National Hero of Indonesia
National Hero of Indonesia (Indonesian: Gelar Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia) is the highest-level title awarded in Indonesia. It is posthumously given by the Government of Indonesia for actions which are deemed to be heroic, defined as "actual deeds which can be remembered and exemplified for all time by other citizens" or "extraordinary service furthering the interests of the state and people". The Ministry of Social Affairs gives seven criteria which an individual must fulfill, as follows:
- An Indonesian citizen who is deceased and, during his or her lifetime, led an armed struggle or produced a concept or product useful to the state;
- Have continued the struggle throughout his or her life and performed above and beyond the call of duty;
- Have had a wide-reaching impact through his or her actions;
- Have shown a high degree of nationalism;
- Have been of good moral standing and respectable character;
- Never surrendered to his or her enemies; and
- Never made an act which taints his or her legacy.
Nominations undergo a four-step process and must be approved at each level. A proposal is made by the general populace in a city or regency to the mayor or regent, who must then make a request to the province's governor. The governor then makes a recommendation to the Ministry of Social Affairs, which forwards it to the president, represented by the Board of Titles (Dewan Gelar); this board consists of two academics, two persons of a military background, and three persons who have previously received an award or title. Those selected by the president, as represented by the Board, are awarded the title at a ceremony in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta. Since 2000, the ceremony has occurred in early November, coinciding with Indonesia's Heroes' Day (Hari Pahlawan).
The legal framework for the title, initially styled National Independence Hero (Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Nasional), was established with the release of Presidential Decree No. 241 of 1958. The title was first awarded on 30 August 1959 to the politician turned writer Abdul Muis, who had died the previous month. This title was used for the rest of Sukarno's rule. When Suharto rose to power in the mid-1960s, the title was given its current name. Special titles at the level of National Hero have also been awarded. Hero of the Revolution (Pahlawan Revolusi) was given in 1965 to ten victims of the 30 September Movement , while Sukarno and former vice-president Mohammad Hatta were given the title Proclamation Heroes (Pahlawan Proklamasi) in 1988 for their role in reading the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence.
A total of 157 men and 12 women have been deemed national heroes, most recently As'ad Syamsul Arifin in 2016. These heroes have come from all parts of the Indonesian archipelago, from Aceh in the west to Papua in the east. They represent numerous ethnicities, including native Indonesians, ethnic Chinese, and Eurasians. They include prime ministers, guerrillas, government ministers, soldiers, royalty, journalists, and a bishop.
The following list is initially presented in alphabetical order; owing to differing cultural naming conventions, not all entries are sorted by last name. The list is further sortable by year of birth, death, and recognition. Names are standardised using the Perfected Spelling System and thus may not reflect the original spelling.
National Heroes of Indonesia
|A · B · C · D · E · F · G · H · I · J · K · L · M · N · O · P · R · S · T · U · W · Y · Z|
|Abdul Halim||1911||1988||Independence activist and politician, fourth Prime Minister of Indonesia||2008|
|Abdul Haris Nasution||1918||2000||General in the Army, twice appointed Army Chief of Staff||2002|
|Abdul Kadir||1771||1875||Nobleman from Melawi, promoted economic development, fought against Dutch colonial forces||1999|
|Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah||1908||1981||Islamic scholar and author||2011|
|Abdul Muis||1883||1959||Politician, later author||1959|
|Abdul Rahman Saleh||1909||1947||Early figure in the Air Force, killed when his medical flight was shot down by the Dutch||1974|
