Nissan Navara

Nissan Navara
Manufacturer Nissan
Also called Nissan Frontier (North America)
Nissan NP300 (Mexico, Europe)
Production 1997–present
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door truck
4-door truck
Related Nissan Xterra
Nissan Pathfinder (1997–2012)
Predecessor Nissan D21 series

Nissan Navara is the name for the D22 and D40 generations of Nissan pickup trucks sold in Asia, Australia and Europe; in North, Central and South America it is sold as the Nissan Frontier. The line began in 1997, replacing the D21 Nissan Hardbody truck. As of 2002, the D22 series pickup is no longer sold in Japan; the D22's primary market being North America. It is currently built at the Nissan factory in Canton, Mississippi.

Nissan was the pioneer of the "Hardbody" or "Nissan Frontier" since 1986. The first was the D21, considered to be a small pick up. After more than 10 years with the D21, the second generation Navara was manufactured from 1997 and went until 2004 which was classed as a compact sized pick up. It was replaced with the bigger, taller, longer D40, which Nissan now considers to be a mid-size pick up truck.

The Navara gets its name from the Navarre region of northern Spain, and the European version is built at the Nissan factory in Barcelona. In many European markets it is sold as the Nissan NP300.

First generation (D22; 1997–2015 )

First generation (D22) 1997 - 2014
Also called Nissan Frontier
Nissan Frontier Bravado
Nissan Fiera
Nissan Hardbody
Nissan Paladin (SUV version)
Nissan PickUp
Nissan Terrano
Nissan Winner
Nissan Big M Frontier (Thailand, 1998–2001)[1]
Dongfeng Oting (SUV)[2]
Dongfeng Rich Pickup
Dongfeng Rich multi-purpose Commercial Vehicle
Nissan NP300
Production USA: August 1997–2004
PRC: since January 1999
PRC: since April 2005 (Facelift version)
THA: 1998–2007[1]
Assembly Japan: Kanda, Fukuoka (Nissan Shatai)
United States: Smyrna, Tennessee (Nissan USA)
Brazil: Curitiba
Spain: Barcelona (Nissan Ibérica)
South Africa: Rosslyn[3]
Thailand: Samut Prakan[1]
Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur (TCMA)[4]
Philippines: Makati
Taiwan: Taipei
Mexico: Aguascalientes (Nissan Mexico)
China: Zhengzhou, Henan (Zhengzhou Nissan)[5]
Egypt: Cairo (Seoudi Group)[6]
Sudan: Al Jazirah state (Giad)[7]
Designer Nishino Sadaaki (1994)
Jerry Hirschberg (1997: Crew Cab)
Diane Allen (facelift: 1999)[8]
Body and chassis
Class Compact pickup truck
Layout Front-engine
rear-wheel drive / Four-wheel drive
Related Nissan Xterra
Nissan Pathfinder
Nissan Patrol
Engine 3.0L V6
3.3L VG33E V6
3.3L VG33ER V6 supercharged
2.4L KA24DE I4
2.5L TD25 I4 Diesel
2.5L YD25DDTi (133 PS) I4 Diesel
2.7L TD27Ti I4 Diesel
2.7L TD27ETi I4 Diesel
2.7L TD273 I4 Diesel
2.8L MWM Sprint I4 Diesel
3.0L ZD30DDT I4 Diesel
3.2L QD323 I4 Diesel
Transmission 4-speed automatic
4-speed manual
5-speed manual
Wheelbase Regular Cab: 104.3 in (2,649 mm)
King Cab / Crew Cab Short Bed: 116.1 in (2,949 mm)
Crew Cab Long Bed: 131.1 in (3,330 mm)
Length 1998–2002 King Cab: 196.1 in (4,981 mm)
Regular Cab: 184.3 in (4,681 mm)
1998–2002 Crew Cab: 193.1 in (4,905 mm)
2003–04 King Cab: 202.9 in (5,154 mm)
2003–04 Crew Cab: 199.9 in (5,077 mm)
2003–04 Crew Cab Long Bed: 217.8 in (5,532 mm)
Width 2WD: 66.5 in (1,689 mm)
4WD & 2001–02 Desert Runner, Crew Cab 2WD & King Cab 2WD: 71.9 in (1,826 mm)
2003–04: 71.2 in (1,808 mm)
2003–04 King Cab 2WD: 67.7 in (1,720 mm)
Height 1998–2002 King Cab 2WD: 62.6 in (1,590 mm)
King Cab 4WD & 2001–02 Desert Runner, Crew Cab 2WD & King Cab 2WD: 65.9 in (1,674 mm)
1998–2000 Regular Cab 2WD: 62.5 in (1,588 mm)
1998–2002 XE Regular Cab 2WD: 62.8 in (1,595 mm)
1998–2000 Regular Cab 4WD: 66.1 in (1,679 mm)
2003–04 King Cab 4WD & XE 2WD: 66.7 in (1,694 mm)
2003–04 Crew Cab 4WD: 67.1 in (1,704 mm)
2003–04 SVE & SC Long Bed Crew Cab 4WD: 71.8 in (1,824 mm)
2003–04 King Cab 2WD: 63.2 in (1,605 mm)
SC 2WD: 69.9 in (1,775 mm)
Predecessor Nissan Hardbody (D21)
Successor Nissan Navara/Frontier (D40)
2001–2004 Nissan Frontier (North America)

