A near-close vowel or a near-high vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a near-close vowel is that the tongue is positioned similarly to a close vowel, but slightly less constricted.
Other names for a near-close vowel are lowered close vowel and raised close-mid vowel, though the former phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as low as close-mid (sometimes even lower); likewise, the latter phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as high as close.
Near-close vowels are also sometimes described as lax variants of the fully close vowels, though, depending on the language, they may not necessarily be variants of close vowels at all.
It is rare for languages to contrast a near-close vowel with a close vowel and a close-mid vowel based on height alone. An example of such language is Danish, which contrasts short and long versions of the close front unrounded /i/, near-close front unrounded /e̝/ and close-mid front unrounded /e/ vowels, though in order to avoid using any relative articulation diacritics, Danish /e̝/ and /e/ are typically transcribed with phonetically inacurrate symbols /e/ and /ɛ/, respectively. This contrast is not present in Conservative Danish, which realizes the latter two vowels as, respectively, close-mid [e] and mid [e̞].
It is even rarer for languages to contrast more than one close/near-close/close-mid triplet. For instance, Sotho has two such triplets: fully front /i–ɪ–e/ and fully back /u–ʊ–o/. In case of this language, the near-close vowels /ɪ, ʊ/ tend to be transcribed with the phonetically inaccurate symbols /ɨ, ʉ/, i.e. as if they were close central.
- close central rounded [ʉ], an allophone of /u/ between soft consonants in stressed syllables;
- near-close central rounded [ʊ̈], an allophone of /u/ between soft consonants in unstressed syllables;
- close-mid central rounded [ɵ], an allophone of /o/ after soft consonants.
The near-close vowels that have dedicated symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet are:
- near-close near-front unrounded vowel [ɪ]
- near-close near-front compressed vowel [ʏ]
- near-close near-back rounded vowel [ʊ]
The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines these vowels as mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) equivalents of, respectively, [i], [y] and [ɵ], therefore, an alternative transcription of these vowels is [i̽, y̽, u̽] or the more complex [ï̞, ÿ˕, ü̞]; however, they are not centralized in all languages - some languages have fully front variants of [ɪ, ʏ] and/or a fully back variant of [ʊ]; the exact backness of these variants can be transcribed in the IPA with [ɪ̟, ʏ̟, ʊ̠], [i̞, y˕, u̞] or [e̝, ø̝, o̝].
There also are near-close vowels that don't have dedicated symbols in the IPA:
- near-close near-front protruded vowel [ʏʷ] (ʏ̫)
- near-close central unrounded vowel [ɪ̈] (ᵻ)
- near-close central compressed vowel [ʏ̈]
- near-close central protruded vowel [ʊ̈] (ᵿ)
- near-close near-back unrounded vowel [ɯ̽] or [ɯ̞̈]
- near-close near-back compressed vowel [ʊᵝ]
(IPA letters for rounded vowels are ambiguous as to whether the rounding is protrusion or compression. However, transcription of the world's languages tends to pattern as above.)
Other near-close vowels can be indicated with diacritics of relative articulation applied to letters for neighboring vowels, such as ⟨ɪ̟⟩, ⟨i̞⟩ or ⟨e̝⟩ for a near-close front unrounded vowel, or ⟨ʊ̠⟩, ⟨u̞⟩ or ⟨o̝⟩ for a near-close back rounded vowel.
- Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
- Basbøll (2005), pp. 45, 48, 50–52.
- Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
- Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
- Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62, 67-68.
- International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 13.
- • Example languages with a fully front [ɪ̟]: Australian English, Danish, Sotho and Swedish (Sources: Cox (2012:159); Grønnum (1998:100) Basbøll (2005:45); Doke & Mofokeng (1974:?); Engstrand (1999:140)).
• Example languages with a fully front [ʏ̟]: Standard Eastern Norwegian (Source: Vanvik (1979:13), but note that Vanvik is the only scholar that describes SEN /ʏ/ as such; for instance, Strandskogen (1979:15, 23) considers it to be near-front. It is safe to say that the fully front variant of [ʏ] is a very rare vowel in general.)
• Example languages with a fully back [ʊ̠]: Korean and Sotho (Sources: Lee (1999:121); Doke & Mofokeng (1974:?)).
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
- Cox, Felicity (2012), Australian English Pronunciation and Transcription, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-14589-3
- Doke, Clement Martyn; Mofokeng, S. Machabe (1974), Textbook of Southern Sotho Grammar (3rd ed.), Cape Town: Longman Southern Africa, ISBN 0-582-61700-6
- Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
- Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290
- International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-06736-7
- Ladefoged, Peter; Johnson, Keith (2010), A Course in Phonetics (6th ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4282-3126-9
- Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
- Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, ISBN 82-05-10107-8
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6