|Abdul Wahab Hasbullah||1888||1971||2014|
|Abdullah Bau Massepe, AndiAndi Abdullah Bau Massepe||1918||1947||Bugis nobleman, led attacks against Dutch forces during the National Revolution, son of Andi Mappanyukki||2005|
|Achmad Subarjo||1896||1978||Independence activist and government minister||2009|
|Adam Malik||1917||1984||Journalist and independence activist, third Vice-President of Indonesia||1998|
|Adnan Kapau Gani||1905||1968||Independence activist turned government minister, smuggled weapons to support the National Revolution||2007|
|Ageng Serang, NyiNyi Ageng Serang||1752||1828||Javanese guerrilla leader who led attacks on Dutch colonials on several occasions||1974|
|Agus Salim||1884||1954||Minang Islamic leader, politician, independence activist||1961|
|Agustinus Adisucipto||1916||1947||Early figure in the Air Force, killed when his medical flight was shot down by the Dutch||1974|
|Ahmad Dahlan||1868||1934||Javanese Islamic leader, established Muhammadiyah; husband of Siti Walidah||1961|
|Ahmad Rifa'i||1786||1870||Islamic thinker and writer known for his anti-Dutch stance||2004|
|Ahmad Yani||1922||1965||Leader of the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Alimin||1889||1964||Independence advocate, politician, and Communist Party of Indonesia figure||1964|
|Amir Hamzah||1911||1946||Poet and nationalist||1975|
|Antasari||1809||1862||Fought against Dutch colonial forces in the Banjarmasin War||1968|
|Arie Frederik Lasut||1918||1949||Geologist and educator who was executed by the Dutch||1969|
|As'ad Syamsul Arifin||1897||1990||2016|
|Bagindo Azizchan||1910||1947||Mayor of Padang, resisted Dutch forces during the National Revolution||2005|
|Basuki Rahmat||1921||1969||General, witness to the Supersemar||1969|
|Bernard Wilhelm Lapian||1892||1977||2015|
|Chik di Tiro, TeungkuTeungku Chik di Tiro||1836||1891||Acehnese Islamic figure and guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces||1973|
|Cilik Riwut||1918||1987||Soldier and politician, promoted economic and cultural development in Central Kalimantan||1998|
|Cipto Mangunkusumo||1886||1943||Javanese politician, mentor to Sukarno||1964|
|Cokroaminoto||1883||1934||Politician, leader of Sarekat Islam, mentor to Sukarno||1961|
|Dekker, Ernest DouwesErnest Douwes Dekker||1879||1950||Indo journalist and politician who advocated Indonesian independence||1961|
|Dewi Sartika||1884||1947||Educator, established the country's first school for girls||1966|
|Dhien, Cut NyakCut Nyak Dhien||1850||1908||Acehnese guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces; wife of Teuku Umar||1964|
|Diponegoro||1785||1855||Son of the Sultan of Yogyakarta, fought a five-year war against Dutch colonial forces||1973|
|Donald Izacus Panjaitan||1925||1965||General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Eddy Martadinata||1921||1966||Admiral in the Navy and diplomat, killed in a helicopter crash||1966|
|Fakhruddin||1890||1929||Islamic leader, negotiated protection of Indonesian hajj pilgrims||1964|
|Fatmawati||1923||1980||Sewed the first national flag, social activist, a wife of Sukarno||2000|
|Ferdinand Lumbantobing||1899||1962||Doctor and politician, fought for the rights of forced labourers||1962|
|Frans Kaisiepo||1921||1979||Papuan nationalist who helped in the acquisition of Papua||1993|
|Gatot Mangkupraja||1896||1968||Independence activist and politician, suggested the formation of Defenders of the Homeland||2004|
|Gatot Subroto||1907||1962||General, deputy chief-of-staff of the Army||1962|
|Halim Perdanakusuma||1922||1947||Early figure in the Air Force, killed during the National Revolution||1975|
|Hamengkubuwono I||1717||1792||Sultan of Yogyakarta, fought against the Dutch East India Company, established Yogyakarta||2006|
|Hamengkubuwono IX||1912||1988||Sultan of Yogyakarta, independence activist, military leader, and politician; second Vice-President of Indonesia||1990|
|Harun Bin Said||1947||1968||Bombed the MacDonald House during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation||1968|
|Hasan Basri||1923||1984||Soldier during the Indonesian National Revolution, supported the integration of Kalimantan in Indonesia||2001|
