Nicholas of Flüe
|Saint Nicholas of Flüe|
Nicholas of Flüe, from the altar piece of the local parish church in Sachseln.
21 March 1487|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholicism|
|Canonized||1947 by Pope Pius XII|
|Major shrine||Sachseln, Switzerland|
|Feast||21 March (25 September in Switzerland & Germany)|
|Patronage||Switzerland, Pontifical Swiss Guards|
Saint Nicholas of Flüe (German: Niklaus von Flüe) (1417 – 21 March 1487) was a Swiss hermit and ascetic who is the patron saint of Switzerland. He is sometimes invoked as Brother Klaus. A farmer, military leader, member of the assembly, councillor, judge and mystic, he was respected as a man of complete moral integrity. Brother Klaus's counsel to the Diet of Stans (1481) helped to prevent war between the Swiss cantons.
He was born in 1417, in the canton of Unterwalden, the oldest son of wealthy peasants. At the age of 21 he entered the army and took part in the battle of Ragaz in 1446, and distinguished himself as a soldier in action against the canton of Zurich, which had rebelled against the confederation. He later took up arms again in the so-called Thurgau war against Archduke Sigismund of Austria in 1460. It was due to his influence that the Dominican convent St. Katharinental, whither many Austrians had fled after the capture of Diessenhofen, was not destroyed by the Swiss confederates. At around the age of 30, he married Dorothy Wiss, a farmer's daughter. They farmed in the municipality of Flüeli in the alpine foothills, above Sachseln on the Lake Sarnen. He also continued in the military to the age of 37, rising to the position of captain, reportedly fighting with a sword in one hand and a rosary in the other. After serving in the military, he became a councillor and judge for his canton in 1459 and served as a judge for nine years. He declined the opportunity to serve as Landamman (governor) of his canton.
After receiving a mystical vision of a lily eaten by a horse, which he recognized as indicating that the cares of his worldly life (the draft horse pulling a plough) were swallowing up his spiritual life (the lily, a symbol of purity), he decided to devote himself entirely to the contemplative life. In 1467, he left his wife and his ten children with her consent and set himself up as a hermit in the Ranft chine in Switzerland, establishing a chantry for a priest from his own funds so that he could assist at mass daily. According to legend, he survived for nineteen years with no food except for the eucharist. Symbolic visions continued to be a feature of his contemplation, and he became a spiritual guide whose advice was widely sought and followed. His reputation for wisdom and piety was such that figures from across Europe came to seek advice from him, and he was known to all as "Brother Klaus." In 1470, Pope Paul II granted the first indulgence to the sanctuary at Ranft and it became a place of pilgrimage, since it lay on the Jakobsweg (English: Way of St. James), the road pilgrims travelled on to Santiago de Compostela in Spain. His counsel prevented a civil war between the cantons meeting at the Diet of Stans in 1481, when their antagonism grew. Despite being illiterate and having limited experience with the world, he is honored among both Protestants and Catholics with the permanent national unity of Switzerland. Letters of thanks to him from Berne and Soleure still survive. When he died, on 21 March 1487, he was surrounded by his wife and children.
The new Catechism of the Catholic Church cites a brief personal prayer of St. Nicholas of Flue in paragraph #226 of Chapter 1 of Part 1, Section 2 "The Profession of the Christian Faith" under subheading IV "The implications of faith in one God", an aspect of which is making good use of created things.
My Lord and my God, take from me everything that distances me from you.
My Lord and my God, give me everything that brings me closer to you.
My Lord and my God, detach me from myself to give my all to you.
He was beatified in 1669. After his beatification, the municipality of Sachseln built a church in his honour, where his body was interred. He was canonized in 1947 by Pope Pius XII. His feast day in the Roman Catholic Church is 21 March, except in Switzerland and Germany, where it is 25 September.
As a layman with family responsibilities who took his civic duties as an ancestral landowner seriously, Brother Klaus is a model of heroic manhood for many concerned with the flourishing of local communities and sustainable use of open land. He is the patron saint of the German-language association KLB (Katholischen Landvolkbewegung), the Catholic Rural Communities Movement.
