberg, Roger D.Roger D. Kornberg Fire, AndrewAndrew Fire;
Mello, CraigCraig Mello
Pamuk, OrhanOrhan Pamuk Yunus, MuhammadMuhammad Yunus;
Grameen Bank
Phelps, EdmundEdmund Phelps
2007 Fert, AlbertAlbert Fert;
Grünberg, PeterPeter Grünberg
Ertl, GerhardGerhard Ertl Capecchi, MarioMario Capecchi;
Evans, MartinMartin Evans;
Smithies, OliverOliver Smithies
Lessing, DorisDoris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Gore, AlAl Gore
Hurwicz, LeonidLeonid Hurwicz;
Maskin, EricEric Maskin;
Myerson, RogerRoger Myerson
2008 Nambu, YoichiroYoichiro Nambu;
Kobayashi, MakotoMakoto Kobayashi;
Maskawa, ToshihideToshihide Maskawa
Shimomura, OsamuOsamu Shimomura;
Chalfie, MartinMartin Chalfie;
Tsien, Roger Y.Roger Y. Tsien
zur Hausen, HaraldHarald zur Hausen;
Barré-Sinoussi, FrançoiseFrançoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Montagnier, LucLuc Montagnier
Le Clézio, J. M. G.J. M. G. Le Clézio Ahtisaari, MarttiMartti Ahtisaari Krugman, PaulPaul Krugman
2009 Kao, Charles K.Charles K. Kao;
Boyle, Willard S.Willard S. Boyle;
Smith, George E.George E. Smith
Ramakrishnan, VenkatramanVenkatraman Ramakrishnan;
Steitz, Thomas A.Thomas A. Steitz;
Yonath, AdaAda Yonath
Blackburn, ElizabethElizabeth Blackburn;
Greider, Carol W.Carol W. Greider;
Szostak, Jack W.Jack W. Szostak
Müller, HertaHerta Müller Obama, BarackBarack Obama Ostrom, ElinorElinor Ostrom;
Williamson, Oliver E.Oliver E. Williamson
2010 Geim, AndreAndre Geim;
Novoselov, KonstantinKonstantin Novoselov
Heck, Richard F.Richard F. Heck;
Negishi, Ei-ichiEi-ichi Negishi;
Suzuki, AkiraAkira Suzuki
Edwards, Robert G.Robert G. Edwards Vargas Llosa, MarioMario Vargas Llosa Xiaobo, LiuLiu Xiaobo[F] Diamond, Peter A.Peter A. Diamond;
Mortensen, Dale T.Dale T. Mortensen;
Pissarides, Christopher A.Christopher A. Pissarides
2011 Perlmutter, SaulSaul Perlmutter;
Riess, Adam G.Adam G. Riess;
Schmidt, BrianBrian Schmidt
Shechtman, DanDan Shechtman Beutler, BruceBruce Beutler;
Hoffmann, Jules A.Jules A. Hoffmann;
Steinman, Ralph M.Ralph M. Steinman
Tranströmer, TomasTomas Tranströmer Sirleaf, Ellen JohnsonEllen Johnson Sirleaf;
Gbowee, LeymahLeymah Gbowee;
Karman, TawakelTawakel Karman
Sargent, Thomas J.Thomas J. Sargent;
Sims, Christopher A.Christopher A. Sims
2012 Haroche, SergeSerge Haroche;
J. Wineland, DavidDavid J. Wineland
Kobilka, Brian K.Brian K. Kobilka;
Lefkowitz, Robert J.Robert J. Lefkowitz
Gurdon, John B.John B. Gurdon;
Yamanaka, Shinya Shinya Yamanaka
Yan, MoMo Yan Union, EuropeanEuropean Union Roth, Alvin E.Alvin E. Roth;
Shapley, Lloyd S.Lloyd S. Shapley
2013 Englert, FrançoisFrançois Englert;
Higgs, Peter W.Peter W. Higgs
Karplus, MartinMartin Karplus;
Levitt, MichaelMichael Levitt;
Warshel, AriehArieh Warshel
Rothman, James E.James E. Rothman;
Schekman, Randy W.Randy W. Schekman;
Südhof, Thomas C.Thomas C. Südhof
Munro, AliceAlice Munro for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, OrganisationOrganisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Fama, Eugene F.Eugene F. Fama;
Hansen, Lars PeterLars Peter Hansen;
Shiller, Robert J.Robert J. Shiller
2014 Akasaki, IsamuIsamu Akasaki;
Amano, HiroshiHiroshi Amano;
Nakamura, ShujiShuji Nakamura
Betzig, EricEric Betzig;
Hell, StefanStefan Hell;
Moerner, WilliamWilliam Moerner
O'Keefe, JohnJohn O'Keefe;
Moser, May-BrittMay-Britt Moser;
Moser, EdvardEdvard Moser
Modiano, PatrickPatrick Modiano Satyarthi, KailashKailash Satyarthi;
Yousafzai, MalalaMalala Yousafzai
Tirole, JeanJean Tirole
2015 Kajita, TakaakiTakaaki Kajita;
McDonald, Arthur B.Arthur B. McDonald
Lindahl, TomasTomas Lindahl;
Modrich, Paul L.Paul L. Modrich;
Sancar, AzizAziz Sancar
Campbell, William C.William C. Campbell;
Ōmura, SatoshiSatoshi Ōmura;
Youyou, TuTu Youyou
Alexievich, SvetlanaSvetlana Alexievich National Dialogue Quartet, TunisianTunisian National Dialogue Quartet Deaton, AngusAngus Deaton
2016[10] J. Thouless, DavidDavid J. Thouless;
Haldane, DuncanDuncan Haldane;
Kosterlitz, John M.John M. Kosterlitz
Sauvage, Jean-PierreJean-Pierre Sauvage;
Stoddart, FraserFraser Stoddart;
Feringa, BenBen Feringa
Ohsumi, YoshinoriYoshinori Ohsumi Dylan, BobBob Dylan Santos, Juan ManuelJuan Manuel Santos Hart, OliverOliver Hart;
Holmström, Bengt R.Bengt R. Holmström
Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics


See also


  1. "Alfred Nobel The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  2. 1 2 "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  3. "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  4. "The Nobel Prize Amounts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  5. "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  6. "List of All Nobel Laureates 1942". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  7. 1 2 Lundestad, Geir (2001-03-15). "The Nobel Peace Prize 1901-2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Nobel Prize Facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-11.
  9. "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
  10. "2016 Nobel Prizes - Prize Announcement Dates". Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  11. Tønnesson, Øyvind (December 1, 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved January 3, 2010. Later, there have been speculations that the committee members could have had another deceased peace worker than Gandhi in mind when they declared that there was "no suitable living candidate", namely the Swedish UN envoy to Palestine, Count Bernadotte, who was murdered in September 1948. Today, this can be ruled out; Bernadotte had not been nominated in 1948. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize had he been alive one more year.
  12. "The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 - Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
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