|Hasanuddin||1631||1670||Sultan of Gowa, fought against Dutch colonial forces||1973|
|Hasyim Asy'ari||1875||1947||Islamic leader, founder of Nahdlatul Ulama||1964|
|Hazairin||1906||1975||Legal scholar, independence activist, government minister, and educator||1999|
|Herman Johannes||1912||1992||Engineer, made weapons during the National Revolution, helped establish Gadjah Mada University||2009|
|Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung||1921||1999||Independence activist and government minister||2007|
|Idham Chalid||1921||2010||Leader of Nahdlatul Ulama, politician||2011|
|Ilyas Yakoub||1903||1958||Independence activist, politician, and guerrilla fighter||1999|
|Imam Bonjol, TuankuTuanku Imam Bonjol||1772||1864||Islamic figure from West Sumatra who fought against Dutch colonial forces in the Padri War||1973|
|Inten II, RadinRadin Inten II||1834||1856||Nobleman from Lampung, led a revolution against Dutch colonists||1986|
|Iskandar Muda||1593||1636||Sultan of Aceh, expanded the state's influence||1993|
|Ismail Marzuki||1914||1958||Composer known for numerous patriotic songs||2004|
|Iswahyudi||1918||1947||Early figure in the Air Force, killed during the National Revolution||1975|
|Iwa Kusumasumantri||1899||1971||Independence activist, lawyer, and politician||2002|
|Izaak Huru Doko||1913||1985||Independence activist and educator, helped establish Udayana University||2006|
|Janatin||1943||1968||Bombed the MacDonald House during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation||1968|
|Jatikusumo||1917||1992||General in the Army and politician||2002|
|Jemma, AndiAndi Jemma||1935||1965||Independence activist, led attacks against Dutch forces during the National Revolution||2002|
|Johannes Abraham Dimara||1916||2000||Papuan army officer who helped in the acquisition of Papua||2010|
|Johannes Leimena||1905||1977||Early Minister of Health, developed the Puskesmas clinic system||2010|
|Juanda Kartawijaya||1911||1963||Sundanese politician, final Prime Minister of Indonesia||1963|
|Karel Satsuit Tubun||1928||1965||Police brigadier, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Kartini||1879||1904||Javanese women's rights figure||1964|
|Kasimo, Ignatius JosephIgnatius Joseph Kasimo||1900||1986||Independence activist, Catholic Party leader||2011|
|Katamso Darmokusumo||1923||1965||General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Ketut Jelantik, I GustiI Gusti Ketut Jelantik||Unknown||1849||Balinese leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces||1993|
|Ketut Puja, I GustiI Gusti Ketut Puja||1904||1957||First governor of Bali||2011|
|Ki Bagus Hadikusumo||1890||1954||2015|
|Ki Hajar Dewantara||1889||1959||Educator and government minister, established Taman Siswa, brother of Suryopranoto||1959|
|Ki Sarmidi Mangunsarkoro||1904||1957||Educator with Budi Utomo and Taman Siswa, government minister||2011|
|Kiras Bangun||1852||1942||Batak guerrilla leader who fought the Dutch colonialists||2005|
|Kusumah Atmaja||1898||1952||First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court||1965|
|La Maddukelleng||1700||1765||Nobleman from Paser Sultanate, repelled Dutch forces from Wajo Kingdom||1998|
|Lambertus Nicodemus Palar||1900||1981||Diplomat, negotiated recognition of Indonesia during the Revolution||2013|
|Lie, JohnJohn Lie||1911||1988||Rear Admiral in the Navy, smuggled products to fund the National Revolution||2009|
|Mahmud Badaruddin II||1767||1852||Sultan of Palembang, fought against English and Dutch colonists||1984|
|Mangkunegara I||1725||1795||Fought against Dutch colonists and collaborators in Central Java||1988|
|Mappanyukki, AndiAndi Mappanyukki||1885||1967||Bugis nobleman, led attacks against Dutch forces in the 1920s and 30s, father of Andi Abdullah Bau Massepe||2004|
|Maria Walanda Maramis||1872||1924||Women's rights advocate and educator||1969|
|Martha Christina Tiahahu||1800||1818||Guerrilla fighter from Maluku who died in Dutch custody||1969|
|Marthen Indey||1912||1986||Nationalist and independence activist, promoted Papuan integration in Indonesia||1993|
|Mas Mansur||1896||1946||Islamic scholar, Muhammadiyah leader||1964|