The Frontier was introduced in 1997 for the 1998 model year as a replacement for the aging 1986.5–1997 Nissan Hardbody Truck. Nissan first offered the Frontier with a 4-cylinder engine, the KA24DE, but added the V6 engine, the VG33E in 1999. In Australia the D22 had the KA24E till 1999, then changed to KA24DE option that year, a 3.0L V6 was introduced in June 2000. In February 2003, 4x4 models received a larger 3.3L V6 (available only with a 5-speed manual), while 4x2 models continued with the 3.0L V6 (with manual or automatic transmissions). The V6 was dropped in 2005, leaving the 2.5L turbo diesel as the only available engine. Elsewhere, the Frontier was also known as the Nissan Navara.

A four-door version of the D22 was designed and developed during 1997–1998, being first produced in April 1999 and launched in May 1999 as the 2000 Frontier Crew Cab.

In February 2000 at the Chicago Auto Show, Nissan introduced a facelifted Frontier for 2001, with bolder styling in an effort to make it more appealing to younger buyers in its second generation. The Frontier was completely redone after the 2004 model year, which later resulted in the indefinite discontinuation of the regular cab model.[9]

D22 (GEN-1) Names

D22 Frontier (1997–2000)

1997–2000 Nissan Frontier regular cab

Built in Tennessee from 1997 to 2000. Versions: Single cab, King Cab, Crew Cab (Introduced in 1999). Engines: Petrol (KA24DE) and Diesel (TD27) (2wd and 4wd) with 5 speed manual transmission. These models were also exported to Central and South America. US production in Tennessee started in 1997 with a Single cab and a King cab. A Crew Cab was developed during 1998 and arrived in 1999 as a 2000 model.[10][11][12]

In 1999, a special edition was offered. Nissan called it the Desert Runner. It had a king cab base but on the 4X4 frame which gave it a boost in ride height, bigger tires and a 4- or 5-speed 2WD drivetrain. For 2001 the Desert Runner got a new look and a supercharged version of the V6 engine.


Engine Displacement Power Torque
2.4 L DOHC 4-Cylinder (KA24DE) 146 CID 143 hp (107 kW) 154 lb·ft (209 N·m)
3.3 L SOHC V6 (VG33E) 201 CID 170 hp (127 kW) 200 lb·ft (271 N·m)

D22 Navara (1997–present)

The D22 Navara was a compact size pick up truck manufactured from 1997 to 2004. However, Nissan continues to build the D22 as a cheaper alternative to the current D40, and is known as "Pickup".

2009–2011 Nissan Navara DX (Australia). Note: updated exterior door handles from 2009 onwards.

