|Native to||Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria|
|(undated figure of 10 million)|
There are four major dialects of Najdi Arabic.
- Northern Najdi, spoken in Ha'il Region and Al-Qassim Region in the Najd.
- Central Najdi (Urban Najdi), spoken in the city of Riyadh and surrounding towns and farming communities.
- Southern Najdi, spoken in the city of Al-Kharj and surrounding towns.
- Badawi Najdi, spoken by the nomadic bedouins of Najd. Some tribes have their own distinct accents. Badawi Najdi is also spoken in neighboring Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Iraq.
Here is a table of the consonant sounds of Najdi Arabic. The phonemes /p/ ⟨پ⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ⟩ (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and can be pronounced as /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker.
| Plosive &
- The classicized [q] is an allophone for /g/ ⟨ق⟩ in few words and proper names as in القرآن [alqur'ʔaːn] ('Quran') and قانون [qaːnuːn] ('Law').
- The distinction between the classical /dˤ/ ⟨ض⟩ and /ðˤ/ ⟨ظ⟩ was completely lost in Najdi Arabic, and both are realised as /ðˤ/.
- the marginal phoneme /k/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫːaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it, it contrasts with /l/ in والله /waɫːa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّا /walːa/ ('or'), but it occurs as an allophone of /l/ in many other contexts, especially when neighboring the phonemes /g, x, sˤ, tˤ/ e.g. قَلَم "pencile" /galam/→[gaɫam].
- The phonemes /ɣ/ ⟨غ⟩ and /x/ ⟨خ⟩ can be realised as uvular fricatives [ʁ] and [χ] respectively.
- In the consonantal system of Najdi Arabic, there is an occurrence of the alveolar affricates [t͡s] and [d͡z] as allophonic variants of the velar stops /k/ and /g/, respectively.
- Najdi Arabic at Ethnologue (13th ed., 1996).
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Najdi Arabic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Raymond G. Gordon, Jr, ed. 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 15th edition. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Al Motairi, Sarah Soror (2015:5)
- Al Motairi, Sarah Soror (2015:6)
- Watson (2002:16)
- Al Motairi, Sarah Soror (2015)
|Arabic edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- P.F. Abboud. 1964. "The Syntax of Najdi Arabic", University of Texas PhD dissertation.
- Al Motairi, Sarah Soror (2015). "An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Syllable Structure in Qassimi Arabic".