Clinical data
Trade names Synarel
AHFS/ Monograph
MedlinePlus a601082
  • X
Routes of
Nasal spray
ATC code H01CA02 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
  • ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Biological half-life 2.6 to 4 hours
Excretion renal
CAS Number 76932-56-4 YesY
PubChem (CID) 25077649
DrugBank DB00666 YesY
ChemSpider 10482014 YesY
UNII 1X0094V6JV YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.212.186
Chemical and physical data
Formula C66H83N17O13
Molar mass 1321.6344 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Nafarelin is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist). Its proposed mechanism of action is the desensitization of pituitary GnRH receptors leading to a decrease in gonadotropin release, and ovarian hormone serum concentrations similar to those achieved in postmenopausal women. it decreases pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Nafarelin may be used in the treatment of estrogen-dependent conditions (such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids), to treat central precocious puberty, or to control ovarian stimulation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF).[1][2]

Nafarelin acetate is marketed by Searle (now part of Pfizer) under the brand name Synarel. It is delivered via a nasal spray.[3]

Side effects

Side effects of nafarelin are related to the low estrogen state. Side effects include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, headaches, mood changes, and decreased interest in sex. Some patients may experience acne, muscle pain, reduced breast size, and irritation of the tissue inside the nose. These side effects are reversible and should resolve after stopping the medication.[4]


  1. Mutschler, Ernst; Schäfer-Korting, Monika (2001). Arzneimittelwirkungen (in German) (8 ed.). Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft. pp. 372–3. ISBN 3-8047-1763-2.
  2. Wuttke, W; Jarry, H; Feleder, C; Moguilevsky, J; Leonhardt, S; Seong, J. Y.; Kim, K (1996). "The neurochemistry of the GnRH pulse generator". Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis. 56 (3): 707–13. PMID 8917899.
  3. Synarel Monograph
  4. DailyMed: Synarel – nafarelin acetate spray

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