Originally planned to follow the D21 Hard Body in being designed by Nissan Design International in La Jolla, CA, design of the D22 was reluctantly given to Japan during the 1994–1995 period. This was due to NDI being busy with many design projects of for concepts and models, such as the Quest (VX54 II), Altima (L30), and Maxima (A32.5). Design of an updated D22 was eventually given to NDI in 1998.[13]

The first series of D22s had larger (QD32) 3.2-litre normally aspirated Diesel engines producing 75 kW. The second series has 4 available engine types. They were as follows:

KA24E 2.4-litre, SOHC 1997-1999 (Australia).
KA24DE: 2.4-litre, DOHC, 16V, 4-cylinder, producing 110 kW (148 hp) @ 5600 rpm and 208 N·m (153 lb·ft) @ 3600 rpm.
YD25DDTi (133 PS): 2.5-litre, DOHC, 16V, 4-cylinder, Turbo diesel intercooler, producing 98 kW (133 PS; 131 hp) @ 4000 rpm and 304 N·m (31 kg·m; 224 lb·ft) @ 2000 rpm.
ZD30DDT: 3.0-litre, DOHC, 16V, 4-cylinder, Turbo diesel (non-intercooler), producing 110 kW (148 hp) @ 3400 rpm and 314 N·m (232 lb·ft) @ 2000 rpm.
VG33E: 3.3-litre, SOHC, 12V, 6-cylinder, producing 125 kW (168 hp) @ 4800 rpm and 266 N·m (196 lb·ft) @ 2800 rpm.

Currently the D22 Navara series remains on Nissan lineup for many countries and is known as Nissan NP300, Pickup, Frontier and Navara D22. In 2009 the D22 was updated with redesigned exterior door handles.

D22 Frontier/NP-300/Terrano (2001–2004)

2003–2004 Nissan Frontier crew cab

The Navara (D22) was no longer sold in Japan after 2002. Sales and production started in North America, with Crew Cab and King Cab versions and new grille, bumper, headlights, taillights. Other body changes included built in fender flares and tailgates. Available engines include a petrol 143 hp (107 kW) 2.4-liter Inline-4, 180 hp (134 kW) 3.3-liter V6, and a 210 hp (157 kW) 3.3-liter V6 Supercharged version. It is available with both 2-wheel and 4-wheel drive. Nissan began exporting the second generation to central and South America where it is called the Nissan Frontier. Single cabs and crew cabs are available with the petrol or diesel engines, 2WD and 4WD. It is also available in Australia and New Zealand. The Brazilian plant started production around 2002 (Crew Cab Diesel 2WD or 4WD, five-speed manual, or single cab 2WD diesel. Only for Mexican market: petrol 2.4-liter manufactured in Mexico) and export to Argentina (all Brazilian versions) and Mexico (Crew Cab, petrol 2.4-liter, 2WD, five-speed manual). The Egyptian plant exports to the Middle East, and a South African plant to African countries. Mexican production, starting in 2008: D22 truck Single Cab Chassis and Long Bed (2WD or 4WD, 2.4-liter petrol or diesel), Crew Cab (2WD and petrol) called the D22 Pick up.

Nissan Bolivia actually imports from Japan the Nissan Frontier D22 Crew Cab, 2.4-liter petrol or diesel, 4WD. Imported from Mexico, the D22 Crew Cab and single cab long bed, petrol 2WD. Some Frontiers were gray imported from the USA. These were V6 and automatic for private importers.

Second generation (D40; 2004–2015)

Second generation (D40)
Also called
  • Suzuki Equator
  • Nissan Frontier
  • Nissan Navara Brute
  • Nissan Frontier Navara
  • Acmat ALTV
Production 20 October 2004–present
Designer Kiyoshi Yanase (2002)
Body and chassis
Class Mid-size pickup truck
Platform Nissan F-Alpha platform
  • 5-speed automatic
  • 5-speed manual
  • 6-speed manual
Wheelbase 125.9 in (3,198 mm)
  • LWB: 219.4 in (5,573 mm)
  • SWB: 205.5 in (5,220 mm)
Width 72.8 in (1,849 mm)
  • XE King Cab: 68.7 in (1,745 mm)
  • SE King Cab: 69.7 in (1,770 mm)
  • Crew Cab: 70.1 in (1,781 mm)
  • LE Crew Cab 2WD: 73.9 in (1,877 mm)
Predecessor Nissan Frontier (D22)
Successor Nissan Navara (D23)
Nissan Navara RX (Australia; pre-facelift)

Initially, the Frontier was considered a compact, but beginning with the totally redesigned model year 2005 Frontier (introduced at the 2004 North American International Auto Show), it became more mid-sized (as did rival Toyota Tacoma for this model year). It uses the new Nissan F-Alpha platform and exterior body styling resembles that of the company's full-size Nissan Titan truck. In 2012 production was shifted from Smyrna, Tennessee to Canton Mississippi.