|Mas Tirtodarmo Haryono||1924||1965||General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Maskun Sumadireja||1907||1986||Independence activist and politician||2004|
|Meutia, Cut NyakCut Nyak Meutia||1870||1910||Acehnese guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces||1964|
|Mohammad Hatta||1902||1980||Independence activist, First Vice-President of Indonesia||2012|
|Mohammad Husni Thamrin||1894||1941||Politician and independence activist||1960|
|Mohammad Natsir||1908||1993||Islamic scholar and politician, fifth Prime Minister of Indonesia||2008|
|Muhammad Hasan, TeukuTeuku Muhammad Hasan||1906||1997||Independence activist, first governor of Sumatra||2006|
|Muhammad Yamin||1903||1962||Poet turned politician and independence activist||1973|
|Mustopo||1913||1986||Leader during the Battle of Surabaya, established Dr. Moestopo Dental College||2007|
|Muwardi||1907||1948||Handled security for the Proclamation of Independence, established a hospital in Surakarta||1964|
|Nani Wartabone||1907||1986||Independence activist and politician, helped put down the Permesta rebellion||2003|
|I Gusti Ngurah Made Agung||1876||1906||Balinese fighter against the Dutch||2015|
|Ngurah Rai, I GustiI Gusti Ngurah Rai||1917||1946||Balinese military leader during National Revolution||1975|
|Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin||1738||1805||Sultan of Tidore, led several naval battles against Dutch colonial forces||1995|
|Nur Ali||1914||1992||Islamic leader and educator, led student soldiers during the National Revolution||2006|
|Nyak Arif, TeukuTeuku Nyak Arif||1899||1946||Acehnese politician and resistance leader, first governor of Aceh||1974|
|Opu Daeng Risaju||1880||1964||Early woman politician, fought against the Dutch during the National Revolution||2006|
|Oto Iskandar di Nata||1897||1945||Politician and independence activist||1973|
|Pajonga Daeng Ngalie||1901||1958||Coordinated attacks in South Sulawesi during the National Revolution, promoted national integration||2006|
|Pakubuwono VI||1807||1849||Susuhunan of Surakarta, rebelled against Dutch colonial forces||1964|
|Pakubuwono X||1866||1939||Susuhunan of Surakarta, supported various projects which furthered Native Indonesian interests||2011|
|Pattimura||1783||1817||Guerrilla from Maluku who fought against Dutch colonial forces||1973|
|Pierre Tendean||1939||1965||Soldier in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Pong Tiku||1846||1907||Torajan noble, fought against Dutch colonialists||2002|
|Raja Ali Haji||1809||c. 1870||Historian and poet from Riau||2004|
|Raja Haji Fisabilillah||1727||1784||Warrior from Riau who fought against Dutch colonial forces||1997|
|Rajiman Wediodiningrat||1879||1952||First head of the People's Representative Council||2013|
|Ranggong Daeng Romo||1915||1947||Led troops in two battles against Dutch forces during the National Revolution||2001|
|Rasuna Said||1910||1965||Women's rights advocate and nationalist||1974|
|Robert Wolter Monginsidi||1925||1949||Guerrilla fighter in Makassar during the National Revolution, executed by the Dutch||1973|
|Saharjo||1909||1963||Minister of Justice, pioneered legal reform in the country||1963|
|Sam Ratulangi||1890||1949||Minahasa politician and supporter of Indonesian independence||1961|
|Samanhudi||1878||1956||Businessman, established Sarekat Islam||1961|
|Silas Papare||1918||1978||Fought for Papua's independence from the Netherlands, promoted Papuan integration in Indonesia||1993|
|Sisingamangaraja XII||1849||1907||Batak leader who fought a lengthy guerrilla campaign against Dutch colonial forces||1961|
|Siswondo Parman||1918||1965||General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Siti Hartinah||1923||1996||Wife of then-president Suharto, active in social work, established Taman Mini Indonesia Indah||1996|
|Siti Walidah||1872||1946||Founder of Aisyiyah, Muhammadiyah figure, wife of Ahmad Dahlan,||1971|
|Slamet Riyadi||1927||1950||Brigadier General in the Army, killed while putting down a rebellion in Sulawesi||2007|
|Sudirman||1916||1950||Commander in Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces for most of the National Revolution||1964|