Of the many spiritual insights Nicholas received in his visions, one in particular is reproduced often in a reduced logographic format, as a mystical wheel. Nicholas described his vision of the Holy Face at the center of a circle with the tips of three swords touching the two eyes and mouth, while three others radiate outwards in a sixfold symmetry reminiscent of the Seal of Solomon. A cloth painted with the image, known as the meditation prayer cloth associates the symbol with six episodes from the life of Christ: the mouth of God at the Annunciation, the eyes spying Creation both in its prelapsarian innocence and redemption from the Fall at Calvary, while in the inward direction the betrayal by his disciple Judas in the Garden of Gethsamene points to the crown of the Pantocrator sitting in the judgment seat, the glad tidings of the Nativity scene's "Glory to God in the Highest and Peace to his people on Earth" echoes in the ear on the right of the head, while the memorial of the Lord's Supper "This is my body, which will be given for you" at the prayers of consecration in the Divine Liturgy of the Mass echoes to the ear on the left of the head.
These six medallions contain additional symbols of acts of Christian kindness:
- two crutches suggest Visiting the sick as a work of mercy
- hiker's walking stick with travel pouch suggests Hospitality to strangers
- a loaf of bread, fish and a pitcher of water and wine represent Feed the hungry, quench the thirsty
- chains indicate Care for the incarcerated
- Christ's garments evoke Clothe the naked
- a coffin reminds us to Bury the dead
This visual interpretation encapsulates the personal piety of rural peasants, many illiterate, for whom salvation history was expressed in these crucial aspects of God's loving relationship with us and the Christian duty to love of neighbor. Sanctifying grace flows from the Paschal Victim on the Cross, an image Nicholas described in his vision by the stream, where the Tabernacle sits atop a spring that flows forth covering the earth, echoing the rivers flowing from the Temple in Ezekiel's visions. Such profound insights on the allegorical, anagogical and tropological senses of scripture are often lost in modern biblical exegesis that focuses too narrowly on the literal sense, the historical-critical method.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nicholas of Flüe.|
- Bruder Klaus Wikipedia page (German)
- Play Nicolas de Flue written after World War II by Denis de Rougemont (French)
- "Blessed Nicholas of Flüe". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-12-16.
- "Die weisse Lilie und das Pferd" (in German). Retrieved 2008-06-17.
- The Saints: A concise Biographical Dictionary, edited by John Coulson, Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1960
- Way of St. James - Being on the way
- Catechism of the Catholic Church - I believe in God
- Wir über uns
- JakobusGemeinde.de (German)
- RTF Study Program - Lesson 2: The Four Senses of Sacred Scripture
- Abel, Winfried, “The Prayer Book of St. Nicholas of Flue: Mystery of the Center”, Christiana Edition, Stein Am Rhein, 1999.
- Boos, Thomas, “Nicholas of Flue, 141-1487, Swiss Hermit and Peacemaker”, The Pentland Press, Ltd, Edinburgh, 1999.
- Collins, David J. "Turning Swiss: The Patriotism of the Holy Hermit Nicholas". In Reforming Saints. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2008. pp. 99–122.
- Kaiser, Lother Emanuel, “Nicholas of Flue-Brother Nicholas: Saint of Peace Throughout the World.” Editions du Signe, Strausbourg, 2002.
- Yates, Christina, “Brother Klaus: A Man of Two Worlds” The Ebor Press, York, England, 1989.
- “Brother Klaus: Our Companion Through Life”, Bruder-Kalusen-Stiftung-Sachseln, 2005.
- "The Transformed Berserker: The Union of Psychic Opposites" The Archetypal Dimensions of the Psyche. von Franz, Marie-Louise. Shambhala, 1997.
- Tradition in Action, a Roman Catholic hagiography with commentary
- Bruder Klaus page at Sachseln Flüeli-Ranft Tourism Bureau (German)
- Catholic Encyclopedia article
- Extensive bibliography and link collection
- Photo of his hermitage chapel at KLB Catholic Rural Peoples Movement (German)
- The "Book" which he read, a discussion of the painted prayer meditation cloth (German)
- The Lily and Horse from his vision (German)
- Collection of sentences of spiritual direction (webpage maintained by the Benedictine Abbey "Abbaye Saint Benoît de Port-Valais," at Le Bouveret in Switzerland) (French)
- Homily of Pope John Paul II at the Mass for Peace, Flüeli (1984) (French)