The new truck has a fully boxed ladder frame. The wheelbase is 125.9 in (3.20 m) with a 205.5 in (5.22 m) overall length. Towing capacity is 6500 lb (2,950 kg). A 4.0 L VQ-family V6, the VQ40DE, is the standard engine, and it produces 261 hp (195 kW) and 281 pound-feet (381 N·m) of torque. Also available is the QR25DE four-cylinder engine, which is also found in the Nissan Altima. It produces 152 hp (113 kW) and 171 pound-feet (232 N·m) of torque. A six-speed manual is standard with a five-speed automatic optional. Both rear and four-wheel drive are available. Traction control and hill-descent control are also available.

The Frontier is called Navara when sold in Europe. The engine is a 2.5 L YD25DDTi diesel, with 142 hp (106 kW) or 172 hp (128 kW). The stronger version has 403 N·m (297 lb·ft) of torque.

2009 Suzuki Equator extended cab

Suzuki has begun selling a Frontier-based mid-sized pickup that is produced by Nissan North America at the Smyrna plant.[15] The truck debuted at the 2008 Chicago Auto Show as the Suzuki Equator.[16] For 2009 the Frontier will get a face lift with more options, colors, and new wheels. The Nismo model will be replaced by a new PRO-4X model. Suzuki eventually discontinued the Equator in 2013.

In 2014 Nissan released a concept truck with a 2.8-liter Inline-four engine Cummins Diesel engine paired with a ZF 8HP transmission.[17]

D40 Navara

The Navara in Europe came with an updated Euro IV compliant engine on post September 2006 vehicles. It has four trim levels, the S, SE, Outlaw and Aventura. The Aventura trim package is equipped with leather upholstery, dual zone climate control, six-stacker CD/MP3 changer and satellite navigation as standard.

In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the D40 Navara has a few differences from the UK versions. There are two engines available, 2.5-liter turbocharged diesel engine and the V6 petrol. The diesel engine in 4WD models produces 128 kW (172 hp) at 4000 rpm and 403 N·m (297 lb·ft) at 2000 rpm, with the 2WD models producing less at 106 kW (142 hp) at 4000 rpm and 356 N·m (263 lb·ft) at 2000 rpm. The V6 produces 198 kW (266 hp) at 5600 rpm of power and 385 N·m (284 lb·ft) at 4000 rpm. Both engines come with a standard five-speed automatic, with a six-speed manual available for the diesel. These models do not have leather, climate control or satellite navigation system like their UK versions.

The 2008 model of the Navara was launched on 2 July. Changes included a new style of alloy wheels, bluetooth as standard, side work lights and indicators on the wing mirrors.

The 2008 Single Cab became available in Thailand 6 March. The 2.5-liter engine reduces the torque output from 356 N·m (263 ft·lbf) to 294 N·m (217 ft·lbf) @ 2,000 rpm. This model has 15-inch wheels. Power steering is standard. Also available are electric mirrors and central power locking as optional extra. Nissan planned to sell the single cab and began to export worldwide at the same month. Nissan also continues to sell the D22 pickups with minor updates for a lower price (now called as Frontier LCV).

The Nissan Navara Double Cab became available in Malaysia on 5 November 2008. It is available with a 2.5-liter diesel engine producing 128 kW (172 hp) and 403 N·m (297 ft·lbf), only with a five-speed automatic. A year later the six-speed manual version became available. The D22 series Nissan Frontier remains on sale in Malaysia with a manual transmission.[18]

In November 2008 Nissan Thailand Released the all new Nissan Navara Calibre with a 144 PS (106 kW) @4000 rpm 36.3 kg·m (356 N·m; 263 ft·lbf) @2000 rpm available with a five-speed automatic or a six-speed manual transmission.


2011 Nissan Frontier Pro-4X (US)

For North American Frontiers model year 2009, and European Navaras model year 2010, Nissan updated the shape of some minor components.