|Sugiyapranata, AlbertusAlbertus Sugiyapranata||1896||1963||Javanese Catholic bishop and nationalist||1963|
|Sugiyono Mangunwiyoto||1926||1965||Colonel in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Suharso||1912||1971||Medical pioneer in prosthetics||1973|
|Sukarjo Wiryopranoto||1903||1962||Independence figure, diplomat, and politician||1962|
|Sukarni||1916||1971||Youth leader and activist||2014|
|Sukarno||1901||1970||Independence activist who read the Proclamation of Independence, first President of Indonesia||2012|
|Sultan Agung||1591||1645||Sultan of Mataram, fought against encroaches by the Dutch East India Company||1975|
|Sultan Daeng Radja, AndiAndi Sultan Daeng Radja||1894||1963||Independence activist and politician||2006|
|Supeno||1916||1949||Government minister, killed while fighting against the Dutch during the National Revolution||1970|
|Supomo||1903||1958||First Minister of Justice, helped write the Constitution||1965|
|Suprapto||1920||1965||General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Supriyadi||1925||1945||Leader of a rebellion against the Japanese occupation forces in Blitar||1975|
|Suroso||1893||1981||Politician and independence activist||1986|
|Suryo||1896||1948||Governor of East Java during the National Revolution||1964|
|Suryopranoto||1871||1959||Education and workers' rights figure, brother of Ki Hajar Dewantara||1959|
|Sutan Syahrir||1909||1966||Politician, first Prime Minister of Indonesia||1966|
|Sutomo||1888||1938||Javanese educator, established Budi Utomo||1961|
|Sutomo||1920||1981||Military officer who led troops in the Battle of Surabaya||2008|
|Sutoyo Siswomiharjo||1922||1965||General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement||1965|
|Syafruddin Prawiranegara||1911||1989||First governor of Bank Indonesia||2011|
|Syarif Kasim II||1893||1968||Sultan of Siak, promoted integration of the East Sumatran kingdoms||1998|
|Tahi Bonar Simatupang||1920||1990||General who served as chief of staff from 1950 to 1954||2013|
|Tambusai, TuankuTuanku Tambusai||1784||1882||Islamic leader from Riau who fought against Dutch colonial forces in the Padri War||1995|
|Tan Malaka||1884||1949||Minang politician and communist activist||1963|
|Thaha Syaifuddin||1816||1904||Sultan of Jambi, led an armed revolution against Dutch colonial forces||1977|
|Tirtayasa||1631||1683||Guerrilla from Banten who fought against the Dutch||1970|
|Tirto Adhi Suryo||1880||1918||Early journalist, exiled for his anti-Dutch editorials||2006|
|Umar, TeukuTeuku Umar||1854||1899||Acehnese guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces; husband of Cut Nyak Dhien||1973|
|Untung Surapati||1660||1706||Led several rebellions against the Dutch East India Company||1975|
|Urip Sumoharjo||1893||1948||Early leader of Indonesian Armed Forces, second in command to Sudirman||1964|
|Wage Rudolf Supratman||1903||1938||Composer of the national anthem "Indonesia Raya"||1971|
|Wahid Hasyim||1914||1953||Leader of Nahdlatul Ulama, first Minister of Religion of Indonesia||1964|
|Wahidin Sudirohusodo||1852||1917||Doctor and leader in Budi Utomo||1973|
|Wilhelmus Zakaria Johannes||1895||1952||Medical pioneer in radiology||1968|
|Yos Sudarso||1925||1962||Commodore of the Navy, killed in a confrontation with the Dutch over Netherlands New Guinea||1973|
|Yusuf Tajul Khalwati||1626||1699||Islamic leader, led a guerrilla rebellion against the Dutch East India Company||1995|
|Zainal Mustafa||1907||1944||Islamic leader who fought against the Japanese occupation forces||1972|
|Zainul Arifin||1909||1963||Politician and guerrilla fighter, killed by an assassin targeting Sukarno||1963|
- Original: "'... perbuatan nyata yang dapat dikenang dan diteladani sepanjang masa bagi warga masyarakat lainnya."
- Original: "... berjasa sangat luar biasa bagi kepentingan bangsa dan negara."
- Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 of 2009 gives provisions for persons who died before Indonesia's independence in 1945, allowing those who "fought against colonialism in an area that is now part of Indonesia" (Original: "berjuang melawan penjajahan di wilayah yang sekarang menjadi wilayah Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia") to receive the title.
