National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)

The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act 2014. Notwithstanding its name, it does not apply to independent schools. Academies and free schools may also set their own curricula, though many choose to follow the National Curriculum.

The purpose of the National Curriculum was to standardise the content taught across schools to enable assessment, which in turn enabled the compilation of league tables detailing the assessment statistics for each school. These league tables, together with the provision to parents of some degree of choice in assignment of the school for their child (also legislated in the same act) were intended to encourage a 'free market' by allowing parents to choose schools based on their measured ability to teach the National Curriculum.

Whilst only certain subjects were included at first, in subsequent years the curriculum grew to fill the entire teaching time of most state schools.

The requirement for state schools to teach Religious Education predates the National Curriculum as this was introduced in the Education Act (1944).

Principal aims and purposes

There are two principal aims and four main purposes set out in the National Curriculum documentation:[1]

It should be noted that even though the national curriculum sets compulsory scholastic and educational national standards; parents who decide for their children to follow home-schooling may opt for alternative curricula.[2]

Statutory subjects

Core and foundation subjects

The table below lists those subjects which form a statutory part of the National Curriculum under the Education Act (Part 6) as updated.[3][4][5]

Subject Key Stage 1
(age 5–7)
Key Stage 2
(age 7–11)
Key Stage 3
(age 11–14)
Key Stage 4
(age 14-16)
English 1
Computing2 3
Physical Education
Art & Design
Design & Technology
Modern Foreign Languages4
Work-related Learning
Welsh (Wales only)

1 English is not statutory in Key Stage 1 in Welsh-medium schools in Wales

2 New Computing curriculum replaced ICT in schools (computing is now counted as a science in EBACC).

3 Computing is not statutory at KS4 in Wales or Northern Ireland.

4 Simply "Foreign Languages" at KS2.

Additional entitlements

In all maintained schools, provision is made for the requirement to offer a course in Religious Education under the Education Act. Parents have the right to withdraw pupils from this if they wish.[6] In addition, at all Key Stages, the Department for Children, Schools and Families suggests that pupils are offered provision in Personal, Social and Health Education, although this is not statutory.[3]

Primary education

The National Curriculum in the Primary Phase provides a broad and balanced curriculum which is relevant to children. Incorporating the subject areas listed above the curriculum design ensures:

Secondary education

The Education Act requires that all pupils in secondary education are provided with a programme of Sex education, including education about AIDS, HIV and other sexually-transmitted diseases. While a statutory provision, this does not form part of the National Curriculum, and parents have a right to remove their children from this provision.[6]

The Education Act (as amended) requires that all students in Key Stages 3 and 4 be provided with a programme of Careers education. This does not form part of the National Curriculum but is a statutory entitlement for all pupils.[7][8]

Schools are required, under the amendments to the Education Act, to provide at least one course for those pupils who wish to study it, in each of the entitlement areas at Key Stage 4. These are: the Arts; Design and Technology; the Humanities; and a Modern Foreign Language.[4]

National Curriculum assessment

Assessments are carried out at three ages: seven (school year 2, at the end of Key Stage 1), eleven (Year 6, the end of Key Stage 2) and fourteen (Year 9, the end of Key Stage 3). Some aspects of subjects are teacher-assessed, whilst others involve sitting an examination paper. The results are considered when school and LEA performance league tables are being compiled, but they do not lead to any formal qualification for the candidates taking them.


Academic restriction

The study of most subjects under the National Curriculum would usually culminate in the sitting of a GCSE at the end of Key Stage 4. Although the GCSE examinations replaced the earlier, separate GCE O-level and CSE examinations, the syllabuses were still initially devised entirely by the examination boards, whereas since the implementation of the National Curriculum the syllabus outline is determined by law. Thus much of the attention surrounding the claimed dumbing down of GCSEs[9] is, indirectly, a criticism of the National Curriculum.

Public schools are free to choose their own curriculum and examinations and many have opted for the more demanding[10][11] IGCSEs , which are not tied to the National Curriculum. It is claimed that this is creating a two-tier system with state school pupils losing out. From time to time ministers have suggested that state schools may be given funding to enter pupils for IGCSE examinations[12] but a study was undertaken by QCA,[13] which concluded that IGCSEs do not follow the programmes of study required by the Key Stage 4 of the National Curriculum and therefore could not be offered as a state-funded alternative.

Failure and adverse effects of the 'free market' objective

Although the primary purpose for the National Curriculum was to enable league tables and inform parental choice, many parents or guardians still fail to get the school of their choice[14] and there is concern that the league tables have a detrimental effect on pupils:

"The focus on league tables had resulted in pupils being pressured to attain high grades and so opt for subjects that are seen as easier to get good marks in such as art, drama and history."

The result has been for the more difficult mathematics in subjects such as chemistry and physics being dropped.[15]

But not only the drop of mathematics as a subject has been a major issue; according to the BBC, Scotland's Education Secretary Angela Constance has also expressed her concern over "poor pupil literacy" within the education system and the National Curriculum of England, Wales and Northern Ireland.[16]

See also


  1. "National Curriculum: Values, aims and purposes". National Curriculum website - no longer active. Qualifications & Curriculum Authority. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
  3. 1 2 "National curriculum". Teachernet website. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  4. 1 2 Secretary of State for Education and Skills (2003). "Education (Amendment of the Curriculum Requirements for Fourth Key Stage) (England) Order 2003". Statutory Instruments. Her Majesty's Government. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  5. "Statutory requirements for the key stage 4 curriculum". Secondary Curriculum website. Qualifications & Curriculum Authority. 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  6. 1 2 "The Education Act 1996". Statute Law. Her Majesty's Government. 1996. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  7. "Education Act 1997". UK Statute Law Database. Her Majesty's Government. 1997. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  8. Secretary of State for Education and Skills (2003). "The Education (Extension of Careers Education) (England) Regulations 2003". Statutory Instrument 2003/2645. Her Majesty's Government. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  9. The Telegraph: GCSEs fail to stretch brightest pupils
  10. The Guardian: Private schools seek recognition for tougher GCSE exam
  11. The Guardian: Government urged to follow Sweden in adopting international GCSEs
  12. BBC: 'Give schools freedom of choice', 2006
  13. GCSEs and IGCSEs compared, Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2006
  14. The Telegraph: Turned away at the school gates
  15. The Telegraph: Science lessons are failing to produce next generation of top British scientists

External links

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