The 2010 Nissan Navara facelift are now powered by a new 3.0-litre V6 turbo V9X Engine diesel engine producing 240 hp (175 kW),406 lb-ft (500 Nm) @ 2,500 rpm and a revised 2.5-litre dCi unit(YD25DDTi High Power). The 2011 Nissan Navara and Pathfinder facelift V6 develop 170 kW (231 PS) and 550 Nm of torque between 1,700 rpm and 2,500 rpm and the famous YD engine which produces 190 PS (140 kW) and 450 Nm of torque and the VQ40DE remains the same with the 261 hp (195 kW) @5600 rpm; 281 pound-feet (381 N·m) @4000 rpm.

There are subtle changes to the headlights and the bonnet. The V-shaped grille shell is less pronounced and the bumper is rounder and projects 80 mm further forward, but the six-spoke 17-inch alloy wheels or optional 18-inch alloy wheels are the biggest change.

Inside the new Navara (top of the line model), Nissan designers have specified softer materials of a better quality for the dash, seats and interior moulds. The centre console and fascia designs have been revised, as have the instrument binnacle layout and door trims. Additional bright/gloss finish surfacing is used throughout the cabin. The six-stack CD audio system or the TV Navigation entertainment console is upgraded with speed-sensing volume, MP3 compatibility and Bluetooth connectivity for the (six disc CD audio system). Other new or revised features include dual-zone climate control, remote audio/Bluetooth/trip computer controls on the steering wheel, trip computer, external temperature gauge, speed-sensitive variable windscreen wipers and 'follow me home' lighting. The electric mirrors now fold in fully for car washes or parking in narrow spaces.

Importantly, the upgraded Navara (diesel only) gains stability control, which Nissan calls Vehicle Dynamics Control and all petrol V6 and diesel variants gain side-impact and side-curtain airbags to complement the dual front airbags.


The D40 Navara has undergone Euro NCAP crash testing along with the Mitsubishi Triton and Isuzu D-Max, and received one star with a strikeout; however, after retesting with upgraded computer software it went from the lowest in the group to the highest (overall) with 3 stars. Among the problems discovered during the test was delayed airbag deployment and insufficient seatbelt restraint, which were solved with the software upgrade.

The car receives good rating in Frontal Offset Test, Side Impact, and Roof Test by IIHS but only Acceptable in rear impact.

Awards and recognition

Third generation (D23; 2014–present)

Third generation (D23)
Also called
  • Nissan NP300
  • Renault Alaskan
  • Mercedes-Benz X-Class


Production July 2014–present
Assembly Thailand: Samut Prakan (2014–present)
Spain (Nissan Motor Iberica, S.A. (2015–present)
Argentina Santa Isabel (Renault Argentina) (2017–)
Designer Mamoru Aoki (2012)
Body and chassis
Class Mid-size pickup truck
  • 2.5 L QR25DE I4 (gasoline)
  • 2.3 L YS23DDT I4-T (diesel)
  • 2.3 L YS23DDTT I4-TT (diesel)
  • 2.5 L YD25DDTi I4-T (diesel)
  • 7-speed automatic
  • 6-speed manual
Wheelbase 3,150 mm (124 in)
Length 5,255 mm (207 in)
Width 1,850 mm (73 in)
Height 1,820 mm (72 in)
Nissan Navara NP300 RX (Australia)

On 11 June 2014, Nissan unveiled the third generation Navara (now known as the NP300 Navara) and is codenamed D23. The D23 will not be available in the US. Series production will commence at a new $360 million plant in Samut Prakan, Thailand in July 2014 and deliveries began in August. A Nissan North America spokesperson, Dan Bedore, has stated that the D23 is not indicative of a D40 Frontier replacement.[23][24][25][26] The European model will feature a 2.3-litre engine from the Nissan NV400.[27]

2016 Nissan Navara EnGuard Concept

The EnGuard concept is a modified D23 Navara pitched directly towards emergency rescue organisations.[28] Unveiled at the 2016 Hannover Motor Show, the concept is notable for being the first prototype with a Nissan designed and developed portable battery pack.[29] Other features that cater for rescue organisations include an onboard DJI Phantom 4 drone, an increased ride height, strobe lights and a fully adjustable suspension system.[30][31]

Mercedes-Benz X-Class

On October 25th, 2016 Mercedes-Benz revealed 2 concept pickup trucks previewing the upcoming joint-built Pickup Model, to be called "X-Class". The X-Class will be based on the platform of the current NP300 Navara and will be built in the same plant in Spain.[32]

2017 Renault Alaskan

Renault revealed the production version of the Alaskan Pickup Concept which will be based on the current Navara platform. The Alaskan was shown alongside other Renault Models at the 2016 Paris Motor Show in October. According to some journalists it has not yet been confermed if the Alaskan will be sold outside of Europe.