- Based on the original:
- Warga Negara Indonesia yang telah meninggal dunia dan semasa hidupnya:
- Telah memimpin dan melakukan perjuangan bersenjata atau perjuangan politik/ perjuangan dalam bidang lain mencapai/ merebut /memper tahankan/mengisi kemerdekaan serta mewujudkan persatuan dan kesatuan bangsa.
- Telah melahirkan gagasan atau pemikiran besar yang dapat menunjang pembangunan bangsa dan negara.
- Telah menghasilkan karya besar yang mendatangkan manfaat bagi kesejahteraan masyarakat luas atau meningkatkan harkat dan martabat bangsa Indonesia.
- Pengabdian dan Perjuangan yang dilakukannya berlangsung hampir sepanjang hidupnya (tidak sesaat) dan melebihi tugas yang diembannya.
- Perjuangan yang dilakukan mempunyai jangkauan luas dan berdampak nasional.
- Memiliki konsistensi jiwa dan semangat kebangsaan/nasionalisme yang tinggi.
- Memiliki akhlak dan moral yang tinggi.
- Tidak menyerah pada lawan/musuh dalam perjuangannya.
- Datam riwayat hidupnya tidak pernah melakukan perbuatan tercela yang dapat merusak nilai perjuangannya.
- Warga Negara Indonesia yang telah meninggal dunia dan semasa hidupnya:
- The Indonesian language has undergone several spelling reforms since the country declared its independence in 1945. The Perfected Spelling System, mandated in 1972, is the current official spelling system in Indonesia.
- Some sources give his birth year as 1886 or 1890.
- Also known by the Sundanese name Danudirja Setiabudi
- Also known as Harun Tahir
- Year of birth uncertain. Some sources, such as Encyclopedia Britannica, give 1590.
- Also known as Usman bin Haji Muhammad Ali.
- Previously declared a Proclamation Hero in 1986
- Generally noted as Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, meaning "wife of Ahmad Dahlan"
- 1916 is the date recognised by the Indonesian government. The actual date may be different. Several sources, for example, give 1912 (Said 1991, p. 80).
- Date of death uncertain; he disappeared in 1945.
- Most often referred to as Dr. Sutomo
- Also known as Bung Tomo
- Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 of 2009.
- Indonesian State Secretariat, Prosedur.
- Indonesian State Secretariat, Daftar Nama Pahlawan (2).
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- JCG, Abdul Muis.
- Artaria 2002, p. 539.
- Indonesian State Secretariat, Daftar Nama hgn Pahlawan (2).
- Kompas.com, As'ad Syamsul Arifin Dianugerahi Gelar Pahlawan Nasional.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 254.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 251–252.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 2–3.
- The Jakarta Post 2011, Govt Gives.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 64–66.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 185–187.
- Tribunnews, Presiden Jokowi Beri Gelar Pahlawan.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 229–230.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 264.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 227–228.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 265–266.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 20–21.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 80–81.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 190.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 90–93.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 255.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 206–207.
- Sudarmanto 2007, pp. 90–91.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 143–144.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 22–23.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 158–159.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 234.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 168–169.
- CNN Indonesia, Jokowi Anugerahkan Gelar Pahlawan Nasional.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 52–53.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 188–189.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 68–70.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 82–83.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 71–72.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 123–124.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 4–5.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 24–25.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 210–211.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 181–182.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 93–94.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 237–238.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 160–161.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 164–165.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 239–240.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 170–171.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 201–202.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 26–27.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 197–198.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 178.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 235–236.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 42–43.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 95–96.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 271–272.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 241–242.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 248.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 292–293.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 244–245.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 56–57.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 30–31.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 44–45.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 249.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 191–192.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 276–277.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 250.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 187.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 253.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 66–67.
- The Jakarta Post 2010, Doctor, Army Officer.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 86–87.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 224–225.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 121–122.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 300.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 212–213.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 8–9.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 298.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 105–107.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 296–297.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 258.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 183–184.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 14–15.
- Parlina 2013, Govt names three new national heroes.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 259–260.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 46–47.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 12–14.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 231.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 108–109.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 16–17.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 203–204.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 97–98.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 208–209.
- Mirnawati 2012, p. 261.
- Mirnawati 2012, pp. 6–7.
- Aritonang 2012, Sukarno, Hatta.
- The Jakarta Post 2012, Respect Thy Heroes.
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