International production facilities

The Frontier is known as Nissan Navara in most of Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa and Nissan Terrano in Chile (only the D40 series is known as Navara). It is currently built in Canton, Mississippi, Spain, South Africa, Thailand, Philippines, China, Malaysia, Mexico (alongside the Renault Alaskan), Argentina and Egypt.


The D40 Frontier platform is currently being used as a Stage Rally vehicle by the NISMO Stuff Racing effort currently competing in the Coupe Rallye Quebec series. This team has been racing the current D40 Frontier for over two years with eight stage rallies and two hill climbs under its belt having never suffered a mechanical failure of any kind.

Nissan South Africa campaigned both the D22 and D40 platforms very successfully in the local ABSA Off-Road Series, winning eight consecutive driver's championships[33] (2001 to 2008). The vehicles were prepared by Hallspeed South Africa. Hallspeed also developed and sold vehicles to the Belgian-based company Overdrive. For several years Overdrive have competed with the Hallspeed built vehicles in the European rally Raid series, including The Dakar.[34]


  1. 1 2 3 แกะรอยกระบะนิสสัน (4) ปิดตำนานบิ๊กเอ็ม (in Thai). Manager Online. 20 May 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  2. official Dongfeng Oting website
  3. "Fiat. Fiat in South Africa". Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  4. "Nissan. Nissan in Malaysia". Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  5. official Website of Zhenzhou-Nissan (since 2003 a part of Dongfeng Motor)
  6. "Nissan. Nissan in Egypt". Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  7. ":: Giad Automotive Industry Co. Ltd. (Holding Company) :: GIAD Vehicles Co. Ltd". Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  11. "PickupTruck.Com – Road Test: 2000 Nissan Frontier Crew Cab". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  12. "Nissan Vehicle History". Nissan USA. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  13. "1999 Nissan Frontier King Cab". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  14. ยุทธพงษ์ ภาษี (5 February 2007). "ลองรถ "ขอบคุณ" นิสสัน นาวารา 4WD (ตอน1)" (in Thai). กรุงเทพธุรกิจ (Krungthep Turakij). Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
  15. Suzuki Auto Announces Plans for Pickup Truck Built by Nissan North America, Business Wire, 11 December 2007
  16. Leaked: 2009 Suzuki Equator,, 29 January 2008
  17. "Nissan Frontier Cummins Diesel". Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  18. Tan, Paul (5 November 2008). "Nissan Navara with 174 PS launched in Malaysia". Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  19. "2014 Nissan Frontier Truck". Nissan USA. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  20. "2011 Nissan Frontier | Awards & Reviews". Nissan USA. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  21. "2011 Nissan Frontier | Awards & Reviews". Nissan USA. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  22. "New Renault Alaskan pick-up truck rumbles in for 2017". Auto Express. Retrieved 2016-10-19.
  23. "Nissan officially unveils new Navara". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  25. "Nissan Posts Teaser for New Pickup on Instagram – News – Car and Driver - Car and Driver Blog". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  26. Brandon Turkus. "Nissan reveals NP300 Navara pickup, is it the next Frontier? [w/videos] [UPDATE]". Autoblog. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  27. "2016 Nissan Navara unveiled".
  28. "Nissan Navara EnGuard Concept (2016)". Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  29. "Nissan Navara EnGuard Concept". Deep Tread. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  30. "Nissan Navara EnGuard Concept". Deep Tread. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  31. "Nissan Navara EnGuard Concept (2016)". Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  32. "New Mercedes X-Class arrives and the 'premium pick-up' is born". Auto Express. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  33. "Strong South African Nissan Presence in 2009 Dakar Rally | Nissan South Africa". Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  34. iwcweb. "Overdrive Racing – palmares". Retrieved 25 February 2014.
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